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CaU No. <*VJ IV *< V AccessionNo. <^O& tf 7 



Title yo*v-x v 

This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. 


Translated by 


Ex. Principal, D. A. V. College* Hoshiarpur, 

Ex. President, D. A, V. College Managing Committee, Hoshiarpur, 

Ex. President, Dayanand Dalit Uddhar Mandal, Hoshiarpur, 

Ex* President, Arya Smaj, Hoshiarpur, 

Ex. President, Arya Pradeshik Pratinidhi Sabha, Jullundur, 

Ex. President, All India Dayanand Salvation Mission, Hoshiarpur. 


Published by J 


All India Dayanand Salvation Mission, 

All Rights Reserved 

Printed by : 
Shri DEVA DATTA Shaitri. V.V,, V.B. 

at the V. V. R. I. PRESS, 

Sadhu Ashram, 



Genesis of the Vedas. 

Vcdas are che Word of God, revealed in the beginning of creation 
for the moral, spiritual and physical guidance and uplift of humanity. 
They are replete with eternal truths and throw a flood of light on the 
various aspects of life to make a man perfect and ideal. God out of His 
infinite source of knowledge reveals in the beginning of creation a 
part of it adequate for the requirements of the soul, its spiritual satis- 
faction, fulfilment of its thirst for truth and making its journey of life 

God is infinite, the soul is finite. The finite soul cannot contain the 
infinite knowledge of God, God creates, sustains and dissolves the world. 
Whenever the world is created God reveals the Vedas. This processes 
going on since eternity and will go on for ever. 

Rig Veda Mandal 10, Sukta 90, Mantra 9 ; Yajurveda chapter 31, 
verse 7 ; Atharva Veda Kand 10, Sutta 7, Mantra 20 speak of the revela- 
tion of the four Vedas Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. 

Swami Dayananda,whose commentary I have mainly followed in my 
translation, has discussed the subject more thoroughly in his Introduction 
to the translation of the Vedas. 

Maharshi Patanjali writes in the Mahabhashya, that there are 101 
Shakhas (schools of thought) of the Yajurveda. All of these commentaries 
are not available at present except the Kanva, Madhyandini, Taitriya, 
Maitrayani, Kathak, and Kapishthal. On this point Maharshi Dayananda 
agrees with Patanjali. 

/There are 20380 verses in all the four Vedas, as given below : 

( Rig Veda 10522 

Yajur Veda 2006 

Sam Veda 1875 

Atharva Veda 5977 ) 

There was a time when the learned Pundits memorised one or more 
Vedas, could recite or reproduce them from memory, but alas this system 
is no longer in vogue due to lack of public and state patronage. 

The names of the Rishis attached to the Mantras are the names *6f 
those research scholars and seers, who expounded the meanings of the 


verses and commented upon them. They are not the authors or writers 
of those verses as the western scholars say. Devata is the subject matter 
of a verse, the topic discussed in it. All good men and beneficent forces 
of nature like air, fire, water, electricity, months, sun, moon, breaths, 
lightning, father, mother, teacher, preacher, and soul, which are bene- 
ficial to humanity are called devatas. They are not all living, personified 
beings as some erroneously believe them to be. 

( For correct interpretation of the Vedas, the words should be taken 
in their derivative, analytical sense, i.e., root-meanings should be given 
to the Vedic words, and not the traditional, customary, conventional, and 
generally accepted ones. ^ The word gft<? in the conventional sense is 
faeces, whereas in the Veda it signifies water. The Brahmanas and 
Upanishadas do not form a part of the Veda. They are compositions of 
man of a much later date. The Veda contains only the ^ftctt (the real 
text of the Vedas) as revealed by God in the beginning of Creation on 
Agni, Vayu, Aditya and Angiras, the four Rishis most competent to 
receive God's Revelation. 

' The teachings of the Vedas are universal^ Yajurveda 26-2 clearly 
enjoins all learned persons to preach the Vedic truths to all, the 
Brahmanas, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas, the Shudras, the Chandalas, the 
degraded and the forlorn. Dwijas, the twice-born alone are not entitled 
to study the Vedas. The shudras and even women are equally entitled to 
read the Vedas. Persons like Kavish Aylush (the seer of R. V. X, 30) a 
Shudra by birth, vide Aitareya Brahmana 11-19 and women like Lopa 
Mudra were the seers of the meanings of Vedic texts and their names 
are from times immemorial attached to the Vedic verses. God is not 
expected to be partial to one portion of mankind, and antagonistic to the 
other by depriving them of their birth-right to study the Veda. In the 
eyes of God all men, high or low, are equally entitled to God's gifts and 
bounties, say air, water, sunshine and His Knowledge. In the Vedic 
church none is religiously great or small. All are brothers who should 
co-operate to conduce to the prosperity and amelioration of mankind. 

\AccordingtoSwami Bhoomananda Saraswati, the Vedic seer is a 
poet and prophet but his poetry is not imaginary and his prophecy is not 
a mystery unless by that term we mean something beyond our compre- 
hension and not something entirely opposed to the order of Nature? 
A seer of 'second sight 1 in the spiritist parlance is not a Vedic 
seer or Rishi. A person who voices out a number of incoherent state- 
ments void of any clear, rational significance like the "Revelation" of 
fohn in the New Testament is also no Rishi. fA Vedic seer is the 


inspired recipient or medium of Divine Revelation a person who, by bis 

righteous, pure and holy life is able to grasp higher and Divine things 

which are far above the Ken of the generality of mankind. Sir Oliver 
Lodge calls such seers as 'peaks of humanity.' ) 

Aravinda Ghosha on Swami Dayananda and 
his Vedic interpretation. 

Among the great company of remarkable figures that will appear 
to the eye of posterity at the head of the Indian Ranaissance, one stands 
out by himself with peculiar and solitary distinctness, one unique in his 
type as he is unique in his work- Such is the impression created on my 
mind by Dayananda. 

It was Kathiawar that gave birth to this puissant renovator and 
new-creator. And something of the very soul and temperament of that 
particular land entered into his spirit, something of that humanity which 
seems to be made of the virgin and unspoilt stuff of Nature, fair and 
robust in body, instinct with a fresh and primal vigour, crude but in 
a developed nature capable of becoming a great force of genial creation. 

When I seek to give an account to myself of my sentiment and put 
into precise form the impression, I have received, I find myself starting 
from two great characteristics of this man's life and work which mark 
him off from his contemporaries and compeers. Other great Indians 
have helped to make India of today by a sort of self-pouring into the 
psychological material of the race, a spiritual infusion of themselves into 
the fluent and indeterminate mass which will one day settle into consis- 
tency and appear as a great formal birth of Nature. One remembers 
them as great souls and great influences who live on in the soul of India. 
They are in us and we would not be what we are without them. But of 
no precise form can we say that this was what the man meant, still less 
that this form was the very body of that spirit. 

The example of Mahadeva Govinda Ranade presents itself to my 
mind as the very type of this peculiar action so necessary to a period 
of large and complex formation. Vivekananda was a soul of puissance 
if ever there was one, a very lion among men, but the definite work he 
has left behind is quite incommensurate with our impression of his 
creative might and energy. So it is with all. Not only are the men 
greater than their definite works, but their influence is so wide and 
formless that it has little relation of any formal work that they have left 

behind them. 

Very different was the manner of working of Dayananda. Here 


was one who did not infuse himself informally into the indeterminate 
soul of things, but stamped his figure indelibly as in bronze on men and 
things. Here was one whose formal works are the very children of his 
spiritual body, children fair and robust and full of vitality, the image of 
their creator. Here was one who knew definitely and clearly the work 
he was sent to do, chose his materials, determined his condition with a 
sovereign clairvoyance of the spirit, and executed his conception with 
the puissant mastery of the born worker. As I regard the figure of this 
formidable artisan in God's workshop, images crowd on me which are all 
of battle and work and conquest and triumphant labour. Here, I say to 
myself, was a very soldier of Light, a warrior in God's world, a sculptor 
of men and institutions, a bold and rugged victor of the difficulties 
which matter presents to spirit. And the whole sums itself up to me in 
a powerful impression of spiritual practicality. The combination of 
these two words, usually so divorced from each other in our conceptions, 
seems to me the very definition of Dayananda. 

He brings back an old Aryan element into the national character. 
Dayananda seized on all that entered into him, held it in himself, master- 
fully shaped into the form that he saw to be right and threw it out again 
into the forms he saw to be right. That which strikes us in him as militant 
and aggressive, was apart of his strength of self-definition. 

He was not only plastic to the great hand of Nature, but asserted 
his own right and power to use Life and Nature as plastic material. We 
can imagine his soul crying still to us with our insufficient spring of 
manhood and action. "Be a thinker but be also a doer ; be a soul, but 
be also a man ; be servant of God, but be also a master of Nature." 

In Dayananda's life we see always the puissant jet of this spiritual 
practicality. A spontaneous power and decisiveness is stamped every- 
where on his work. And to begin with, what a master-glance of practical 
intuition was this to go back trenchantly to the very root of Indian life 
and culture, to derive from the flower of its birth the seed for a radical 
new birth. And what an act of grandiose intellectual courage to lay hold 
upon this scripture defaced by ignorant comment and oblivion of its spirit, 
degraded by misunderstanding to the level of an ancient document of bar- 
barism and to perceive in it its real worth as a scripture which conceals in 
itself the deep and energetic spirit of the forefathers who made this 
country and nation, a scripture of divine Knowledge, divine worship and 
divine action. I know not whether Dayananda's powerful and original 
commentary will be widely accepted as the definite* word on the Veda. 
TJie essential is that he seized justly on the Veda as India's Rock of Ages 
and had the daring conception to build on what his penetrating glance 


perceived in it a whole education of youth, a whole manhood, a whole 
nationhood. Ramamohan Roy stopped short at the Upanishadas. Dayananda 
looked beyond and perceived that our true original seed was the Veda. 

And in the work as in the man we find that faculty of spontaneous 
definite labour and vigorous formation which proceeds, from an inner 
principle of perfect clearness, truth and sincerity. To be clear in one's 
own mind, entirely true and plain with one's self and with others, 
wholly honest with the conditions and materials of one's labour, is a rare 
gift in our crooked, complex and faltering humanity. It is the spirit of 
the Aryan worker and a sure secret of vigorous success. It is good that 
the spirt of the Master should leave its trace in his followers, ^that some- 
where in India there should be a body of whom it can be said that when 
a work is seen to be necessary and right, the men will be forthcoming, 
the means forthcoming, and that work will surely be done. 

(Truth^seems a simple thing and is yet most difficult. Truth was 
the master-word of the Vedic teaching, truth in the soul, truth in 
vision, truth in the intention, truth in the act.j Practical truth, 
Aryatva, an inner candour and a strong sincerity, clearness_atyl open 
honour iii th_e word and deed, was the temperament of the old Aryan 
morals. This was the stamp that Dayananda left behind him and 
it should be the mark and effigy of himself by which the parentage of 
his work can be recognised. May his spirit act in India pure, unspoilt, 
unmodified and help to give us back that of which our life stands 
specially in need, pure energy, high clearness, the penetrating eye, the 
masterful hand, the noble and dominant sincerity. 

f Dayananda accepted the Veda as the rock of firro^Jjoundation^ he 
took it for his guiding view of life, his rule of inner existenceanJTiis 
inspiration for external work, but he regarded it as even more, the 
word of eternal Truth on which man's knowledge of God and his 
relations with the Divine Being and with his fellows can be rightly and 
securely founded, 

f But among all the materials of our past the Veda is the most 
venerable and has been directly and indirectly the most potent. Even 
when its sense was no longer understood, even when its traditions were 
lost behind Pauranic forms, it was still held in honour, though without 
knowledge, as authoritative revelation, and inspired Book of Knowledge, 
the source of all sanctions and standard of all truth.) 

/ While Western scholarship extending the hints of Sayana seemed 
to have classed the Veda for ever as a ritual liturgy to Nature Gods, the 
genius of the race looking through the eyes of Dayananda pierced behind 


the error of many centuries and again the intuition of a timeless revelation 
and a divine truth given to humanity. In any case we have to make one 
choice or another. Either the Veda is what Sayana says it is, and then 
we have to leave it behind for ever as the document of a mythology and 
ritual which have no longer any living truth or force for thinking minds, 
or it is what the European scholars say it is, and then we have to put 
it away among the relics of the past as an antique record of semi- 
barbarous worship or else it is indeed Veda, a book of divine knowledge, 
and then it becomes of supreme importance to us to know and to hear 
its message. 

It is objected to the sense Dayananda gave to the Veda that it is 
no true sense, but an arbitrary fabrication of imaginative learning and 
ingenuity, to his method that it is fantastic and unacceptable to the 
critical reason, to his teaching of a revealed scripture that the very idea 
is a rejected superstition impossible for any enlightened mind to admit 
or to announce sincerely. I will not examine the solidity of Dayananda's 
interpretation of Vedic texts, nor anticipate the verdict of the future 
on his commentary, nor discuss his theory of revelation. I shall only 
state his broad principles underlying his thought about the Veda they 
present themselves to me. 

To start with the negation of his work by his critics, in whose 
mouth does it lie to accuse Dayananda's dealings with the Veda of a 
fantastic or arbitrary ingenuity ? Nor in the mouth of those who accept 
Sayana's traditional interpretation. For if ever there was a monument of 
arbitrarily erudite ingenuity, of great learning divorced, as great learn- 
ing too often is, from sound judgement and sure taste and a faithful 
critical and comperative observation ; from direct seeing and often even 
from plainest common sense or of a constant fitting to the text into 
the Procrustean bed of preconceived theory. It is surely this commentary, 
otherwise so imposing, so useful as first crude material, so erudite and 
laborious, left to us by the Acharya Sayana. Nor does the reproach lie 
in the mouth of those who take as final the recent labours of European 
scholarship. For if ever there was a tor of interpretation in which the 
loosest vein has been given to an ingenius speculation, in which doubtful 
indications have been snatched at as certain proofs, in which the boldest 
conclusions have been insisted upon with the scantiest justification, the 
most enormous difficulties ignored and preconceived prejudice main- 
tained in face of the clear and often admitted suggestions of the text, it 
is surely this labour, so eminently respectable otherwise for its industry, 
goodwill and power of research, performed through a long century by 
European Vedic scholarship, 



An interpretation of Veda must stand or fall by its central con- 
ception of the Vedic religion and the amount of support given to it by 
intrinsic evidence of the Veda itself. Here Dayananda's view is quite 
clear, its foundation unexpugnable. Vedic hymns are chanted to the One 
Deity under many names, names which are used and even designed to 
express His qualities and powers. Was this conception of Dayananda's 
arbitrary conceit fetched out of his own too ingenius imagination ? Not at 
all ; it is the explicit statement of the Veda itself ; "One existent sages 11 
not the ignorant, mind you, but the seers, the men of knowledge, 
''speak of many ways, as Indra, as Yama, as Matriswan, as Agni." The 
Vedic Rishis ought surely to have known something about their own 
religion, more, let us hope than Roth or Max Muller, and this is what 
they knew. 

Immediately the whole character of the Veda is fixed in the sense 
Dayananda gave to it ; the merely ritual, mythological, polytheistic 
interpretation of Sayana collapses, the merely meteorological and 
naturalistic European interpretation collapses. We have instead a real 
scripture, one of the world's sacred books and the divine word of lofty 
and noble religion. 

Dayananda asserts the presence of an ethical element, he finds in the 
Veda the law of life given by God to the human being. And if the Vedic 
godheads express the powers of a supreme Deity who is Creator, Ruler 
and Father of the universe then there must inevitably be in the Veda a 
large part, of cosmology, the Law of creation and cosmos. Dayananda 
asserts the presence of such a cosmic element, he finds in the Veda the 
secrets of creation and law of Nature by which the Omniscient governs 
the world. 

Neither western scholarship nor ritualistic learning lias succeeded 
in eliminating the psychological and ethical value of the hymns, but 
they have both tended in different degrees to minimise it. Western 
scholars minimise because they feel uneasy whenever ideas that are not 
primitive seem to insist on their presence in these primeval utterances; 
they do not hesitate openly to abandon in certain passages interpretations 
which they adopt in others and which are admittedly necessitated by 
their own philological and critical reasoning because, if admitted always, 
they would often involve deep and subtle psychological conceptions 
which cannot have occurred to primitive minds !(Sayana minimises because 
his theory of Vedic discipline was not ethical righteousness with a moral 
and spiritual result but mechanical performance of ritual with a material 
reward. The Veda is as much and more a book of divine law as Bible or 
Zoroastrian Avesta. ^ 


(Dayananda affirms that the truths of modern physical science are 
discoverable in the hymns/| There is nothing fantastic in Dayananda's 
idea that Veda contains truth of science as well as truth of religion. I 
will even add my own conviction that Veda contains the other truths 
of science the modern world does not at all possess, and in that case 
Dayananda has rather understated than overstated the depth and range of 
the Vedic wisdom.^ Objection has also been made to the philological and 
etymological method by which he arrived at his results, especially in his 
dealings with the names of god-heads. But this objection, I feel certain 
is an error. In early language the word was a living thing with essential 
powers of signification ; its root meanings were remembered because 
they were still ii) use, its wealth of force was vividly present to the mind 
of the speaker. ' The Nirukta bears evidence to this capacity and in the 
Brahmanas and Upanishadas we find the memory of this free and symbolic 
use of words still subsisting. 

Interpretation in detail is a work of intelligence and scholarship and 
in matter of intelligent opinion and scholarship men seem likely to differ 
to the end of the chapter, but in all the basic principles, in those great 
and fundamental decisions where the eye of intuition has to aid the 
workings of the intellect, Dayananda stands justified by the substance 
of Veda itself, by logic and reason and by our growing knowledge of the 
past of mankind. The Veda does hymn the one Deity of many names 
and powers ; it does celebrate the divine Law and man's aspiration to 
fulfil it ; it does purport to give us the Law of the Cosmos. 

On the question of revelation I have left n^elf no space to write. 
Suffice it to say that here too Dayananda was perfectly logical and it is 
quite grotesque to charge him with insincerity because he held to and 
proclaimed the doctrine. There are always three fundamental entities 
which we have to admit and whose relations we have to know if we would 
understand existence at all, God, Nature and the Soul. If as Dayananda 
held on strong enough grounds, the Veda reveals to us God, reveals to us 
the Law of Nature, reveals to us the relations of the soul to God and 
Nature what is it but a revelation of divine Truth ? And if, 
as Dayananda held, it reveals them to us with a perfect truth, flawlessly, 
he might well hold it for an infallible scripture. The rest is a question 
of the method of revelation, of the divine dealings with our race, of 
man's psychology and possibilities. Modern thought, affirming Nature 
and Law but denying God, denied also the possibility of revelation, but 
so also has it denied many things which a more modern thought is very 
busy, reaffirming. 


We cannot demand of a great mind that it shall make itself a slave 
to vulgarly received opinion or the transient dogmas of the hour ; the 
very essence of its greatness is this, that it looks beyond, that it sees 

In the matter of Vedic interpretation I am convinced that whatever 
may be the final complete interpretation, Dayananda will be honoured 
as the first discoverer of the right clues. Amidst the chaos and 
obscurity of old ignorance and age-long misunderstanding his was the 
eye of direct vision that pierced to the truth and fastened on that which 
was essential. He has found the keys of the doors that time had closed 
and rent asunder the seals of the imprisoned fountains. 

History in the Vedas 

Swami Dayananda does not believe in history in the Vedas. Western 
scholars like Griffith, Max-Muller, Monier Williams, Macdonnel, 
Bloomfield, and Eastern scholars like Sayana, Mahidhar, Ubbat and 
Damodar Satavalekar, believe in history in the Vedas. History in the 
Vedas militates against its eternity and revelation from God, and reduces 
it to a man-made composition. 

The interpretation put by Pandit Satavalekar on the 22nd, 23rd 
verses of Sukta 28, Mandal 7 of the Rig Veda, clearly shows that he does 
not believe in the infallibility of the Vedas. Yaska Acharya, the author 
of the Nirukta does not believe in history in the Vedas, but there were 
scholars in his time also who believed in history in the Vedas. According 
to the etymological formation of the Nirukta, all so called historical 
names denote ordinary things according to the science of rhetoric. 

In ordinary usage 3T^ Sff fe^ three tenses are used to denote the 
past. Wherever these tenses are used in the Vedas, the interpreters of 
history nourish tradition in the Vedas, taking these tenses to denote the 
past. This is their error. 

Panini says in his Ashtadhyayi 3p^fe 5J5;OT^ffo: 3-4-6. Kashka 
interprets it like this. c< spjfa f^t ^13^^^ H^T^J sp^^fsfZ; JR33T: 
*?^f?cT | M In the Vedas g^SI^fa^ are used in all the three tenses in 
connection with verbal roots. Taking their use limited only to the past 
and deduce history therefrom is incorrect. The Vedas are eternal, hence 
in their sight all tenses are like the ever present, and there arises no 
question in the Vedas about the past tense. On this support all the 
tenses generally denoting the past denote ordinarily the present. 
Similarly the Vedic words being derivatives are not traditional or 
personal names. Scholars, when they give up grammar and Nirukta, the 


two important limbs of Vedic interpretation, begin to import history ill 
the Vedas, and trace therein the unfounded traditions of Babylonia. 

Patanjali, the author of Mahabhashya, commenting on this exposition 
of Kashka, writes that to interpret these three Lakaras as denoting the 
past tense when used in the Vedas, is contradictory to the science of 
grammar, their main limb. As long as Panini's Vyakaran is extant, to 
interpret the Vedic texts as historical, is a clear sacrilege on the Vedic 

Having failed to understand the derivative significance of Vedic 
words, scholars have misinterpreted them as names of historical person- 
ages. Below I give the true significance of certain Vedic words which 
the commentators, mistaking for historical names, have uselessly 
attempted to prove history in the Vedas. 

1. Sita. This word used in the Veda does not signify the wife of 
Shri Ram Chandra. It means the furrow traced in a field by the plough. 

2. Babara is not the name of a King or a person. It denotes the air 
that hums, thunders and flows. 

3. Sudas is not the name of a king. A charitably disposed person 
is called Sudas. 

^l: TOWTfR: T Nirukta 2-25. 

4. Paijwan is not the name of a King. An individual whose 
impetuosity is constant, whose speed or force is unending is called 
Paijwan, vide Nirukta 2-24. 

5. Devas is not the name of a king. It is the name of a learned 
priest who officiates at a sacrifice. 

6. Agu (*rg) does not denote any historical personage. An ignorant 
person devoid of knowledge and Vedic speech is called AguW^not, 3 
* Vedic speech. 

7. Devapi in the Veda is not the name of any historical person. 
Devapi is a person who admires and befriends the learned. It is also the 
name of lightning or thunderbolt. 

8. Shantanu is not the name of a king. According to Yaska, a 
man of tranquillity with mental peace is called Shantanu. Water is 
also called Shantanu as it grants peace and conduces to the good of 

9. Angiras is not the name of any special person. Blazing fire 
is called Angiras. God is also called Angiras, as God is Fire ( *rifc ) 
God engulfs the earth as we do the breaths, hence He is Angiras. A 


learned person is also called Angiras. Rishi Dayananda writes 
*brifl sn*nr% *fr ft?TW[ He who knows is Angiras. 

10. In the 13th chapter of the Yajur Veda the word Vasishtha 
occurs in the 54th verse, Bhardwaj in the 55th, Jamdagni in the 56th, 
Vishvamitra in the 57th, and Vishwakarma in the 58th. Historical 
school of thought interprets these words as names of Rishis, but the 
Shatpath Brahman interprets them thus, 

(a) JTlflft I sffaS 3tfa: I 

Prana is called Vasishtha, as it is excellent of all breaths* 

(b) *TO>t *?T31 left; I 

Mind is called Bhardwaj, as it strengthens by food. 

(c) ^P5 5f*(3mi[ *CTO I 

Eye is called Jamadagni, as it sees the world. 

(d) fo* I fc*fnra s&fo: i 

Ear is called Vishwamitra, as it hears all things, and all direc- 
tions befriend it. 

(e) 31 *T 

Speech is Vishwakarma as it manifests and illuminates all 

In the Brahman Granthas Vasishtha is described as Prajapati, God, 
King, and household lord. Jamdagni is abo spoken of as such. Vishva- 
mitra is described as speech, Vishvakarma, the master of all deeds, 
is spoken of as God, King, Prajapati and household lord. 

Rishi Yajnavalkya speaks of the right ear as Gautama, and the left 
ear as Bhardwaj. He describes the right eye as Vishwamitra and the 
left as Jamdagni, the right nose as Vasishtha and the left as Kashyap. 
Speech is described as Attri, as food is taken by the tongue. Being the 
eater, one is ^rft, srft is 3T% from the root to eat. 

11. Urvashi is not a historical name. 33 3$t 3RTT: I Lightning is 
Urvashi, which controls all things. 35 i| 3T?3^. That which eats much. 
Lightning is Urvashi the fall of which consumes many objects. 

12. Pururava is not the name of a person. It is the name of a cloud, 
which roars, thunders and makes noise, vide Nirukta 5-46. 

13. Apsara does not denote celestial dancing nymphs. In the 
Upanishads they are called Pranas. In Shilp Sanghita they mean the 
China-clay basins. In Astrology they are spoken of as directions and 
sub-directions. In bacteriology they mean watery germs. In Alchemy 
they denote electric currents, 


14. Bhrigu is not a proper Noun. They who exert for self main- 
tenance are Bhrigus. *T for self-maintenance JJ exert themselves* They 
are Bhrigus who continue their exertions to the extreme. 

15. Sayana considers Bheda, Tritsu, Yamuna, Ajasa, Shigru and Yakshu 
to be historical names. This is an erroneous view. The right inter- 
pretation of these words is given below. 

(1) Bheda : An enemy's emissary who creates parties in the 



(2) Tritsu is a hero who overcomes all afflictions. 

(3) Yamuna is a ruler, an administrator who maintains law and 

(4) Ajasa is a hero who exerts and agitates. 

(5) Shigru .He who possesses beauty, excellence in action. 

(6) Yakshu : A sacrificer, who performs the Yajna, 

16. Bharata is he who wants to advance and progress, being well- 
fed. Bharata, the brother of Shri Ram Chandra has no place in the Veda. 
Tritsu is he who is thirsty for self-amelioration. 

Vasishtha is he who is expert in settling his subjects ; or a teacher 
or preceptor who is most exalted amongst the Vasu Brahmchari disciples 
of his. 

Pratrida is he whose ears have been opened by the preceptor 
through the knowledge of God and the Veda. Bharatas are the disciples 
who are reared and looked after by their teacher. 

17. Prashara is not a historical person. 

A farsightecj learned person, the arrows of whose intellect can 
reach far and pierce through the subtle topic and unravel the mysteries 
of Nature is a Prashara. Such calm, judicious, self-abnegating souls, vho 
abandon the captivating, carnal enjoyments of the world are called 

18. Saraswati is not the name of river in the Veda. In the 
Brahman Granthas Saraswati has got thirteen meanings In the 
Nighantu 57 synonyms have been given for Saraswati. ^T^ S**^cft I STcTo 
7-5-1-31. Maharshi Dayananda interprets Saraswati as God iut of His 
one hundred names enumerated in the first chapter of ths Satyartha 
Prakash. He has interpreted Saraswati as wife while discussing marri- 
age. In the Rig Veda Mandal 7 Sukta 9 Mantra 5 Swamif Dayananda 
translates Saraswati as instructive speech. Pt. Satavalfkar agrees 
with Rishi Dayananda and ^translates araswati as knowledge and 
learning. \ 


19. Jamdagni (sjUcf ^rfrf) is the name of blazing fire, and not 
of a particular person. 

Rivers in the Veda. 

In fifteen places in the Rig Veda, there is a mention of seven rivers 
according to Sayana. He has interpreted them as the names of rivers 
the Ganges, the Yamuna etc. Pt. Satavalekar has thus nicely inter- 
preted them. 

In the centre is the soul force. From that original place there 
flow seven streams of (1) Egotism (2) Mind (3) Ear (4) Touch (5) Eye 
(6) Taste (7) Smell. The stream of egotism is flowing in the field of 
arrogance. The stream of mind waters the field of contemplation. The 
stream of ear coursing through ears is flowing in the field of words. 
The stream of touch, through skin is flowing in the field of touch. The 
stream of eye, through eyesight, is flowing in the field of sight. The 
stream of taste is flowing from the tongue in the field of relish. Simi- 
larly the stream of smell is flowing through breath in the nostrils. 
These seven streams coming out of the soul, in a state of profound 
sleep gf<T begin to flow inside and are absorbed in the soul. In a wak- 
ing state, they begin to flow out of the soul and work in the world. 
These seven streams are the seven Rishis, the seven rays and the seven 
hands of the soul. 

Patanjali Rishi puts the following exposition on this subject in the 
Mahabhashya. Commenting upon the Rig Veda 8, 69, 12 he writes 
'O Varuna, noble, talented soul thou art Sudeva (5^f) a true divinity, 
the seven streams, the seven case-terminations (fsRfrfi) are thy seven 
forces, which flow towards the palate, wherein the tongue speaks. 
Just as fire shines entering an iron bar through its pores, so do the main 
breaths come out of the soul through its gates. Like the division of the 
force of breath, there are in grammar seven case-terminations, which 
express the significance of words. The same case-terminations, being 
the seven streams of speech convey knowledge. He who uses them 
properly is really the knower of speech, Sudeva, a divine deity. 

In Vedic literature Indra is soul, which makes the seven streams 
flow. In the Rig Veda 4. 28, 1, it is clearly written, that Indra the soul 
set in motion the seven streams, i. e., opened the clogged organs of sense. 
It is clear that in the Veda, the names of so called rivers do not denote 
any historical or geographical, temporary or transient objects. These 
names have got spiritual significance. Saraswati is speech. The smell 
conveying current flowing out of the nostril is the Ganges, 


current flowing out of the ear is Yamuna. The organ of touch is 
Shatadru. The current flowing towards the head is Vipasha. Aravind 
Ghosh also does not believe in tffi^Rj: to signify geographical non-eternal 

Rig Veda Mandal 10, Sukta 75, Mantra 5. 

O Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati, Shutudri. Parushni enjoy my praise. 
O Marudvridha along with Asakni, and Arjikiya with Vatista and 
Sushoma, listen to my praise. 

Really speaking these are not the names of rivers. In mataphysics 
they are the names of arteries in the body. They are called tT?t as they 
(T^%) make sound. Their voice is heard, even when the ears are shut. 

The real purport of the verse is given below. 'O Ganga, Ida (f^l) 
artery, O Yamuna, Pingla artery, Shutudri, Parushni Saraswati, i. e., 
Sushumna artery, enjoy my praise sung in the verse about the arteries. 
O Marudvridha, Sushumna, with Asikriya, i.e , Pingla ; O Arjikiya, Ida, 
with Vitasta the Sushumna listen to my praise. 

In this connection Maharshi Dayananda writes thus in the Rig Veda 
Adi Bhashya Bhumika. Ida, Pingla, Sushumna and Kurma arteries are 
appellations for Ganga, Yamuna etc. In Yoga philosophy these names are 
used for God as well, Whose contemplation alleviates miseries and 
grants salvation. These Ida etc. arteries are used for abstraction of the 
mind and its steadfastness. In this verse there is repetition of God from 
the previous verse. 

Shri Pt. Pali Ratna describes Ganga as an artery instrumental in the 
circulation of blood. Yamuna is the artery which guides the motion of 
all parts of the body. The weakening of this artery results in paralysis. 
Saraswati is that artery which brings knowledge. We can call it 
Sushumna as well. Shutudri is a part of Sushumna which quickly brings 
knowledge. Purushni is an attery which maintains heat in all parts of 
the body and helps in the fine blood circulation. Asiknis are ductless 
glands. Marudvridha is Pran (breath) that strengthens the body. 
Vitasta is an artery pervading throughout the flesh. Arjikiya or 
Vipflsh is an artery that works without any restriction. 

Sushoma is an artery which remains wet. 

Scholars, by believing in history in the Vedas have undermined their 
grandeur and put a stain upon them. Rishi Dayananda by refuting the 
doctrine of history in the Vedas, has established their eternity, and 
enhanced their excellence. 


Scientific Gleamings from the Vedas. 

Hymn, second of the tenth Kaand of the Atharva Veda, is a basic 
text on anatomy, vide verses 1, 31, 32, 33. Having failed to understand 
its main tenor Winternitz in his "History of Indian Literature" in 
writing about some portions of the Atharva Veda has used language quite 
unbecoming a scholar. On the basis of human anatomy this hymn 
(Sukta) teaches great moral and spiritual truths. Similar texts are found 
in the Yajur Veda (18-8, 12) also where long lists of animals etc. are 
given for the instruction of humanity. 

"What is it that has fitted man with two heels, who has padded 
him with flesh, who has made his two ankles, who has formed his fingers 
with beautiful joints, who has provided him with his sense organs, who 
fitted soles to his feer and put firmness in his waist ? 

Atharva 10-2-1. 

"There is an impregnable city (in the shape of the human body) 
with nine portals (with seven apertures in the head and two below) and 
eight circles in which dwell celestial (very powerful) beings (the mind, 
the will, the ego, the five senses) and in which there in a golden (very 
powerful) celestial (advancing towards final beatitude) treasure-chest (the 
human soul) surrounded by Light (God the self-effulgent)." 

Atharva 10-2-31. 

"Possessors of divine knowledge know that most Holy and Powerful 
Being to be God Almighty Who resides in that treasure-chest with three 
spokes (birth, name and place) established in three diverse ways (works 5 
karma, worship of Godupasana and right knowledge of things Jnana) 
Atharva 10-3-32 "Almighty God has entered from all sides that uncon- 
quered golden city, lustrous, giving relief from all fatigue, and surrounded 
by glory from all round" Atharva 10-2-33. 

(Translation of these Mantras is taken from Swami Bhumananda's 
Introduction to Ecclesia Divina.) 

Agriculture and cloth-weaving also are treated of in the Vedas. Shri 
Aravinda Ghosh, the great Yogi, Rishi and Seer of Pondichery, is of 
opinion that there are truths of science in the Vedas, which the present 
science has not yet been able to discover. 

In the Yajur Veda 22-26 the formation of clouds is discussed. In the 
Yajur Veda 24-20 six seasons are spoken of. In the Yajur Veda 17-2 the 
science of Arithmetic is discussed. Digits are numbered from the unit to 
billions and trillions. 

Pt. Guru Dutt Vidyarthi, M.A,, translates Mitra and Varuna, as 
oxygen and hydrogen, whose synthesis results in water H*O. In the 


Yajur Veda, Chapter 33, Verse Seven, there is a mention of aeroplanes, 
and their non-stop flight for thousands of miles. 

In Atharva Veda 4-37 and 19-36-6 the words 'Apsaras' and 
'Gandharva' mean the germs of epidemic disease, which have the power 
to spread, pervade or get diffused quickly over a wide area. Their forms 
and shapes, their habitat, are described and herbal remedies to check or 
forestall their spread, are prescribed. 

In Atharva Veda 6-111-4 and 6-130-1 Apsaras means vitality, 
electricity, or energy, and in 6-118-1 it means the sun's rays. 

In Atharva Veda 2-2-4 the word Gandharva is used to denote the 
sun. In Atharva Veda 12-1-23 'Ghandharva' means some terrigenous 
product endowed with fragrance. In Rig Veda 8-77-5 Gandharva means 
a cloud. 

There is a mention of Astronomy, Geography, Geology, Hydrostatics, 
Medicine, and air-flight in the Yajur Veda, Chapter Six, verse twenty 

Schools of Vedic Interpretation. 

1. The Nairukta. This method was pre-eminently philological 
as in its attempt to interpret Vedic words it invariably insisted upon 
enquiring into the origins of Vedic speech. This was the most fastidious, 
thoroughgoing and perfectly critical method. It has come down to us 
in Yaska's Nirukta and is known to consist in a full enquiry into the 
etymology and history of words and expressions it has to interpret. In 
Vedic interpretation this is the only faultless and at the same time 
intelligible method. ^ 

2. The Aitihasika or historic method This is the Aitihasika method 
as Yaska calls it. It consisted in elucidating a Vedic passage by referring 
particular events in known history. The names of kings and great men 
in India have, from the earliest ages, conformed to Vedic words. It has 
never been difficult therefore to find some king, or wise man having a 
name occurring in one of the four Vedas and their innumerable Schools. 
Hence it was easy for teachers to refer to events in the lives of such men 
to illustrate and explain Vedic statements. In course of time, however 
this method lost its force, as people were thereby, often led astray into, 
attaching greater importance to the historical illustration than to the 
Vedic truth itself. The Saayanic commentator has made use of the first 
as well as the second method. 

3. The mythological. It was not possible to find historical examples 
for every Vedic statement, hence to make up for the deficiency, scholars 


Were often led to refer to folklore or to invent stories to exemplify Vedic 
truths. The available "grand-mothers 1 tales" or "old wives' fables" as 
they might be called, were collected together and utilised from time to 
time to explain Vedic statements to the commonalty. Like the historical, 
this method was very attractive and appealing, but it was more advan- 
tageous as it hardly left any Vedic statement unillustrated. Besides it 
was quite easy to frame a tale just at the nick of time to explain things 
to the audience. Yaaska calls this also as 'itihaasa'. Whenever he criti- 
cises these or other methods which seem faulty to him, he uses language 
that very often savours of assent, but it is not so ; he is really criticising 
the advocates of mythology but his style is so charming and gentle that he 
often seems to agree with his opponents. 

4. The scientific. After the Nairukta method this is the most 
difficult. It consists in identifying Vedic truths with natural phenomena 
and explaining them as physical-scientific truths. This method though 
difficult and abstruse is very frequently resorted to by all scholars as in 
many cases it is the only process that yields the right meaning. Besides 
there are certain portions in the Vedas which clearly treat of Scientific 

5. The esoteric or intuitional. This is an extremely abstract and 
abstruse method of interpretation and is possible only for those who are 
given to yogic spiritual discipline. It deals with God. the soul, and the 
human body taking account of the 'outside' world only as an external 
phenomenon. Yaaska uses this method in the fourteenth chapter of his 
book. There are some Vedic texts which cannot be explained in any 
other way but this, e. g.. Rig Veda 10-119. When other methods are 
employed they yield faulty results. 

6. The ritualistic method. Perhaps this is the easiest and the 
most direct way of interpreting Vedic texts. A Vedic passage, for exam- 
ple, embodies a scientific truth or a prayer to God but at the time of the 
child's tonsure it is used with reference to the barber or the razor. 
Here in interpreting the statement it may be supposed, for the time 
being, to concern only with the barber or the razor, and the vocative, 
if any rendered accordingly. 

Of all these methods, it will be seen at a glance, the second histori- 
cal, the third mythological and the 6th ritualistic are only shabby time-, 
serving devices and cannot be depended upon. They are, at best, rough 
processes, intended to bring home to the less deliberative, vedic truths 
in tentative and attractive, though not enduring and correct forms. The 


Saayanic 1 commentator has committed a great fault in utilising these 
methods in season and out of season to explain the texts of the Rig Veda. 

Max Midler's Sole Object 

Max Muller's sole object in pursuing Sanskrit studies as he himself 
often expressed, was to convert India to Christianity. A letter written 
to him by E. B. Pussey reads thus : "Your work will form a new era in 
the efforts for the conversion of India, and Oxford will have reason to be 
thankful that, by giving you a home, it will have facilitated a work of 
such primary and lasting importance for the conversion of India, and 
which by enabling us to compare that early false religion with the true 
illustrates the more than blessedness of what we enjoy." 

In 1886 Max Muller thus wrote to his wife : " I hope I shall 

finish the work, and I feel convinced though I shall not live to see it, 
yet this edition of mine and the translation of the Veda will hereafter 
tell to a great extent on the fate of India and on the growth of millions 
of souls in that country. It is the root of their religion and to show 
them what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that 
has sprung from it during the last three thousand years/' 

To the then Secretary of State for India, the Duke of Argyle, he 

writes thus in his letter of 16th December 1868 : " The ancient 

religion of India is doomed and if Christianity does not step in, whose 
fault will it be." 

To Byranjee Malabari Esq., he wrote thus on 29th January 1882 : 
"As I told you on a former occasion, my thoughts while writing the 
lectures (the Hibbert) were with the people of India. I wanted to tell 
to those few at least whom I might hope to reach in English what the true 
historical value of this ancient religion is, as looked upon, not from an 
exclusively European or Christian, but from a historical point of view. 
1 wished to warn against two dangers, that of undervaluing and despising 
the ancient national religion, a-6 is often done by your half-Europeanised 
youths and that of overvaluing it and interpreting it as it was never meant 
to be interpreted, of which you may see a painful source in Dayananda 
Saraswati's labour on the Veda. Accept the Veda as an ancient historical 

1. It h a mistake to speak of certain books as the work of Saayana He was not the 
author of all the work* that go under hn nom-de-plume. Mahaamahopaadhyaaya P. Shivdatta, 
Shastri, in hi* introduction to the Mahaabhashya mentions the name of 103 works. All 
these could not have been written by Saayana, especially when we know that the commen- 
tary on the Rig Veda itself can be a man's life work. 

(frrom Introduction to Ecclesia Divina by Swami Bhumananda Saraswati, p. 149-151). 


document, containing thoughts in accordance with the character of an 
ancient and simple-minded race of men, and you will be able to admire 
it, and to retain some of it, particularly the teachings of the Upanishads 
even in these modern days. But discover in it "steam engines and 
electricity and European philosophy and morality," and you deprive it 
of its true character, you destory its real value, and you break the 
historical continuity that ought to bind the present with the past. 
Accept the past as a reality, study it, and try to understand it and you 
will then have less difficulty in finding the right way towards the 

'Tis pity Max Muller pooh-poohs the eternal truths and teachings, 
and belittles the etymological and scientific method employed by Rishi 
Dayananda in interpreting the Vedas, which Max Muller, the follower of 
Sayana's historical method, hopelessly failed to understand. 

The following is from a letter to his son : 

"Would you say that anyone sacred book is superior to all others 
in the world ? It may sound prejudiced, but, taking all in all, I say the 
New Testament. After that I should place the Koran, which, in its 
moral teachings, is hardly more than a later edition of the New 
Testament. Then \vould follow the Old Testament, the Southern 
Buddhist Tripitaka, the Taote King of Laotize, the Kings of Confucius, 
the Veda and the Avesta. There is no doubt, however, that the ethical 
teaching is far more prominent in the old and New Testament than in 
any other sacred book. Therein lies the distinctiveness of the Bible. 
Other sacred books are generally collections of whatever was remembered 
of ancient times." 

What a pity Max Muller ranks the Veda as inferior to the Bible 
and the Koran, whereas in the Lofty ethical teachings these books stand 
in no comparison with the Veda. To me the disparaging remarks of the 
scholar are based on ignorance or misunderstanding of the true purport 
of the Vedas. It would be rather harsh and unjust to say that the 
scholar has made these remarks intentionally to degrade the Vedas in the 
eyes of the civilized world. 

To N. K. Majumr, a Brahmo Samajist, he wrote as follows in 1899 : 

" You know for how many years I have watched your efforts 

to purify the popular religion of India and thereby to bring it nearer 
to the purity and perfection of other religions, particularly of Chris- 
tianity. The first thing you have to do is to settle how much of your 
ancient religion you are willing to give up, if not as utterly false, still as 


aniquated ; You have given up a great deal, polytheism, idolatry, and 
your elaborate sacrificial worship. 

Take then the New Testament and read it for yourselves, and judge 
for yourselves, whether the words of Christ as contained in it satisfy you 
or not. Christ comes to you as he comes to us in the only trustworthy 
records preserved of him in the Gospels. We have not even the right to 
dictate our interpretation of these Gospels to you, particularly if we 
consider how differently we interpret them ourselves. If you accept his 
teachings as there recorded, you are a Christian. 

Tell me some of your chief difficulties that prevent you and your 
countrymen from openly following Christ, and when I write to you I shall 
do my best to explain how I and many who agree with me have met 
them, and solved them, From my point of view t India, at least the best 
part of it, is already converted to Christianity. You want no persuasion 
to become a follower of Christ. Then make up your mind to work for 
yourselves. The bridge has been built for you by those who came before 
you. Step boldly forward, it will not break under you, and you will 
find many friends to welcome you on the other shore, and among them 
none more delighted than your old friend and fellow labourer, F. Max 
Muller." (From "Life and Letters of Frederick Max Muller"). 

These letters clearly prove that the real aim of Western scholars, 
under the garb of research, is to let down the Vedas, and establish the 
superiority of the Bible. Research scholars in their quest for truth, 
should proceed without bias, without pre-conceived notions and prejudiced 
minds. 'Tis pity the Western scholars have miserably failed to follow the 
requisites of true research, and some of them have in their religious 
frenzy and bigotry remarked, the Vedas are "mad-man's raving and 
child's prattle." Their poor knowledge of the Vedic literature, their 
lack of a thorough unbiassed study of our scriptures, their zealous 
missionary spirit that blurred their vision, their antipathy towards Non- 
Christian religions, and their convictions of the superiority of the ethical 
teachings of the Bible have resulted in arriving at wrong and poor 
notions of the Vedas, the encyclopaedia of knowledge, and the repository 
of eternal, lofty, moral teachings. 

Concluding Remarks 

Since long I was contemplating to undertake the stupendous task 
of translating in English the Commentary of Maharshi Dayananda. on the 
Yajur Veda. My circumstances and multifarious engagements spared 
me no time for the task. My iron determination and unflagging resolve, 


however, helped me in the long run, to fulfil my ambition. Constant 
labour for some years has enabled me to complete the translation. I am 
not a scholar, nor do I possess thorough knowledge of Sanskrit. I am a 
mere devotee of the Vedas. I am a fallible human being and claim no 
perfection to my work, Errors might have crept into my translation, 
which, if pointed out by learned scholars, will be acknowledged and 
rectified in the second edition. The readers should appreciate my 
sincerity and faith and overlook my shortcomings. I feel obliged to 
Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, and Swami Bhumananda Saraswati, M.A., 
whose works I copiously consulted and wherefrom derived help and 
information. My sincere thanks are due to Shri Dina Nath, B. A., 
LL.B., Ex. Public Prosecutor and Ex. Official Receiver, Gurdaspur, 
who lent me valuable help in going through the manuscript with me, 
and making useful suggestions for improving the language of this 
translation. But for this help, the publication of the work would have 
inordinately been delayed. 

Hoshiarpur. President, 

7th February, 1957. All India Dayananda Salvation Mission. 



1. O, Lord, we resort to Thee for the supply of foodstuffs and 
vigour. May the Creator, the fountain of happiness and knowledge, 
inspire us for the performance of noblest deeds with our organs. May 
the cows, which should never be killed, be healthy and strong. For 
the attainment of prosperity and wealth, may the cows be full of calves, 
free from consumption and other diseases. Maya thief and a sinner be 
never born amongst us. May the lord of land and cattle be in constant 
and full possession of these. May Ye protect the cattle, wealth and 
progeny of the virtuous soul. 

2. Yajna acts as purifier, makes explicit, true and perfect knowle- 
dge, spread in space through the rays of the sun, purifies the air, is the 
mainstay of the universe, and also adds to our comfort through its 
exalted office. It behoves us all the learned and their followers not to 
give up the performance of yajnas. 

3. The yajna of the Great Lord is the supporter of innumerable 
worlds and purifies us all. May the Self-Effulgent Lord, lead us aright 
on the path of virtue. May He purify us through the store of true 
knowledge and all sciences contained in the Vedas, and elevating selfless 
deeds. O ye men which branches of true knowledge do ye want to 
comprehend ? 

4. Vedas are the true source of knowledge and their study enables 
us to enjoy the full span of life. They contain the detailed instructions 
concerning various duties. May we through His grace be firmly con- 
vinced of the utility of industrial achievements, and may He, the 
Omnipresent Lord protect our yajnas and the knowledge and means 

5. O God, the Lord of Vows, I will observe the vow. May I have 
strength for that. Pray grant me success in the fulfilment of my vow. 
I take the vow of renouncing untruth and embracing truth. 

6. Who prompts you to do good deeds ? It is He, the Great Lord 
Who guides us on the path of virtue. Why does He do so ? For the 
performance of noble, virtuous deeds and the fulfilment of the vow of 
leading a truthful life. The Lord enjoins the workers and their 


organisers, the teacher and the taught to be constantly engaged in 
doing good deeds and achieving fine qualities and true knowledge, 

7- May we root out the evil tendencies of the wicked, the unsym- 
pathetic and uncharitable exploiters of humanity. May we take to task 
the disturbers of peace, and expose the wicked. 

May we thus get many an opportunity of attaining to prosperity 
and bliss. 

8. O Lord, Thou art the dispeller of vices. May Thou punish - the 
wicked. May Thou deal with the vicious that put the sages to trouble. 
May Thou inspire the sinful with noble thought, whom we, too, exhort 
to do noble deeds. We worship Thee, the Giver of happiness and 
knowledge to the learned, purifier of them, the Promulgator of learning 
and joy in the universe, and worthy of adoration by the religious minded 
devotees and the wise. 

9. O Ye men, increase the store of goods acquired by honest and 
fair means to be used in the service of humanity. May your life, be 
constantly dedicated to this principle. May the spiritually minded people, 
also, not give up this humanitarian work. May your lives be constantly 
consecrated to the performance of five daily duties. The heat of the 
sun destroys dirt and odour, and draws substances consigned to fire, in 
their atomic form for the purification of air. 

10. In this universe created by the All Effulgent God, I realize 
the power and influence of the sun and moon, feel the inhalation and 
exhalation of life-giving breath, appreciate the efforts made by the 
votaries of knowledge for mastering science of electricity. I follow the 
researches made by the learned in the applications of water and fire. 

11. I resort to agriculture and craft for removing poverty and 
ministering happiness to all. May I feel joy in my domestic life. May 
our houses be sufficiently commodious, airy, fully comfortable, and built 
in the middle of an open space. May our life be in conformity with Vedic 
teachings. O Lord we pray unto Thee to preserve and protect whatever 
gives us happiness. 

12. O learned persons, just as in this world created by God, inhal- 
ing and exhaling breaths are purified by the faultless and pure rays of 
the sun, just as charming and beautiful waters, which run to the ocean 
and go up in the atmosphere and nourish medicines are purified by these 
rays, so do ye perform Homa with pure substances. I always promote 
this yajna, and sanctify the worshipper with pure mind and strong body, 
the worshipper full of learning and noble qualities. 


13. O performers of yajnas, as the sun receives the aforesaid 
waters and the air to dispel clouds, and absorbs them for the fast moving 
clouds, hence ye should always perform yajnas. 

We all should perform agreeable yajnas, for the attainment of God, 
for noble acts, for the acquisition of fine virtues and for temporal and 
spiritual advancement. With the aid of yajnas purify all substances and 
human beings. Yajnas will remove all your physical and mental defects. 
I, the Revealer of the Veda, advance this purificatory act of yours. 

14. May your house be comfortable. It should afford no shelter 
to the wicked and the uncharitable. May your house serve on as skin of 
the Earth. May all persons acquire such a house through the grace of 
God. Clouds receive moisture from forests, reside in the vast space, 
and receive water from air. May God impart you this knowledge of 
clouds and building houses. May the learned understand the building 
of houses, which serve as skin of the earth. 

15. O yajna, thou art the body of the fire. Thou art performed 
with the recitation of vedic verses, I perform thee for the acquisition of 
noble qualities. Thou art a great cloud, the fosterer of herbs, Cleanse 
this oblation, the assuager of mental pain, for the happiness of the learn- 
ed Cleanse it well. Those who read and teach the Vedas, become 
acquainted with the Vedic lore, inspiring us for the performance of yajnas. 

16. The yajna keeps away the thieves, refines and sweetens the 
speech, is productive of foodstuffs and is the bestower of knowledge and 
vigour. Let the performance of such yajnas be inculcated. May we 
through the aid of heroic persons win battles again and again. 

The yajna is instrumental in producing rain, may we know thee as 
rain producer. We should try to efface the dacoits and exploiters of 
impure minds who lead an impious life. 

Just as the air with its strong hands of definite motion to and fro 
receives the oblations and just as the bright Sun full of luminous beams, 
with his faultless rays resolves into atoms the substances put into the fire, 
so do God and the scholars preach all sciences for the good of humanity. 

17. O Lord, dauntless art Thou. Let us avoid in a yajna the use 
of fire that burns the corpses, and use the fire, that ripens the raw com- 
modities, and endows us with nobler qualities. Through thy teachings re- 
move our miseries and confer bliss on us. 

13. I refers to God. 

14. Just as skin protects and beautifies the body, so should our houses beautify the plot 
on which they are built. 


Lord, Thou art the bestower of permanent happiness. May the 
Earth and the beings living on it advance through high merits. We re- 
alise in our hearts for the removal of the wicked, Thee who bestoweth 
happiness upon the learned, the heroic and all sentient beings. 

18. O 1 Lord, Thou art the sustainer of the universe. Accept our 
adoration offered through Vedic verses and develop our inexhaustible 
mental knowledge. For the destruction of internal foes I realise Thee in 
my heart as the Supporter of the learned, the statesman and the Guide on 
the path of duty of different classes. Thou art the Supporter of the un- 
iverse, we pray unto Thee to increase our knowledge. For the destruc- 
tion of our internal foes, we realise Thee in our hearts as the Supporter of 
the learned, the statesman and the Guide on the path of duty of different 
classes. I imbibe in my heart Thee the All pervader, the Giver of happi- 
ness from all directions. 

O Ye men, lead a life of penance by controlling your breath, and 
following the wise, the scientists and the learned. 

19. The yajna is the giver of happiness, puts an end to the selfish 
and miserly habits and protects the mid-regions as skin protects the body. 
May the performer of the yajna realise its significance. The proper reci- 
tation of the vedic hymns is the yajna in itself. The yajna performed on 
special occasions also protects the truth as skin protects the body. The 
yajna is the sustainer of the illustrious sun, the embodiment of Vedic lore. 
May we realise the yajna as the bringer of rain, and the giver of spiritual 

20. The foodstuffs and water purified by the performance of yajna 
strengthen the body and sense organs. May we resort to yajna for sound 
health, for activities, for vitality, for long life full of happiness and pro- 
sperity. The glorious Creator and Emancipator of the universe, through 
His perfect Omnipresence, blesses us for the dissemination of true sublime 

21. O men, just as I the Lord, propagate the knowledge of this 
yajna in the world created by Me, and perform it through the bright sun, 
stable Earth, vitalizing air and various kinds of breaths in the human 
organism, so do ye. May you prepare, for your benefit, mixtures of 
different medicines with water and with juices and dilute the same again 
with distilled water. May you, thus, effect useful combinations of the 
beneficial medicines, with refined tinctures. 

22. I fully harness the yajna for the attainment of happiness and 
material prosperity. This oblation is put into the fire, which expands, 
reaches in the middle region of the sun and moon and produces food-stuff. 


The yajna confers fuller life and happiness. May this yajna be pef fotmed 
everywhere. May the performer of the yajna spread its knowledge. May 
the sacrificial Agni keep us free from diseases. May the indwelling 
Effulgent God, make our yajna perfect for the attainment of complete joys. 

23. Be fearless and do not waver as to the performance of yajna. 
Let the offspring of the performer of this yajna be excellent, faithful and 
free from weakness. We whole heartedly take recourse to yajnas for the 
realisation of the one Lord, for the purification of air and water and for 
getting the blessings of mother, father and preceptor. 

24. By the impulse of God the Giver of bliss, I perform the yajna 
free from Hinsa (violence), for the attainment of noble qualities and 
association of the learned, through the aid of life-giving-breath, vitalising 
air, and through the rejuvenating rays of the sun and moon. A yajna is 
the recipient of the rays of the sun that ripens a large variety of objects 
and is full of immense lustre, and innumerable rays. A yajna is the 
illuminating source of rain. With the aid of the yajna we should remove 
our miseries. 

25. O God, the Creator of the solar and bright regions we implore 
Thee that through Thy grace, may we not destroy the medicinal herbs of 
the earth, on which the learned perform the yajnas. May the yajna 
reach the clouds. Let the sun pour rain on the earth through its rays. 
O heroic persons bind by various fetters a wicked man in this world, 
who is opposed to us and is opposed to by us, and release him not. 

26. O' Omnipresent Lord, the Giver of happiness, may we subjugate 
the wicked folk on this earth where the sages perform yajnas. May we 
associate with the learned and, thus spread freely the system of education 
as propounded in the Vedic hymns. Just as My light of knowledge is 
valued by all, so should yours. The ignorant moving in the dark who are 
opposed to the learned, and whom the learned disapprove for their 
antagonism to knowledge, should be brought round to the path of virtue 
by hundreds of means available and let the restriction on them be not 
removed till their enlightenment. May the wicked, be not blessed with 
prosperity, and the pleasure of knowledge. O Ye dutiful may ye 
persistently follow the path of virtue. 

Just as the light of the sun brightens up the mid-region so does God 

23. Shri Jai Chand, Vidya Alankar, interprets the last portion of the Mantra as for the 
mastery of the three Vedas, the two Vedas and One Veda. Recitation of Vedic hymns in the 
performance of a yajna is essential, as by their constant repetitions, one masters them. 

25. For the maintenance of peace and order in the society, it is essential to punish the 
wicked. The Veda generally inculcates the spirit of non-hatred and mutual love, but where 
this law is violated the violators have to be punished to bring them on the right path, 


fulfil our desires. The sunjcontrols the earth by the force of 

and ^ajjptftujfi ...... it ilLi 

The cruel who are opposed to the just, and are opposed by the peace- 
loving, be bound by all the means possible and be never let loose till they 
have been brought to their senses. 

27. I perform the yajna with the recitation of vedic verses in 
Gayatri, Trishtup, and Jagati metres. O Earth, thou art beautiful, a 
source of prosperity, and happiness, a fit place to dwell upon comfortably, 
full of corn, milk, sweet juices and fruits. 

28. O Almighty Lord Tbpu, hast suspended in space near Moon, 
this Earth, full of foodstuffs, and producer of all the life-giving substances 
for the living creatures. May the learned of refined intellect, full of 
happiness, residing upon it, the well-wisher of all. abiding by Thy eternal 
laws, conquer all foes waging severe fight with the aid of warriors and arms, 
thus attain to power. O learned person, just as from times immemorial the 
dutiful have been acquiring wealth, so do thou full of wealth worship God. 
Let evil be eradicated. 

29. The wicked should be removed, the enemies of truth should be 
punished ; those fit to be shackled should be cast aside and those opposed 
to knowledge should come to grief. Oh destroyer of foes, Thou art not 
wrathful, I prepare thee full of virility for battle. 

Those who can't tolerate the good of others must be chastised, 
and openly condemned. Those who cause harm to others should be 
humiliated. I duly instruct the army to be strong for weakening the foe, 
and waging war. 

30. O 1 Lord Thou art the Creator of juices in the soil. Thou art 
the Omnipresent, the Pervader of all. Like the flame of fire Thou art in- 
extinguishable. Thou art worthy of worship by the sages at all places, 
meant for it, through the recitation of the vedic texts. May we realise 
Thee through our peaceful spiritual vision, for our advancement. 

31. I consecrate the yajna, which purifies all objects with the 

27. According to some interpreters, Gayatri chhand is synonymous with a Brahman* 
Trishtup with a Kshatriya, and Jagati with a Vaishya. Some interpret these verses as earth, 
mid-region, and sun. Some interpret Gayatri as fire, Trishtup as air, and Jagati as sun. Some 
interpret them as head, chest and loins, some as Vasu, Rudra and Aditya, and some as Pran, 
Apan and Vyan. In prosody Gayatri metre consists of 24, Tnshtup of 44 & Jagati of 48 
syllables just as a Vasu Brahmchari observes celibacy for 24 years, a Rudra for 44, and an 
Aditya for 48 years. 

31, I denotes the priest. 


flawless, pure rays of the sun. In this world created by the Great Lord, I 
sanctify the hearts and souls of the people by the pure and ever soul- 
illuminating knowledge. O' Lord Thou art the source of all light, Pure, 
Giver of the bliss of emancipation, the final resort of the universe ; fit to be 
adored by the learned, loved by the sincere, fearless devotees, Invincible 
and worshipped by the sages. 


1. Oh yajna, thou art being performed in a well dug place, them 
art i?refied by fire and attracted by the air. For the sake of Havan I 
consecrate the oblation agreeably rectified by thee. Thou art an alter 
for taking the oblations high up into the space ; I erect thee and con- 
secrate thee with ghee. Just jasjyater in the space contributes to the 
purification of the material objects, so do I carefully cleanse the oblations 
to be put into the fire ladles. 

2. Yajna showers water on the Earth. Mortar is the chief receptacle 
of the yajna. I prepare the altar for the learned to sit on. May those 
scholars sing the praises of God, the Earth's Lord, the World's Lord, 
the Lord of Kings. 

3. The jsun^ sustainer of the world and the holder of the earth, 
spreads the yajna far and wide for the happiness of the universe. 
Adorable fire, being adored in the yajna, thou art the guardian of the 
worshipper. O yajna thou art the induce r of rain through the power of 
sun for the happiness of the universe. Adorable fire, being adored in 
the yajna, thou art the guardian of the worshipper. Inhalation and 
exhalation, for the happiness of the universe, protect thee (yajna) with 
firm strength every now and then. Adorable fire, being adored in the 
yajna, thou art the protector of the worshipper. 

1. Adhvaryu. the priest speaks. 
Thee refers to altar. 

2. Mortar Vd<j<ri is the crown of yajna, for %fo for oblations is prepared through it. 
By preparing the altar is meant spreading Asanas on it after washing and cleansing it, so 
that the learned Pandits may sit on them, for participation in the performance of the yajna. 
I refers to the worshipper the ZTOTH. Griffith following Mahidhar and Ubbat interprets 
Bhuvpati, Bhuvanpati, and Bhutanampati, as three brothers of Agni ; which is manifestly 
absurd. Kishi Dayananda interprets them as three manifestations of God. 

3. Griffith in the Wake of Ubbat and Mahidhara considers Gandharva and Vishvavasu 
as two Vedic deities. Rishi Dayananda interprets these words as meaning Sun, that holds 
the Earth, and sustains the universe. (TRJ3 : ) 3t it tjfcrft ETTft TpEfg": <tytfo?l4>* I (ftara^O ffctf 
3VWlft W W 1 (SfiRT:) T^ : 5TOF* that which brings rain (Dayananda). Griffith and others 
interpret it as right arm of Indra. pny) has been interpreted by Dayananda as ISflFlft 
powerful. Mitra and Varuna mean Pran and Apana according to Dayananda, but two gods 
according to Mahidhar etc. SPit $ fen 3TOFfl TO*P I 

Shatapatha 8426. 

Adoring of the fire means the throwing of the oblations into it in accompaniment 
with the recital of the vcdic mantras. 


4. May we, in a friendly spirit, manifest Thy glory Oh Omniscient, 
All-illumining God, the Giver of great happiness to all, the Embodiment 
of effulgence, and the Preacher of the yajnas. 

5. Oh yajna, Thou art beautiful like the spring. The sun protects 
thee from time immemorial, for unfolding all objects. Thou art diffused 
through the power and potency (the two arms) of the sun. Just as 
Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas promote the yajna, the giver of happiness, 
pervaded in space, so do I for the acquisition of divine qualities, perform 
the yajna. 

6. Oh Yajna, thy name is sky, thou art full of butter, be confirmed 
in this decorated place with thy lovely glory. Oh Yajna thy name is 
space, thou art full of water, be confirmed in this decorated space with 
thy lovely glory. Oh Yajna thy name is Earth, thou art the giver of 
longevity, be confirmed in this decorated place with thy lovely glory. 
May necessary articles be placed in the holy yajna. O God, may Thou 
protect those articles, may Thou protect the Yajna, may Thou protect 
the worshipper, may Thou protect me the conductor of the Yajna. 

7. I kindle the fire, the giver of corn, full of intensity, the carrier of 
all oblations to the sky, and the bringer of victory in war. The fire 
properly used in the Yajna brings water through the forces of nature, 

4. Swami Dayananda has put two interpretations upon this mantra. Agni has been 
taken to mean God and physical fire. I have accepted the first interpretation, the second 
one referring to fire also holds good. 

5 . The power and potency ( 191 and $tf ) are spoken of as the two arms of the sun. 
They help in the diffusion of the yajna. Vasus, Rudras and Adityas kave been translated by 
some commentators as deities and by others as learned persons, who take part in the yajna. 
Swami Dayananda translates Vasus as Agni, Prithvi, Vayu, Antriksha, Aditya, Dyau, 
Chandrama and Nakshatra, as all living objects dwell and reside in these eight Vasus. 
Rudras he translates as Pran, Apan, Vyan, Udan, Saman, Nag, Kurma, Krikal, Devadutta, 
Dhananjay and Jeeva (Soul), 

These eleven vital Breaths ^are called Rudras, as they make all relatives weep 
when they leave the body at the time of death. The twelve months of the year are called 
Adityas. The Vasus, Rudras and Adityas are helpful in the performance and promotion of 
the Yajna. 'I* refers to the worshipper the performer of the Yajna. 

6. In Yajna there are three ladies, named Juhu, Upabhrit and Dhruva. These three 
are named in the universe as Dyau, Antriksha and Prithvi. In this mantra Juhu, means 
sky, upabhrit means space, and Dhruva means Earth. All these three names are used for 
the Yajna, with which they are connected cftsfg: Shatapatha 1. 3. 2.4. 

SRTfaRjq^ Shatapatha 1. 3. 2. 4. 

*ti ?e$ tyej H gj Shatapatha 1. 3. 2. 4. 

Me refers to any of the Hota, Adhwaryu, Udgata or Brahma, the participating 
priests of the Yajna. 


and food through the seasons that protect us. May these (water and food) 
the givers of strength and power be for my use. 

8. May I today for the acquisition of comforts collect through 
Yajna butter and other articles which contribute to happiness. 

O God may I never violate it (Yajna). O Lord may I obtain Thy 
refuge, abounding in store of riches. This fire is the abode of yajna. 
Through it (yajna) sun and air gain strength. This yajna resides in space 
and fire. 

9. Oh God protect the sun and earth, which protect the yajna. 
Just as fire acquiring the yajna and acting as an envoy, protects the sun 
and earth, so protect us, Oh Lord the doer of the noble deeds for 
the learned. Just as the sun combining light with light through the 
oblations put into fire, protects the heaven and earth so God guard us 
with the light of spiritual knowledge. This is thus ordained in the 

10. May God bestow on me spiritual power. May we obtain 
wealth full of various kinds of splendour, and earthly power. May our 
desires be fulfilled, may they attain to fruition, Men use this Earth 
and knowledge (whereby salvation is attained) for the pleasures of 
kingship. May these Earth and knowledge advise me. May God, as 
my last Refuge and resort instruct me. This is thus ordained in the 

11. I have prayed to the Effulgent, All sustaining God, May the 
Lord Father accept my prayer. Our digestive faculty digests by means 
of gastric juice the food put into the stomach. In this universe created 
by the All-Blissful God, I take that food through the qualities of attraction 
and retention, of inhalation and exhalation ; and the forces of purification 
and permeation of the invigorating air, throughout the body. Cooking 
my food in the burnt fire I eat it with my mouth. 

8. Articles, necessary for the performance of yajna. 

9. Agni is the messenger of the forces of nature, as it takes to sky, air, sun, etc. in a 
rarefied form the oblations put into it. 

10. HffiT and tfitft have not been translated by Swami Dayananda as mother and 
Earth, but as knowledge whereby we attain to salvation, and earth that gives us various 
sorts of pleasures. 

11. ajfosft has been translated by some commentators as sun and moon, and by others 
as vedic deities, but Swami Dayananda translates it as Pran and Apan. He considers Ashwin 
to mean Pran and Apan, i.e., inhalation and exhalation the breaths we take in and out. Their 
qualities of attraction and retention are their two arms. Pushan is not a god but invigorating 
air, whose two hands are its forces of purification and permeation of the food taken. 


12. Oh Lord the Creator of the universe, the Vedas and the 
learned proclaim this fore-mentioned yajna of Thine for Brihaspati and 
Brahma. Through that great sacrifice protect my yajna, protect the 
performer of the yajna, protect Thou me. 

13. May my active mind enjoy the yajna's provisions. May God 
expand and preserve this unabandonable acquisition of knowledge, which 
is a kind of yajna. May all the learned persons in the world rejoice. May 
Om be seated in our hearts. 

14. Oh God, may Thou be glorified by our praises sung through 
Thy Vedas. May Thou promote our knowledge. Oh God, may we 
advance our soul. O God Thou controllest the activities of all. Thou 
art the embodiment of knowledge. Thou art Omniscient and the Bringer 
of victory in battles. May we prosper and sing Thy praises. I become 
pure and holy by following Thy commands. 

15. May I achieve victory like the victory of Fire and Moon. May 
I speed onward with the materials of war. May Fire and Moon, drive 
off him who hates us, drive off the man whom we detest. May I remove 
that sinful enemy by warlike, military skill and equipment. May I 
achieve victory like the victory of Air and Lightning. May I achieve 
happiness through the impulse of knowledge, used for the acquisition 
of supremacy. May air and lightning properly employed, drive off 
him who hates us, drive of the man whom we dislike. I purify this 
ignorant person by the light of knowledge. 

16. We perform the yajna for Vasus, Rudras and Adityas. The 
light of the sun and earth bring thee (yajna) to light. The Pran (external 
air) and Udan (internal air) protect thee through rain. Just as birds go 
to their nests, so let us daily go to the yajna reciting Gayatri Mantras. 

12. Brihaspati is ODC who protects and guards the vedic verses. Brahma is one who 
has read and mastered all the four vedas. Yajnapati is the yajman, the worshipper. 

13. Om is the most sacred name- of God. 

15. Fire means a commander of the army and moon means a calm and considerate king. 
5R may refer to the enemy or the disease which is the enemy of our body. The disease that 
attacks us, and which we try to throw off, must be removed. 

|-|J ft may mean 151 and cfa i.e., power and lustre vide TJto 30 1-22 or BUT and era vide qfto 
12-8 or Pran and Udan vide Shatapatha 4-3-1-22. The victory of Agni and Som is the rightful 
use in the universe, whereby victory is achieved in a battle. I may refer to the king or the 

16. As for Vasus, Rudras and Adityas see footnote to 2.5. Prishni has been translated by 
Ubbat and Mahidhar as cow that goes to heaven. The word means, oblation staying in the 
space in its rarefied form. 

The mantra merely explains the scientific process how rain is caused, but some commen- 
tators have failed to grasp its real sense, 


The desired oblation (Ahuti) reaches the space, comes in contact 
with air and the light of tht sun. It thence brings down rain for us, 
which fills streams and stalks of plants and flowers. Oh Fire thou pro- 
tectest the eye from darkness, may thou protect my physical and spiritual 

17. Oh Omnipresent God, extolled by the praises of the learned, 
Thou attainest to greatness through those lovely panegyrics. I realise that 
greatness of Thine in my heart. May I never disobey Thee. May I, Oh 
God, never abuse the pleasant and invigorating food, I have secured in Thy 

18. May ye thriving, justice loving, wise, learned persons, preachers 
of the knowledge of the Vedas, become supreme through knowledge. 
Let all seekers after truth, devotees of learning and action, attain to 
happiness. Preach My noble word, that brings all kinds of joys. 

19. Oh fire and air, ye are the bringers of rain. Ye protect the 
yajna, and conduce to our comfort, bring comfort to me. God and humi- 
lity are near me for my good, as they are for thine. Just as I derive 
happiness by the performance of yajna, so should you. 

20. Oh Immortal, Omnipresent God, protect me from intense pain, 
protect me from the bondages of sin and ignorance, protect me from the 
company of evil-minded persons, protect me from food injurious to health. 
Make Thou our food free from poison. Let me live in a comfortable 
house ; praying to Thee and doing noble needs. This is our prayer to the 
Lord of the Universe, may we get pure knowledge through the vedas, the 
givers of glory and prosperity. 

21. Oh God, Thou knowest the animate and the inanimate creation. 
Thou knowest everything in the universe. Just as Thou art the expo- 
under of knowledge for the learned, so dost Thou expound knowledge 
unto me. Ye learned people, who know how to sing praises unto God, 
knowing the veda that shows the right path, should master knowledge. 

Oh God, the Master of learning, rightfully fix this yajnalike world in 
the air. 

17. Griffith translates tffrft: as demons of darkness who steal the gods' cows, the rays of 
light, and hide them in caverns. Swami Dayananda translate? the word as 'praises' sung by 
the learned unto God. Paridhi has been translated by Griffith, Mahidhar and Ubbat as the 
stick, which is put into the fire. Dayananda translates it as greatness, 

19. Me : thesacrificer (Yajman) 

20. fftST has been translated by Griffith as cohabitation by the husband and wife, sleep- 
ing on the same couch. Rishi Dayananda translates it as Earth, and titaqfil as God who is the 
lord of earth t sun and other worlds. 


22. May the mighty space unite with oblation and butter. May it 
unite with the twelve months of the year, and eight lifegiving age- 
ncies and vital breaths, May the sun be harnessed with all its rays. May 
pure water rain whenever duly consecrated oblations are offered. 

23. Does anybody abandon the sacrifice ? He who abandons it, is 
abandoned by God. For what purpose does the worshipper put the 
oblations into the fire ? He does it for the happiness of all. He does it 
for gaining strength, health and vigour. The inferior articles not used 
in the sacrifice are the allotted portion of the fiends. 

24. May we be endowed with the study of the Vedas, knowledge, 
stout bodies, peaceful and devoted minds. May God, the Giver of happi- 
ness grant us riches, and banish each blemish from our body. 

25. The Yajna performed by us in Jagati metre goes up to the sky. 
From there it is sent back and pleases the world. By means of this Yajna, 
may we ward off the man who hates us, and him whom we detest. 

The yajna performed by us in Trishtup metre goes up in the air. 
From there it is released and affords happiness to the world by the 
purification of air and water. By means of this yajna, we keep away the 
man who hates us, and him whom we dislike. The yajna performed by us in 
Gayatri metre spreads on the Earth, and being released from there goes 
up to heaven, and purifies the objects of the Earth. By means of this 
yajna we remove the man who hates us, and him whom we despise. By 
the use of food purified through yajna, may we get happiness, for the 
accomplishment of the yajna, and be combined with lustre. 

22. iff s does not mean grass here as interpreted by Ubbat and Mahidhar. It means 
Antriksha, the space, in which all things grow, increase and expand. 

Swami Dayananda has translated the word as Antriksha. All the oblations mixed with 
ghee, rise heavenwards in the space, when they are put into the fire. Adityas mean the twelve 
months and Vasus, the eight lifegiving agencies explained in foot-note to 2.5. Space is intimate- 
ly connected with these, faS^^T: means rays of the sun, and not certain gods as explained by 
Griffith. *?*rot $F& ft$cl$9T : Shatapath 3-7-3-6 vishvedevas according to Shatapath Brahman 
means rays. Swami Dayananda has translated the word as rays. 

23. Rakhshasas means the evil minded persons, who do not perform yajna. They eat the 

inferior articles rejected in the yajna. 

25. The performance of the yajna by means of Gayatri, Trishtup and Jagati metres 

means the recitation of the Veda Mantras in these metres throughout the yajna. We should 
keep our enemies away from us through the strength and vigour we derive from the Yajnas. 
Vishnu has been translated as God by Pt. Jai Chand Vidya Alankar. God pervades ths sky, 
the air and earth nay throughout the universe, by means of hi<? Jagati Chhand, the power of 
creating the world, His Trishtup Chhand, the operation of protecting the three worlds, and 
His Gayatri chhand, the power of guarding the vital breaths. 


26. Oh God Thou art Self-Existent, Most Excellent, and Self 
Effulgent, Giver art thou of knowledge. Give me knowledge. I follow the 
command of God. 

27. Oh Lord of the universe, Oh God, may I become a good 
householder through Thee, the protector of the universe. Oh Lord may 
Thou protect my house, being adored by me the guardian of my house. 
May our domestic duties be performed free from idleness. May I live 
for a hundred years day and night in the presence of God. 

28. Oh God, the Lord of vows, pray grant me success in the 
performance of the vows, which I have undertaken, and which I find 
myself confident tc discharge. I reap as I sow. 

29. Speak reverentially to the learned, the repository of know- 
ledge. Speak sweetly and gently to your father, mother, teacher and the 
Brahmchari. Exterminate all fiends and evil-minded persons in the 

30. Oh God remove from this world the demoniacal beings who 
walk on the earth, dissembling their real intentions, who are immersed 
in the attainment of their selfish aims, and are filled with evil ambitions. 

31. In this world, let the wise and the learned enjoy, let them be 
strong, healthy and pleased, according to their capacity. Let them be 
happy, hale and hearty according to their resources. 

32. Obeisance unto Yee, O Fathers, for the acquisition of happi- 
ness and knowledge. Obeisance unto Yee, O Fathers for the removal of 
misery and enemies. Obeisance unto Yee, O Fathers for longevity, 
Obeisance unto Yee, O Fathers, for sovereignty, and display of justice. 
Obeisance unto Yee, O Fathers, for the cessation of manifold calamities, 

27. Our : Husband and wife. U^jfr means, according to Shri Jai Chand, Vidya 
Alankar, not ^ift. A cart drawn by only one ox is called Scft. It can't work well. Just 
as the cart drawn by two bullocks goes well without interruption, so should the household 
affairs be performed through the joint deliberations of both the husband and wife, and not singly 
and indtpendently. Swami Dayananda interprets the word as free from idleness. 

28. God is the fulfiller of our vows. Whatever good or bad action a man performs, 
he reaps accordingly the fruit thereof, and consequently becomes good or bad according to the 
nature of his deeds. A man is the architect of his fate, as he sows so does he reap. 

32. Fathers means the wise, the learned, the high souled, just, religious-minded, 
philanthropic persons, who work for humanity, and are free from ignoble passions, selfish- 
ness, and sordid motives. 

The repetition of the words TO' is meant to indicate the different qualities of the 
fathers. For fuller explanation see Swami Dayananda's Commentary , Ubbat, Mahidhar 
and Griffith have interpreted ftcR"' as six seasons of the year. 


obeisance unto yee, O Fathers, for righteous indignation. Fathers, 
know our desire to acquire knowledge. Fathers, know our reverence 
unto Ye is for your respect Fathers, come daily to our houses, and give 
us instructions, 

Fathers we always give unto yee, whatever we have. 
We give yee these clothes, pray accept them. 

33. Accept thou teacher, in the womb of thy discipleship, the 
youth, with a garland of flowers in hand, eager for knowledge, so that he 
may attain to full manhood. 

34. Oh sons, please my parents and teachers by offering them 
various juices, sweet waters, disease-dissipating articles, milk, clarified 
butter, well-cooked food, and juicy fruits. Enjoy your own wealth, and 
covet not the wealth of others. 

33. Just as mother keeps the child in her womb, and slowly and gradually develops 
its body by the use of proper diet and taking necessary precautions, so does a teacher, who 
accepts a student in his discipleship, acting like a mother, develop the student physically, 
intellectually, morally and spiritually by his teachings. 


1. Oh learned persons, kindle the fire with the wood sticks, with 
butter, set ablaze the fire, which is worthy of respect like a Sanyasi. Put 
oblations in this fire of the yajna. 

2. Put the oblations of ghee that removes physical infirmities, into 
this well ablaze, disease-killing fire present in all objects. 

3. We fan with sticks of wood and ghee the fire, that is powerful 
in splitting all things, and burns intensely. 

4. O beautiful fire, wood sticks soaked with ghee go unto thee 
along with oblations. May thou accept my fuel put into thee. 

5. I lay upon the back of the Earth upon which the learned per- 
form yajna, which is like Heaven in plenty, and like Earth in grandeur, 
for gain of eatable food, this food-eating fire, that pervades the Earth, 
Ether, and Sky. 

6. This Earth revolves in the L. space, _jt revolves with its mother 
water in its orbit. It inc^ej^oun^t^fatherTlEc^TiL 

7. The lustre of this fire, goes up and comes down in the space 
like exhalation and inhalation in the body. This great fire displays 
the Sun. 

2. Ghee is clarified butter. Agni is called \ifffift<^ as it is present in every object 

3. Agni may mean God as well- In that case the verse will be interpreted thus. O God, 
we glorify Thee through yoga and spiritual force. O Omnipotent God, Thou art Great and 
Resplendent. Here *Tfr?V:P is yoga, and ^ is the spiritual force; flfo%*l means the powerful 
God, Who unites and disunites all things in the world. 

4. In this verse also 3ffR may mean God. The verse would then be interpreted thus. 
O God, may my austerity, knowledge, worship and yoga, which contribute to my learning, 
splendour and beauty, be accepted by Thee. 

5. jjjj'tp ?*n mean (1) Earth, Ether, Sky or (2) Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaish or 
(3) Subjects, offspring, cattle, or (4) Rig, Yaju, Sama. Mahidhara and Ubbat have ascribed 
these meanings to these vayahritis. May I become plentiful like Heaven. As heaven is full of 
stars, so I may he endowed with progeny and cattle. May I spread like the earth. As earth 
gives shelter to many, so I may afford shelter to the distressed. 

6. Water is the mother of Earth, as Earth is produced by the mixture of the particles 
of water with its own particles, and remains pregnant with water. Sun is the father of the 
Earth, as from the Sun, it derives all light and sustenance. 

7. Lightning is the lustre of fire. Just as Praa and Apan go up and down in the body* 
so does fire rise in the sky and then it comes down. 


8. God's word rules supreme throughout the world. The Vedas 
arc recited for acquiring the knowledge of God. We should resolutely 
recite and understand the Vedas everyday with their illuminating 

9. Just as God gives the light of truthful speech to all human 
beings, so does physical fire give light that illumines all substances. 
Just as God inculcates knowledge in the souls of all, that man should 
speak, as he feels in his heart, so does the Sun bring to light all physical 
objects. Just as God reveals for humanity all the four Vedas, the store- 
house of knowledge, so doesJSreJn_thc_shape_ ofjlightning^^exist in the 
space, and become the source of rain and knowledge. 

Just as God, through the Vedas displays all sciences, fire, and 
lightning, so does the Sun develop our physical and spiritual forces. 
Sun illumines all objects. God is self-Resplendent. This is the 
manifestation of His Glory. 

10. This enjoyable fire, in accompaniment with the recital of 
Vcdic texts, mixed with God's creation and dark night, with flashes of 
lightning pervades all objects. 

This sun, mixed with God's creation and brilliant dawn, receives 
the oblations put into the fire, and carries them to places far and wide. 

11. Performing sacrifice, may we pronounce vedic texts, in praise 
of God, who hears us from far and near. 

12. Men should worship God alone, who is the Great and Supreme 
Lord, who sustains the luminous Sun, and the non-luminous Earth, who 
knows the formation of the vitality of waters. 

13. Oh Electricity and Fire, I invoke Ye both for knowing your 
attributes, for enjoying the pleasures of riches. Ye both are the givers 
of desired sovereignty. Ye twain I invoke for consuming excellent food. 

8. BttTgtiW according to Ubbat means the thirty parts gtftf of the day. According to 
Mahidhar, it means the thirty days of the month. According to Swami Dayananda it means the 
thirty three devatas, excluding the space (Antriksha), Sun, and Fire. The word 'thirty* realms' 
means all the parts of the world. The number thirty is used indefinitely. 

He!* means physical fire and God. TfltPmay mean speech and the word of God. 

9. These are Agni Hotra Mantras for morning and evening. 

12. *tlR means physical fire as well. Rishi Dayananda has given both the spiritual 
and physical interpretations of this mantra. I have chosen the former where Agni means 

13. The proper application of fire and electricity in industries and machines, and full 
knowledge of their attributes lead to the acquisition of wealth, enjoyment, worldly happiness 
and greatness. 


14. Ob God, in Thy creation, sacrificial fire, whose cause of birth 
is air, burns in different seasons, and develops in all directions. Knowing 
this, cause our riches increase. 

15. In this world the instructors and the learned kindle in 
serviceable yajnas, for mankind, the ubiquitous fire of extra-ordinary 

That fire is recognised by the regulators of sacrifice as worthy of 
adoration, as the first means of the performance of a yajna, as the 
receiver of sacrifice aad giver of happiness and scientific knowledge. 

16. The learned, knowing the eternity, lustre, thousandfold service, 
and usefulness of fire, get pure water from it. 

17. Thou. God, art our bodies 1 protector. Protect Thou my body. 

Giver of longevity art Thou, O God, Give me longevity. 
Giver of splendour art Thou, O God, Give me splendour. 
Remove, O God, all the defects of my body and soul. 

18. Oh God, the Lord of manifold riches, may we, being free from 
pride, enjoying long life, and practising forbearance, live for a hundred 
years, praising Thee the Effulgent, the Eternal, the Forbearing, the Un- 
conquerable, and the Killer of foes. 

Through Thy kindness, being free from woes, may we attain to 

19. Oh God, Thou art full of splendour like the Sun, sung by the 
sages with vedic verses, and O Thou full of power for protection May I 
attain to long life, to splendour, to offspring, and abundant riches. 

20. May I enjoy the life-bestowing food through the plants 
and medicines that contribute to health and vigour. May I utilise the 
science of air and water for the accomplishment of my deeds. May I 
get the essence of food from milk, honey and fruits. May I enjoy the 
abundance of good articles through objects full of manifold qualities. 

15. Apnawana (TOSH) has been translated by Mahidhar, as a Rishi, belonging to the 
Bhrigu family. There is no history in the Veda ; hence his interpretation is inadmissible. 
Swami Dayananda translates Apnavana as a learned instructor who teaches his sons, and 
Bhrigu as a wise person who knows how to perform a yajna. 

16. When Havan is performed in the fire, the result is the raining of pure water on 
the Earth. 

18. Ubbat and Mahidhar translate firaratft as night, in which shine different stars and 
darkness resides. Maharshi Dayananda translates it as God, in whom reside the manifold 
riches of the world, and who is the source of all wealth. 


21. Oh Vcdic speech, may thou remain in this altar in this yajnd, 
in this spot and in this house. Remain here, and go not far from hence. 

22. Oh universal vedic text, thou art full of vigour and valour, 
may we attain unto thee, the master of the yajna. O God, may we 
be in communion with Thee, everyday, morning and evening, bowing 
unto Thee through our intellect. 

23. May we worship God, Who is the Guardian of sacrifices, 
Radiant, the Revealer of the vedas, and attained to complete redemption. 

24. Oh God, Thou givest unto us knowledge, as a father to his son. 
Unite us perpetually with pleasure. 

25. Oh God, Thou art the Bestower on us of ears to hear goodness, 
the Shelter of mankind, the Embodiment of the lustre of knowledge, and 
real Omnipresence. Thou pervadest our soul. Thou art our Protector, 
Our Benefactor, and possessest excellent nature, attributes and deeds. 
Give us wealth most splendidly renowned. 

26. O most pure, O radiant God, verily do we pray to Thee for the 
happiness of our friends. Give us knowledge, listen to our praises and 
prayers, and keep us far from every evil. 

27. O God, may I get land for ruling over it, may I be endowed 
with statesmanship. May noble desires reside in me. May I be the 
centre of the fulfilment of all ambitions. 

28. O God, the Guardian of the primordial vedas, make me, like the 
son of a learned person, endowed with different capacities for the acquisi- 
tion of knowledge, an imparter of instruction, and a fulfiller of the aim of 

29. God is rich and the dispeller of ignorance. He knows the true 
nature of all things, and grants us physical and spiritual strength. He 
is prompt. May he goad us to noble deeds. 

30. O God, may not our knowledge of the Vedas ever perish. May 
Thou preserve us from the violence of the uncharitable person. 

21. Revati has been translated as wise policy by Swami Dayanandji. According to this 
interpretation the Mantra may mean 'Oh -wise policy, 'Oh Statesmanship, may thou remain in 
this abode, this fold, this spot and this dwelling. 'Remain just here and go not thence.' 
Wi tq* I Shatapath 3-8-1421. 

28. Ubbat and Mahidhar translate Kakshivant as a Rishi, whose mother was Ushik, and 
father Dirghatama. This interpretation involving history is not apt, as the vedas are free 
from historical references, due to their primordiality and eternity. Swami Dayananda translates 
Ushik as the son of a learned person and Kakshivant as full of different capabilities! modes 
and methods for the acquisition of knowledge. 


31. God, may we get the great, wise and unassailable protection 
of the three forces of nature, the water, the sun and the air. 

32. Those who worship God are not molested by evil-minded foes 
neither at home, nor upon pathways and battlefields. I become capable 
of acquiring God and the sages. 

33. They, the sons of indestructible matter, bestow eternal light 
upon man for his life and death. 

34. O God, Thou art the giver of happiness. If Thou dost not 
bestow knowledge promptly on a charitable person, he again, O 
Liberal Lord, does not attain to Thy bounty. 

35. O Creator of the Universe I O All holy and worthy of 
adoration ! May we meditate on Thy adorable self. May Thou guide our 

36. Oh God, may Thine immortal knowledge, wherewith Thou 
guardest the learned in all directions, come close from all sides. 

37. O God, friendly to the wise, do Thou protect my offspring. O 
worthy of praise do Thou protect my cattle. O God, above all suspicion, 
protect my food. O God, through Thy grace, in unison with the three 
life-winds, Pran, Apan and Vyan, may I be rich in offspring, well-manned 
with men, a hero with the heroes, and strong with wise and invigorating 

33. Aditi has been interpreted differently. It means (1) Earth (2) Matter (3) Veda 
(4) Forces of Nature. 

i frtfo i n 

I 3To 6-5-2-5. 
Ed according to Nighantu and Shatapath Aditi mean* 

'They' refers to Mitra, Aryama and Varuna, i.e., the air, the sun and the water. They 
are the sons of Matter, as they protect mankind from misery. 33 is one who helps his parents 
in crossing the ocean of worldly miseries. As air, sun, and water help mankind to overcome 
difficulties and physical infirmities, they are hence named as sons of Nature. 

34. God is the giver of the fruits of our actions. If this be not so, man will never 
systematically and according to Law, reap the fruits of his actions. 

35. This is the Gayatri Mantra, the Lord's Prayer of the Aryans. This is considered 
to be the best and most perfect form of prayer, as in it we pray not for one's selfish advance- 
ment, but for the betterment of humanity. We pray not for things mundane, which we can 
acquire through our intellect and understanding, but for the purification of our loftiest and 
noblest gift, the wise understanding. We don't pray for bread, and physical objects and 
comforts. Highest form of prayer is offered to God, the Highest Authority. This prayer is 
perfect as it contains all the three elements of prayer, i.e., laudation, 'Fg^T supplication 

and meditation 


38. O, Ocean of Light, the Omniscient, the best knower of all the 
worlds, and enjoyments may we well approach Thee. May Thou spread 
for us splendour and strength in all directions. 

39. Lord of our houses, O God, Thou art the best finder of riches 
for our children, Thou art the protector of our hearths, and the com- 
panion of the householders. Bestow splendour and strength on us. 

40. This fire assists us in the accomplishment of our deeds. It is 
rich, and furtherer of plenty. O God, the Giver of our comforts, bestow 
splendour and strength upon us. 

41. Fear not, nor tremble Ye, O householders. We, bearing strength, 
come to Ye. May I bearing strength, intelligent and happy, rejoicing in 
my mind, enjoy all pleasures and approach the householders. 

42. We praise the householders, whom the guest staying far from 
home remembers and whom he loves much. The loving householders 
welcome us, the religious guests. 

43. May we in this world get cows, goats, sheep and abundant 
food in our houses. I come to you for safety and quietude, May I acquire 
mundane and celestial joy and felicity. 

44. We invocate the guests, who are delightful, free from ignorance, 
removers of sins, eaters of the food well cooked, and full of knowledge. 

45. May we forsake each sinful act that we have committed in 
village or solitude, in an assembly or corporeal sense. Let every man so 

46. O God, protect us in battles, in this world, with the help of 
heroes and destroy us not. O mighty hero, verily, as the vedic voice, re- 

40. (Pareeshya) yffiQ has been translated by Ubbat and Mahidhar, as Master of the 
cattle. Swami Dayananda translates it as helper in the doing of deeds, and giver of comforts. 
It means water as well. 

Vide Nighantu 1-12. 
It also means earth, vide Shatapath 12-5-2-5. 

41. We and I refer to the learned persons. 

43 We and you refer to householders, and I to a learned person. SftfM used twice refers to 
earthly happiness, and happiness after death. 

44. The householders should always serve the learned, delightful, and pious guests who 
are Atithis, i.e., whose date of coming is not fixed. Griffith following Mahidhar puts this 
mantra in the mouth of the sacrificer's wife, who is first called upon to confess her infidelities, 
if she has been guilty of any and to declare the name or names of her lover or lovers. After 
confession or declaration of innocence, she is made to recite the text." This is humbug and 
sheer nonsense. 

45. Corporeal sense means by abuse of the mind, tongue, eye, ear or any other sensual 


plete with noble virtues, offering oblations, displays the qualities of the 
learned worshippers, so does the worshipper, put oblations into the fire, 
which contribute to the happiness of mankind. 

47. They, who with delightful vedic voice, working in cooperation, 
perform their desired deeds, go to their comfortable house, after the com- 
pletion of their task for the acquisition of noble virtues. 

48. O purified through knowledge and righteousness, O patient 
teacher of grammar, just as I a seeker after knowledge, and a firm gleaner 
of wisdom, wash out the sin that I have committed through my senses 
and the mortal body, so do thou O God, preserve me from tortuous sin. 

49. The oblation full of cooked articles put into the fire, goes up to 
the sky. and returns therefrom full of rain. 

O God, Let us twain, like traders, barter our food and strength. 

50. Give me this article and I will give you that in return. Keep 
this as my deposit, I keep this as your deposit. Give me the cash price 
for it. I give you the price demanded. Let people thus transact business 

51. Thou chairman, just as comrades, luminous in themselves, 
pleasing others, advanced in knowledge, with their sharpest intellect, do 
verily praise God, and being regaled with nutritious diet, overcome 
miseries, so do thou yoke thy vigour and prowess with them. 

52. We revere Thee, O God of Bounty, Who art fair to see. Being 
praised by us, O best companion, Thou fulfillest all our desires. O Lord, 
yoke Thy vigour and prowess for us. 

53. By reflecting on the merits of the learned, and following the 

49. When we perform Homa, the oblation put into the fire, being rarefied goes up to th 
sky, wherefrom, it comes back in the shape of rain. We two, the worshipper who performs the 
Yajna, and the priest who officiates, barter our food and strength-giving articles, i.e , we put 
these into the fire, and get. in return, rain, which gives us happiness, ripens our harvest of 
grain and helps the growth of medicinal herbs. This process of giving and taking has been 
described as a kind of bartering, as does a trader who gives articles, and takes cash in return. 

50. In this verse, it is stated that all borrowing and lending, all sales and purchases, all 
mortgages and deposits should be carried on in strict compliance with the principle of truth* 
There should be no fraud and falsehood exercised in business. All dealings should be plain, 
straightforward and true. 

51. There ought to be full cooperation between the president of a society and its 

53. Lives of great-men teach us many lessons. We should learn from and profit by the, 
experiences of great souls, and try to emulate them* 


high principles of the elders, we strengthen our mind through non- 

54. May we get in future births again and again the mind, for 
doing virtuous deeds, for acquiring strength, for longevity, and contem- 
plation of God'for long. 

55. O venerable elders, may this man endowed with godly qualities, 
give us in this and the next life, intellect whereby we may enjoy a long 
life and perform noble deeds. 

56. O God, acting upon Thy Law, possessing mental self-conscious- 
ness in healthy bodies, blest with progeny, let us enjoy happiness. 

57. O learned person, the chastiser of the sinful and the unright- 
eous, all these eatable things are for thee. Accept them with thy know- 
ledge and vedic lore. O learned man, follow the Veda and the law of 
Dharma. O learned person, accept the food worth eating which uproots 
all diseases. 

58. May we ward off all calamities by worshipping God, Who is 
unchangeable in the past, presenr and future, chastises the sinners, and is 
highly benevolent. Just as God makes us better housed, more prosperous, 
and determined so may we adore Him. 

59. O God, Thou art the healer of the physical, mental and spiri- 
tual maladies. Heal, Thou the sufferings of cow, horse and all mankind. 
Grant happiness to ram and ewe. 

60. We worship the Omnipresent, Pure God, Who augments our 

54, 55. Both the verses preach the transmigration of soul. 

57. Ambika has been translated by Ubbat and Mahidhar as the sister of god Rudra. 
Swami Dayananda translates it as vedic text, UTCJ has been interpreted by Ubbat and Mahi- 
dhar as a mouse, on whose hole, a pudding is to be put. Maharshi Dayananda translates it as 
a remover of diseases. 

58. Triyambaka has been translated differently by various commentators, e.g., free 
from the threefold sufferings, i e. physical^elemental and spiritual, and beyond the reach of 
time, i.e., Past, Present and Future, or ruling over the three worlds. 

Triyambaka is interpreted by Griffith as a name of Rudra as having three wives, sisters 
or mothers, or Triocular, the Three Eyed God. Rishi Dayananda's interpretation is more 
rational and significant. He interprets the word as God Who remains unchanged in the Past, 
Present and Future. 

39. The enumeration of a few animals like cow, horse, ram and ewe, is symbolic of the 
animal kingdom. Praytr is offered for the happiness of mankind and animal world. 

60. Just as a cucumber, when ripe, falls, full of sweetness, of its own accord, to the 
ground, so should we die when we have spent our full age of at least one hundred years. Our 
death should be easy, and natural, free from the protracted, and excruciating agonies of 
death, to which several persons are subjected. We should in no case be deprived of our 
immortal life through salvation, which is the aim of this worldly life. 



physical, spiritual and social forces. Through His Grace may we be re- 
leased from this mortal coil without the agony of death, as naturally as a 
ripe cucumber is from its stem. Let us not be bereft of immortality. We 
worship the Omnipresent, Pure God, Who grants us wisdom. Through 
His Grace, may we be released easily from this world, as a ripe cucumber 
is from its stem, but not from immortality. 

61. O hero, the chastiser of enemies, and expert in the art of war, 
with bow extended, with self-protecting trident, with full armour, with 
grace and power, meet thy foes on the other side of the mountain. With 
thy this power of protection, come to us, without causing us any harm. 

62. May we be endowed with triple life, as a truth-seer sage, or the 
custodian of knowledge through the grace of God, is endowed with, or as 
the learned persons enjoy triple life. 

63. O God, Thou art certainly the Embodiment* of grace, self- 
Existent, our Father, obeisance be to Thee. Harm me not. I approach 
Thee for long life, for nice food, for progeny, for riches in abundance, for 
noble children, and for heroic vigour. 

62. 5Zn*pn3[ means three times the ordinary span of life, i.e., three times a hundred years. 
May we live for 300 years or more, like the sages of yore. ^ll^VH may al^o mean the three 
stages of life, boyhood, youth and old age, or Brahmacharya, Griha^tha and Vanaprastha 


1. May we, on this earth, where reside happily all the learned 

persons, be able to revere the sages 

May we acting on the teachings of the Rig, Sam and Yajur Vedas, end 
all our miseries. May we rejoice in food and growth of riches. These 
pure, disease-killing waters be gracious to me. May the herbs protect me 
Thou armed king, harm not the worshipper. 

2. May waters, like mother, purify our bodies. May the waters 
purified by clarified butter, purify us through rain. Pure waters remove 
all our physical imperfections. 

May I advance in life, being bright and pure through waters. Through 
celibacy and absteniousness may I possess a body, healthy, comfortable, 
excellent, beautiful and strong. 

3. O Sun, thou bringest rain on different parts of the earth. Giver 
of splendour art thou } bestow on me the gift of splendour. The disperser 
of cloud art thou with thy brilliance. The giver of eye art thou. Give 
we the gift of vision. 

4. Purify me, the Lord of Purity. Purify me, the Lord of knowledge, 
Purify me, the Lord of the Vedas. 

O Lord, Creator of the universe, purify me, through sun-beams and 
thy immortal purifying knowledge. 

O Master of the purified souls, may I full of lofty sentiments accom- 
plish the desire actuated by which, through your grace, I purify myself. 

5. O sages, we admire your praiseworthy qualities, during the 
performance of this happy sacrifice. O sages, we beg of you the fulfilment 
of our desires pertaining to the sacrifice. 

6. O men, just as I actively and wisely commence performing 
the sacrifice, with vedic texts, with cultured tongue, with wisdom- 
teaching voice, with a tongue full of sweetness and truth, in an orderly 
and well-directed way, with the help of the extended firmament, Earth, 
sky and air, so do Ye. 

2. Ghee when used in Havan, purifies the rain, and water, which in turn purifies our 
bodies, and removes our physical infirmities and defects. 

3. Sun gives light to the eyes, so he is addressed as giver of eyes. 

6. A sage or a learned person says this to ordinary householders and men of the world. 


^. We perform the yajna for resolution for good religious acts, 
for kindling fire, for the propagation of the Vedas, for the development 
of wisdom, for the enhancement of knowledge, for utilizing lightning, 
for philanthropy, for following the laws of Dharma, for austerity, for 
digestive faculty, for learning and teaching, for eloquent and weighty 
speech, for worshipping rightly God, for purifying gastric juice, and for 
practising Truth. 

Ye, meritorious, all-beneficial divine waters, Ye Heaven and Earth 
and spacious air between them, we serve with Oblation. 

8. May every mortal man seek the friendship of the Guiding God. 
May we all have recourse to the use of arms for the acquisition of due 
wealth. May every man acquire riches and become strong through wise 

9. After the study of the Rig and Yajur Vedas, I commence using 
their scientific aspLCts, i.e., theoretical and practical. They protect m? 
in this yajna, in which vedic texts are recited. O yajna, thou art 
happiness, give me happiness ; here are these oblations of corn for thee ; 
forbear to harm me. 

10. O learned person, may mechanical science, perfected by the 
application of fire, the giver of light, bestow strength on me. It is the 
guardian of manifold objects, giver of happiness to the learned, the 
mechanic, and the source of prosperity, make the crops produce abundant 
grain through its aid. O learned person, depend on thyself for 
advancement. Protect me from the misery of sin. Accomplish this 
yajna with the recitation of vedic texts. 

11. Take a vow. God is Agni. Yajna is Agni. God, the Guardian 
of our soul, is fit for worship. For the attainment of an ideal, I long 
for divine, pleasant, radiant intelligence that unites me with God. May 
that intelligence, that makes me happily cross the ocean of this mundane 
existence, be within my control. 

May the philosophic, meditative and energetic sages urge us on to 
noble deeds, may they be our protectors. We invoke them from the 
inmost recesses of our heart. 

9. The two aspects of the vedas may be Karma and Jnan Kand, the practical and 
theoretical sides. 

God may also be addressed as yajna, then TO will mean obeisance ; and 3rf will mean 
shelter. God affords shelter to all. 


12. O men, the waters that we have ,lrunk, staying within our 
belly, give us peace, riches, freedom from consumption, disease, and pangs 
of hunger and thirst. They are the strengthened of our true knowledge, 
full of divine qualities, and undying flavours. May they be pleasant to 
your taste. 

13. O learned man, just as this sacrificial body of thine, protects 
the vital breaths and the people, and thou forsakest it not, so do I not 
forsake it without enjoying the full span of life. Just as disease curing 
and pure waters flow on the earth, so shouldst thou live in the world 
wisely ; and so do I. 

14. The fire, which keeps us active in our wakeful state, makes us 
take joy in most refreshing sleep. It protects us free from idleness and 
casts away the idlers. We should use this fire properly which deals with 
us again and again. 

15. I get back after rebirth mind, life, bre.ith, soul, eyes and ears. 
May God the Leader of all, Non-violent, Omniscient, Guardian 

of our souls, save us from misfortune and sin. 

16. O God, Thou art the Guardian of sacred vows among mankind. 
Thou art meet for praise at holy rites. O Giver of Splendour, Come 
unto us, grant us wealth, give us more. God, the Creator, the Giver of 
wealth, gives us riches. 

17. O learned person, this body thou hast got and reared is for 
the meditation of God and sacrifice. Through this body, being vigorous, 
gain splendour and lustre. Be active through knowledge. 

18. O resplendent God, in this world created by Thee, may I obtain 
mastery over the vast power of speech. O Speech, thou art pure, pleasant 
and dear to the sages. 

12. ^T31: may be translated as givers of peace, vide Shatapath 3-9-4-16. Swami 
Dayananda has translated it as givers of knowledge and wealth. 

14. Agni may mean God as well. The mantra will then be interpreted thus. O God, 
Thou art ever wakeful, but we are sleeping in ignorance. Protect us unceasingly. Awake 
us again and again for the acquisition of true knowledge. Agni may mean Pran i.e., vital 
breaths. Pran also is wakeful while all other senses go to sleep. These vital breaths protect 
us, and restore us consciousness after t-leep. 

15. Man regrets after rebirth and the creation of the universe , his physical and mental 
faculties. This mantra clearly demonstrates the doctrine of th; Transmigration of soul, and 
the creation of the universe-after each cycle, Kalpa. 

16. Agni can be interpreted as fire as well. The second interpretation with Agai 
meaning fire has been given by Swami Dayananda in his commentary. The mantra is clear, with 
Agni substituted for fire in place of God. 

18. Shwatra means both speech and lightning. 

IV 4 

19. O Speech, thou art thought, mind, intelligence, giver of 
knowledge and victory ; thou art power, worthy of worship, immortal, and 
double-headed. May thou give us comfort in the past and future. May 
breath, the strength giving friend of time advance thee in knowledge, 
and guard thy pathways for God, whose eye is over all. 

20. O man, may thy mother, thy father, thy own brother, and 
thy friend of the same society grant thee leave to tread on the path 
ordained by God. 

O speech, for the acquisition of splendour, may thou unite with 
God, the Prompter of all. May the Celibate student choose thee. 

May thou, O man, happily acquire again and again this speech, the 
friend of the learned. 

21. O speech, thou art all-pervading, eternal, lustrous, sublime and 
pleasant. The learned person uses thee for happiness. The sage, the 
chastiser of the wicked longs for thee along with other educated persons. 

22. O speech, I use thee in the heights of sky and the sacri- 
ficial places on the Earth. Thou art the preserver of vedic verses. May 
thou be enriched with high knowledge. May thou rest in us. May thou 
be united to us. Thou art rich. May I be full of riches. Let us not be 
deprived of abundant riches. May splendour reside in thee full of 

23. O speech, I praise thee with divine, ignorance-removing and 
penetrating intelligence. End not my life. I will not through ignorance 
spoil thee. O vedic text, in thy protection, may I be blessed with 

19. Speech has been spoken of as double headed, as its one part gives us the knowledge 
of external objects, and the other part of internal ones ; or speech makes us cognisant of internal 
pain and pleasure and external occurrences ; or the external organs like eyes etc. represent its 
one face, and the internal organ, the mind, the other. 

^JSltft and 'yytfW may also mean that speech helps us in mastering the external problems 
that come before us, and solving the subtle questionings of the soul. 

Mitra may also mean the soul, which binds the speech to God, (<jft) as it is through the 
persuasion of our soul, that we sing the glory and praises of God. 3TSFT: means the path of 
knowledge and yoga which leads us to God. There is another interpretation as well of this 
mantra, with lightning fot^ instead of speech 3Tft as its devata. 

22. The sacrificial places mean the places where the wise and the learned perform 
yajnas on this earth by the recitation of vedic verses. 

Speech is the protector and preserver of the vedic verse*, as by their recitation and 
memorisation they are preserved. 

23, A king prays for strength, 


24. O learned person "This is thy share of the sacrifice allied 
with Gayatri verses" so may he say unto me a student of science. This 
is thy share of the sacrifice allied with Trishtup verses/ so may he say 
unto me, the seeker of the essence of things. This is thy share of the 
sacrifice allied with verses in Jagati metre/ so may he say unto me a 
student of science. 'May thou attain to sovereignty detailed in vedic- 
verses in all other metres/ May he thus preach the art of kingship 
unto me, full of affluence, O learned persons, just as ye are our purifying 
preachers, so am I your worthy disciple, endowed with virtues and 
wealth. May ye develop me and this sacrifice (yajna) as well. 

25. I adore God, the Creator of the Earth and Sky, the Source of all 
Knowledge, the Embodiment of Splendour, the Sustainer of all the 
beautiful planets, the Centre of love, the object of praise by the Vedas, 
and their Revealer. His lofty effulgent Self is divulged in the created 
world. He has fixed the bright sun and the moon in their conduct. He 
is the wisest Actor. His mercy grants us happiness. O God I worship 
Thee as Bestower of happiness on mankind. May all mortals enjoy life, 
through Thee. May Thou grant life to all human beings. 

26. In the yajna, we should please the learned performer by 
offering him cash and kind. May the praiseworthy brilliance of the sun 
make me strong through its thousandfold abundance. O wise person, 
may we also obtain the riches, which thou hast secured through thy rule 
over the earth. Just as I accomplish the sacrifice through noble, pure 
sentiments, earn gold with gold, attain to salvation through immortal 
knowledge, so may thou. 

27. O king, famous for eloquence, brilliance, enmity to fraud, 
antagonism to the thoughtless, pleasing manners, dexterity, defeating the 
designs of the ill-minded, friendship, and the art of befriending others, 
with longing for delight, come into us. 

May thou, with a beautiful and healthy body, and endowed with all 
cherished objects, enjoy enviable happiness. These intelligent and faith- 
full subjects and servants, who all round protect you, should be protected 
by you to ward off your enemy from doing injury unto you. 

24. A learned person asks another learned person 'What is the share of the sacrifice 
allied with vedic verses in Gayatri, Trishtup and Jagati metres. His answer is embodied in 
this mantra 'He' refers to the learned person. Vedic verses in different metres like Gayatri, 
Trishtup, Jagati and Ushnik etc. are recited during the performance of a yajna. 

Ft. Jai Chand, Vidya Alankar of Ajmere, has in his commentary translated Gayatri as 
alluding to the Brahmanas, Trishtupa to the Kshatriyas and Jagati to the Vaishas. 


28. Oh God, dissuade me from sin, and establish me firmly in 
righteousness. May I enjoy the pleasures of final beatitude by leading a 
long and virtuous life. 

29. May we tread the path free from sin, and full of delight, by 
which a wise man overcomes all carnal pleasures, and gathers wealth. 

30. O God, Thou art the protector of the Earth, O Mighty Lord, 
Thou fixed the Earth in its Orbit. Thou Controllest the Sun. Thou 
hast created the beautiful sky. O Lord of all, thou fixest in space all 
the worlds. All these are the works of Him alone, so do we know. 

31. We should worship God, who hast created the sky over the 
forests, put speed in horses, milk in cows, intellect in hearts, gastric juice 
in men, sun in heaven, and medicinal plants like Soma in the mountains. 

32. O God, where resplendent through Thy qualities of knowledge, 
Thou art known by the learned, and where Thou Greatest lustrous eyes, 
the instruments for seeing the sun and fire, there we worship Thee. 

33. Let man and woman, who study the vedas kill not their 
heroes, are limited in resources, be ever joyous, who live together and 
are fit to bear the burden of domestic life, be united together in married 
life. May such couples visit the houses of religious persons and give 
them happiness. 

34. O learned man, the Lord of Earth, thou art my gracious 
helper. Fly happily to all the stations in our well overhauled aeroplane. 
Doing so, let not thieves, robbers, and malignant opponents meet thee. 
Fall like a falcon upon such foes. Go to the houses of religious persons, 
situated in distant parts of the world. 

30. The Mantra can similarly be interpreted for sun and air instead of God. Maharshi 
Dftyananda has given two interpretations to this verse, one for God, and the other for sun and 

31. The creation of the sky over mountains means the pouring of rain over them for 
their growth. 

32. God is universal and ubiquitous so He should be worshipped everywhere. He has 
created everywhere the sun, fire, and eyes, and so He is adorable by us at all places. 

33. Mahidhar and Ubbat have referred this mantra to a pair of oxen. Maharshi 
Dayananda uses SRJ^in place of 3R^ the usual text as observed in al I edition**. *H5^ has been 
translated by Rishi Dayananda 3l3Slfa^i.e., limited. Mahidhar translates Uff^ as those who 
weep not. 

34. In this verse, we are instructed to construct aeroplanes, and visit thereby the 
distant places of the world, add to our wealth by commerce, keep our foes away, and lead a 
happy and comfortable life,, 


35. Do homage unto God, the Friend of all, Ever Pure, and Res- 
plendent. Worship the true nature of the Mighty God. Sing praises 
unto God, the Purifier of all radiant objects, the Omniscient, the Embodi- 
ment of virtues, and the Exhibitor of distant objects. 

36. O God, Thou art the Director of this fine world ; the Creator 
of objects dependable on air, and the Force inherent in the sun for the 
motion of waters, the stay and support of all excellent objects. O Lord, 
Thou makest us reach the destination of true and high knowledge. 

37. O God, just as learned persons, utilize Thy created objects by 
Oblations, so should we utilize all of them. Thy Yajna is the advancer 
of our progeny, wealth and houses, dispeller of diseases, bestower of 
heroes, remover of the idlers and cowards from amongst us, and giver of 
happiness in manifold ways, may that conduce to our benefit. O learned 
persons, may ye perform this yajna, and live happily in your houses. 


1. Oh oblation, thou art the body of fire, I accept thee for the com- 
pletion of sacrifice. Thou art the material of all the created objects in 
the universe, I use thee for the purification of air. Thou art the source 
of reception of the unexpected guest, I accept thee for the acquisition of 
knowledge. Thou art fast in speed like the falcon, I put thee into the 
fire, I accept thee, the source of happiness for the learned and active 
worshipper. I accept thee as giver of wealth, knowledge, action and all 
noble qualities. 

2 O Yajna, thou art the creator of fire. Ye (sun and air) are the 
cause of rain. Thou art the source of manifold comforts, the giver of 
life, and the instrument for preaching the shastras. 

O fire I kindle thee with the verses in Gayatri metre, with the 
verses in Trishtup metre, and with the verses in Jagati metre. 

3. O teacher and disciple, be ye for us of the same one thought, 
free from sin, and conversant with the knowledge of the vedas. Harm 
not the sacrifice, harm not the sacrifice's lord, the worshipper. Be kind 
to us this day. 

4. The learned disciple of the experts in vedic lore, the protector 
against violence, the master of the science of electricity, the giver of 
pleasure, the expositor of the different branches of knowledge, and the 
enemy of indolence, enjoys life happily. He, endowed with noble quali- 
ties, grants us in this world knowledge and provisions for performing 
Havan. Let us go to such a man. 

5. O God, Thou art my Protector against violence. I take Thee as 
my Sovereign Lord, as the Guardian in all directions, as the Giver of 
sound body, as the Embodiment of strength, and the Securer of valiant 

Through God's grace, may I easily attain to truth and invincible, 
irresistible, inviolate and invulnerable strength of the learned. Set me 
O God on the path of virtue. 

1. The performance of Havan, by means of fft: 'oblation* of clarified butter and 
'provisions 1 contributes to our wisdom, knowledge, activity and good qualities. 

2. Verses in Gayatri, Trishtup and Jagati metres are recited when fire is ignited in a 

5. This mantra has been interpreted by Swami Dayananda Saraswati for lightning ai 


6. O God, Thou art the Guardian of religious vows, may I be com- 
petent to fulfil my vows under Thy guidance. May Thy vast power rule 
over me, and may my power remain under Thee. O Protector of the 
vedas, may our pledge of continence be fulfilled in toto. May the Lord of 
Consecration, persuade me for initiation. May the Lord of penance induce 
me to take a vow of austerity. 

7. O resplendent God, may Thy each pervading force advance the 
glorious soul, that longs for the sole wealth of knowledge. May the soul 
glorify Thee, may Thou advance the soul. May Thou, Friend to all, 
advance us by means of God-reaching intelligence. O Mighty God, May 
I attain with pleasure to Thy beatitude. 

May we obtain the longed-for wealth for food and success. Let us 
receive truth from those whose speech is truthful. Let as receive food 
from Heaven and Earth. 

8. O fire, thy force which is present in metals like gold, in all the 
spheres like the sun and in lightning; is vast and deep. It creates an 
awful and formidable sound ; and is powerful to emit invigorating utter- 
ances. That force is present in every object. 

9. O fire, for me thou art the home of all fixed objects. For me 
thou art the gathering place of wealth. Protect me from dictatorship. 
Protect me from fear. 

May physical fire attain to water in the space. May fire with the 
names of Angira and Ayu approach us. The fire which is in the Earth, 
I kindle with its inviolate, holy lustre in the yajna. 

May physical fire attain to water in the space. May fire with the 
names of Angira and Ayu approach us. The fire which is in the space, 
I kindle with its inviolate, holy lustre in the yajna. 

May physical fire attain to water in the space. May fire with the 
names of Angira and Ayu approach us. The fire which is in the sky, 
I kindle with its inviolate, holy lustre in the yajna. 

May we utilize the sacrificial fire for the acquisition of good 

10. O speech, thou pronouncest words and overawest foes, attain to 
the learned. O speech, thou art the dispeller of ignorance, and remover 

6. *ft (Our) refers to the vows of celibacy and cootinaoce taken by the teacher and the 
disciple. JftQT means initiation into a sacred vow. 

9. Fire is named Angira, as it pervades all the organs of the body. It is named Ayu, 
as it is the giver of heat and life. Without it there can be no life or existence. 


of evils, purify the religious-minded people. O speech, thou art the 
destroyer of ignoble character and the subduer of mean demeanour, 
aborn thyself for the well-behaved learned persons. 

11. O speech, may the teaching of God's revealed vedas, protect 
thee in the east with Vasu Brahmcharis, may the highly intellectual people 
guard thee in the west with the Rudra Brahmcharis ; may the deep 
thinkers protect thee in the south with the wise, may the learned 
persons guard thee in the north with Aditya Bramcharis. 

Let us banish from our sacrifice, i.e., soul and body, the hot un- 
healthy water, anger, anxiety and anguish. 

12. O speech, thou art the dispeller of ignorance. O speech, 
hallowed by astronomy, remover of the weakness of ferocity, thou des- 
cribest the twelve months of the year. Thou, attained to by the seekers 
after God and the vedas, by the heroes expert in military science, art 
the remover of unwisdom. Thou art the remover of thieves and robbers, 
and the giver of noble offspring, and abundant wealth. Thou art the 
killer of all miseries. Endowed with knowledge, thou makest the 
worshipper obtain good qualities. 

I utilise thee through sacrifice (yajna) for the good of humanity. 

13. Oh learned people ye should develop the yajna. which is firm 
and develops the objects residing on the earth, which confers happiness 
and imparts the knowledge of sacred lore and develops the dwellers in 
the air, which affords shelter to indestructible objects, and diffuses 
knowledge ; which replenishes lightning and the beasts. 

14. The sages, who consecrate their soul to Him, concentrate 
their mind and intellect upon God, who is Omnipresent, Omnipotent, and 
Omniscient. They sing His praises in various ways. He is the sole 
Knower of all good acts, and self-existing. Great is the praise of Him, 
the Creator and Seer of all. He is the preacher of Truth. 

15. He who pervades the animate and the inanimate worlds, has 

11. Speech means vedic text 

12. Just as the science of astronomy explains the creation of the twelve months of the 
year by the motion of heavenly bodies, so does speech describe the creation, and climatic 
nature of these twelve months. 

13. The yajna contributes to the growth of inmates of the earth and air by purifying 
the air and water and growing corns and grass for the use of men and animals. It adds to 
our knowledge by the recitation of the Vedic texts which accompany it. 

15. ifw may refer to Satva, Rajas and Tamas. Gcd exhibits his might in the world in 
these three forms. It may also refer to earth, air and sky. It may also refer to sun full of 
brightness, to earth devoid of light, and minute atoms. 


created the visible and invisible worlds, and has established His dignity in 
three ways. His invisible form is hidden in the space. He is worthy of 
worship by all. 

16. O, Omnipresent God, Thou preservest on all sides, with know- 
ledge, this earth, rich in nice food, rich in good milch-kine, and full of 
elements and compounds. Thou preservest the vedic speech and the 
created-world. We all implore for the whole world to Him, who is 
All-knowing and chastiser. 

17. O man and woman, having acquired knowledge from the learned, 
proclaim amongst the wise the fact of your intention of entering the 
married life. Attain to fame, observing the noble virtue of non-violence, 
and uplift your soul. Shun crookedness. Converse together happily. 
Living in a peaceful home, spoil not your life, spoil not your progeny. In 
this world, pass your life happily, on this wide earth full of enjoyment. 

18. I describe the mighty deeds of Omnipresent God, Who unifies 
the different parts of the physical cause of the universe, Who preaches 
all truths through the Vedas, Who creates the three-fold worlds in the 
space, Who keeps under His control matter the highest cause, and Who 
is resorted to for worship. O God, I hastily seek Thy shelter, Who is 

19. O Omnipresent God, fill both of our hands with riches from all 
sources like electricity, earth, and vast wide air's mid-region. Grant us 
pleasures from the right and the left. We worship Thee for the know- 
ledge of yoga. 

20. God, in whose three-fold world reside all created objects, is 
praised for His power, like a dceadful, mountain-roaming tiger, that kills 
the despicable beings. He punishes the sinners, and preaches to all the 
vedic knowledge. 

21. O World thou art created by God, O animate and inanimate 
objects ye are the two-fold pure .powers of God, O Air, thou art wide- 
spread through God's strength. O soul, thou art ever immortal through 

20. This verse means, just as a lion keeps under his control other beasts, so does God 
regulate all the created worlds. The adjectives used in the verse are applicable to God aa 
well. He is ijiT : as he controls all living being*. He is ifta* as all men are afraid of Him. 
He is f^SK: as He chastises all the sinful and wicked people. He is flrffar. as He is sung and 
praised in the vedas. SR3, TSffi and flTTO are the three-fold varieties of creation, or Earth, 
Sky and Space, constitute the three-fold world in which all living creatures have their 

21. In this verto a learned man speaks to an ordinary person to follow him, and do at 
he does. 


God's grace. O complete universe, thou art created by God. O man I 
ordain thee to worship the All-pervading God. 

22. O man, just as I perform the sacrifice fyajna) in this world of 
God, the Creator of the universe, by the force and strength of vital 
breaths, and the earth's power of attraction and retention, so do thou. 
Just as I observe the details of the performance of the sacrifice, so do thou. 
Just as I cut the necks of the sinners and punish them, so do thou. Just 
as I through this yajna, attain to eminence, and become a big preacher 
of the vedas, so do thou. Just as I preach to the king the lofty teachings 
of the vedas. so do thou. 

23. O learned man, just as I with the aid of vedic speech, the 
Killer of fiends and infuser of strength, perform the invigorating 
sacrifice, so do thou. Just as my wise, and able man, expert in the 
science of yajna, performs the sacrifice or unearths this place to test it 
geologically, so shouldst do thy man. 

Just as I a geologist resort to strength-giving agriculture and the 
science of geology, so do thou. Just as my equal and unequal man 
geologically digs a place, so shouldst do thy man. Just as I a learner and 
teacher, perform the sacrifice, the giver of soul-force or practise this act 
of reading and teaching, so do thou. Just as my similar or dissimilar 
companion regularly performs this sacrifice so shouldst do thine. 

Just as I, the friend of all, perform this yajna, the giver of kindly 
power, or have recourse to the science of geology, so do thou. 

Just as my contemporary or non-contemporary performs this noble 
deed, so shouldst ever do thine. 

Just as I perform noble and virtuous deeds, so do thou. 

24. O king, thou art self-effulgent, hence thou art the conqueror 

23. Swami Day ananda translates Rmf^ as infuser of strength, Ubbat and Mahidhar 
translate the word as the killer or remover of I5HT I ttft is translated as bones, hair, and nails 
buried in the ground as magic to do injury to an opponent. This verse is interpreted for 
digging out and removing that magical charm. A story has been coined by Mahidhar, that 
the Rakshsaa were defeated by Indra, and they buried the magical charm i.e., WSfTT underneath 
the ground one hand deep. To me this interpretation appears irrational, as the vedas are 
free from historical references, being the eternal word of God, given to mankind in the begin- 
ning of creation. 

Swami Dayananda rightly interprets ^WI3HH as forceful vedic speech. The underlying 
spirit of the verse is that one should follow the rule of conduct of the learned and not the 

fWR? means equal in wealth, position and knowledge and IIWJH: are those who differ 
in these things. 


of foes. Thou art renowned in sacrifices, hence thou art the subduef 
of the proud enemies. Man's ruler art thou, hence thou art the slaye* 
of fiends. All ruler art thou, hence thou art the killer of foes. 

25. O members of an Assembly, just as ye are the removers of 
miseries, so I, the diffuser of the force of foes, having paid my homage 
to ye, devoted people, set right these proud people by arms in the battle. 
Just as ye are the killers of the sinners, so I, the scanner of the forces 
of the enemy, having made ye, devoted people, comfortable, turn aside 
the ignoble people. Just as I, the arranger of the troops indifferent 
orders, fill with ease, ye, the destroyers of foes and performers of sacri- 
fices, so do ye. Just as ye the killers of foes and acquirers of strength, 
receive the worshipper and the learned priest, so do I. Just as ye the 
destroyers of foes, and acquirers of strength, know through reasoning 
the ways of the learned, and the knowledge pertaining to God, so should 
I. Just as ye all are worshippers of All pervading God, so am I. 

26. O learned man, in this world created by the happinsss-bestow- 
ing God, I receive thee with the force and strength of vital breaths, and 
the arm and power of punishment of a fully developed hero. 

Protecting this world, I behead the sinners, Thou hast the power 
of imparting virtue and removing vice. Remove from us our haters and 
enemies. For the exposition of Truth, for flying in air, for consolidating 
our material forces, we seek thy refuge. 

This is the abode of the learned. May all who reside near them 
make themselves pure. O woman thou also behave likewise. 

27. O highly learned man, just as air with its definite strength, 
and vital breaths moves thee, so kindly discriminate for us the light of 
knowledge from ignorance ; fill full the space, and preaching noble vir- 
tues on Earth, strengthen delights. Strengthen the knowledge of the 
Vedas, strengthen our kingdom, strengthen our age, aud strengthen our 
offspring. I consider thee as the source of spiritual knowledge, earthly 
power, and vast riches. 

25. In this verse a learned man addresses the members of an assembly or Parliament. 
The gist of this verse is that through the worship of God, having acquired physical and spiritual 
strength, and subduing our foes, we should rule peacefully and calmly. 

26. A king addresses a learned man in this verse. We should purify ourselves in the 
company of the learned. 

27. Here too a king addresses the learned person. 

To fill the space full means to enable us to fly freely in the air. 


28. O wife of the worshipper, just as thou with thy offspring and 
cattle, art firm in thy resolution, in this world ; so should this husband 
of thine be determined in his purpose. Both of you should fill the 
Heaven and Earth with fragrance of clarified butter. 

Thou art the guardian of glory, and the shelter of all people. 

29. O Adorable God, may all my praises be directed unto Thee. 
O God, wise like the aged, may my lovable ever increasing praises be 
soft and sweet. 

30. O God, Thou unitest the soul with Thee, Thou art the re- 
fuge of the soul, Thou art the friend of the soul. Thou art the receptacle 
of all noble virtues. 

31. O God Thou art Omnipresent, and fit to take the burden of 
the world. Just as fire carries up in a rarefied form the articles put into 
it, so dost Thou diffuse all knowledge. Thou art All-knowing, and 
Thou Teacher of all, Thou art Omniscient, and Developer of wisdom. 

32. O God, Thou art Effulgent, Wise, hostile to the sinners, ene- 
my of thraldom, the Unifier and Protector of all. Thou art fit for service 
by us. Thou art Pure and Purifier. Thou art a Just Ruler ; and the Prop of 
the weak. Thou art adored in Assemblies. Thou art the Giver of holiness, 
the Chastiser of thieves and robbers and Bestower of joy. Thou givest 
us strength to endure pleasure and pain ; and grantest us splendour. 
Thou art the abode of Truth, and Giver of lustre to the sky. 

33. O God, Thy knowledge is fathomless. Thou art Omnipresent, 
and Unborn. Thou boldest the universe with a part of Thy Energy. 
Thou art the Master of all forms of knowledge ; and the Source of 
Universe. Thou art the highest Teacher 5 and full of splendour, Thou 
art the asylum of all. Ye two gates of knowledge do not distress me. O 
Lord of religious paths, lead me onward, through religious ways. May I 
be happy in this God-reaching path. 

34. O learned persons full of knowledge and inculcations, look 

28. Husband and wife are asked to perform the yajna daily, and fill the heaven and 
earth with the fragrant smell of ghee used in it. 

,33. qqntf^ may also mean, the one and sole protector. The two gates of knowledge are 
external and internal happiness, i.e., physical and mental ease. If one's physical health 
is lost, he can't advance his knowledge, and same is the case when one's mental peace is 
disturbed. These are the two sources for the acquisition of knowledge. A devotee prays 
for physical and mental health. Lord of religious path is the learned person who shows 
the true path. God -reach ing path is the path of salvation, on which the wise and th$ 
learned tread. 


upon me with the eye of a friend. May ye preach knowledge. O learned 
people protect me with your air-force and renowned army, that make 
the enemy weep. O learned person fill me with wisdom and virtues, 
and guard me on all sides. Unto thee be my adoration. Do not 
injure me. 

35. O Splendid God, Thou art the light and fine illuminator of 
all the learned persons. Thou art the controller of the sins committed 
by us and others, and those who practise hatred. Let the man possess- 
ing a fine home, good speech and vast knowledge know the vedas. 

36. O God, the Master of all, and the Giver of all kinds of 
happiness, and the knower of all of our actions and thoughts, lead us to 
salvation through the path of virtue. Keep away from us all crooked 
sins. We offer Thee most ample obeisance. 

37. May this General, the queller of the sinners like fire, give us 
protection. This General expert in military skill, should in the battle 
first attack and subdue the wicked foes. May he win all wars. May he 
conquer foes. May he come out successful in combats, issuing necessary 
administrative orders. 

38. O General, attack the enemy with full force > and give ample 
room for our abode. O learned General, just as fire assimilates ghee and 
burns brightly -, so shouldst thou develop thy virtues and shine in battles. 
Just as priests protecting the worshipper make him overcome all 
calamities, so shouldst thou with thy oratory win battles. 

39. O learned person, the propagator of all kinds of knowledge 
and full of splendour, this is thy glory, protect it, let jtione harm thee. 
O king, the giver of happiness, and leader of men on the path of virtue, 
and hence well established in the diffusion of knowledge, go thou to the 
sages. Abiding by this advice, just as I deliver the wise persons from 
the noose of the despicable knaves ; so shouldst thou. 

40. O learned teacher, thou art the guardian of my vow. Let thy 
vast knowledge be mine. Let my learning be subordinate to thee. Let 
my wisdom depend upon thine. O Lord of vows, let our vows of noble 
conduct be accomplished friendly. O lord of initiation, teach me truth. 
O lord of austerity, teach me to lead an austere life. 

39. The verse is a kind of dialogue between a learned person and a king* The 
learned person advises a king to seek the company of the learned, and the king replies that 
he protects the wise and the learned from the baneful influence of the wicked parson*. 

40. The disciple addresses the teacher. Our refers to the disciple and the Guru. 


41. O learned person, mayest thou be conversant with all branches 
of knowledge, for the vast development of learning. Give us happiness. 
Drink thou the water, the precursor of whifch is lightning. Just as I 
make the worshipper overcome all obstacles, so shouldst thou be totally 
free from all ills, by the regular performance of Havan. 

42* O learned botanist, just as thou shun nest the foolish and 
seekest the company of the wise, so may I avoid the company of the 
enemies of the wise, and go to the wise. May I approach thee more 
learned among the learned but the humblest among the humble. Just as 
the learned long for thee for the acquisition of good qualities, so do I. 
Just as medicinal herbs, rendered fit for the yajna protect all, so do we 
for sacrifce hail thee, the remover of diseases, and the assuager of 

O learned person, just as I do not want to spoil this yajna, so 
shouldst thou not* 

43. Just as I gaze not at the sun, so shouldst thou not. Just as I 
disturb not the proper arrangement of things, so shouldst thou not. Just 
as I live on the earth in a spirit of friendliness towards all, so shouldst 

As a well-sharpened axe, gives splendour by the removal of enemies, 
so may this grant thee glory. 

O happy learned person, the master of forests, may thy dynasty 
increase, just as a tree does with its hundred roots. May our progeny 
increase in numbers, just as a tree does with its manifold boughs. 

41. A priest addresses a learned person. Lightning flashes before it begins to rain. 
It is the precursor of rain. Rain-water is the purest form of water. This verse is identical 
with verse thirtyeight of this chapter. The charge of repetition is unfounded as both the 
verses have different meanings. 

42. A disciple addresses a teacher ; or a seeker after knowledge addresses a learned 

43. This is a dialogue between a learned person and a worshipper. 


1. O king, just as the wise and aged persons, in this world, created 
by the Effulgent God, accept thee, with the force and strength of vital 
breaths, and attraction and retention of breath, the source of strength ; 
so do I. 

Just as I cut the throats of the sinners, so shouldst thou. 

Oking, thou hast the power of imparting virtue and removing vice, 
remove from us our despisers and foes. 

Just as I sanctify thee, the exponent of justice, for the display of 
knowledge, thee, the embodiment of truth, for spiritual advancement } 
thee, the administrator, for rule over the Earth ; so should these justice- 
loving people do. 

O king thou art a father unto thine subjects, rear them up. 

O Queen, thou also shouldst behave similarly. 

2. O king, thou art our leader ; thou putteth upon the path of 
rectitude, even the leaders of a high order. Know thou this art of 

God the creator will rule over thee. Just as the state officials 
anoint thee with sweet juices and flower-laden herbs, so should the 
subjects do. 

Thy first duty is to undertake the spread of knowledge and the 
administration of justice. 

Thy second duty is to propagate religious truths. Thy foremost 
duty is to strengthen thy rule over the Earth. 

3. O king we desire to reach all thy abodes, where the resplendent 
beams of adorable God's knowledge spread far and wide. 

In those very places, have the sages attained to the highest bliss 
of God. 

1. This verse is exactly similar to 5.26. The objection of repetition does not arise, as the 
Devatas and meanings of both the verses are different. The former is addressed to a general, 
the latter describes the qualities, an Acharya ought to preach to a king at the time of his 

3. A learned person preaches to a king. The king should arrange for such calm, quiet, 
healthy and comfortable places , whert the learned may resort to for peaceful meditation 
of God. 


I consider thee as the source of spiritual knowledge, e&ithly power, 
and vast riches. 

Advance the knowledge of the vedas, improve thy rule and military 
experts, prolong thy life, and advance thy progeny. 

4. O men study God's works of Creation, preservation and dis- 
solution of the universe ; whereby He determines His laws. 

Each one of us is His close-allied friend. 

5. The learned scholars of the vedas realise the lofty attributes of 
God, as the extended eye gazes at the sun. 

6. O king, thou art the repository of knowledge like a sage. 

The learned subjects obey thee in all directions. May riches fit for 
men be secured by this intelligent devotee. Thou art lustrous like the 
beams of the sun. 

May all people on the earth and all beasts of the forest be under 
thy control. 

7. O king, thou art the embodiment of noble qualities, and remover 
of the miseries of thy subjects. Thou protectest those who take refuge 
under thy shelter. May thy noble subjects be associated with learned 
persons, full of splendour and efficient to undertake the responsibility 
of government. Feel pleasure, and let thy subjects enjoy thy pleasurable 
precious riches. 

8. O rich sons, roam in knowledge and good training. O highly 
learned teacher, please accept the honestly earned money, we offer thee. 
O prince, thou art liked by the learned, I, a scholar of scriptures, release 
thee from the bondage of ignorance, be steadfast and firm in the 
acquisition of knowledge. 

9. O disciple, in this world created by God, full of splendour, and 
the Revealer of the Vedas, with the attributes of the Sun and moon, and 
with the retention and gravitation of the Earth, namely its hands I 
welcome thee. I lovingly initiate thee endowed with prosperity and 
peace in the Brahmcharya Ashram sprinkling thee with water and corn. 

8. In the first part of the verse the father addresses the sons and the teacher. In the 
latter part the teacher addresses the disciple. 

9. Uftpft: means the sun and moon. HtPQTOl means with qualities that work like arms. 
This is a figurative use of the word. The qualities of lustre and prevention of evil of the son 
and moon are referred to. Both give light, and conduce to our health and ward off diseases. 
tffa ^fWtaTtHJ qftKTClfttio *-?. The qualities of retention and gravitation are figuratively 
spoken of as earth's hands. In this verse the teacher addresses the pupil at the time of 
the ceremony of investiture of the sacred thread (yajnopavit). 


May thy mother, father, brother, friend and fellow students grani 
thee permission for my discipleship. 

For observing the vow of celibacy, I lovingly anoint thee in peace 
and prosperity. 

10. O pupil, thou art the purifier of water through yajna. May 
people purified by thy sacrifice enjoy pleasant waters, and substances 
obtained by virtuous means, as do the sages. 

Through my benediction, may all thy organs be devoted to the 
performance of the yajna along with the learned priests. 

May thy breath roam freely with the wind, and may thou be the 
performer of the yajna of the spread of knowledge. 

11. O performers of yajna and its supervisor fond of ghee as ye are, 
rear cows. Let each one of you regulate by purifying all pervading air 
the worshipper full of splendour, pleasure, born of wide space ; and 
understand his primary aim. Perform duly yourself the yajna with all its 
materials, and be one with the full observance of the details of the yajna. 

O giver of happiness through yajna, welcome with sweet words all 
the religious minded and learned persons who visit the yajna again and 
again, and establish the worshipper in the pleasure-giving yajna. 

12. O learned person, the diffuser of delight, behave not crookedly 
like a serpent, or proudly like a fool, or ferociously like a tiger. Food is 
ready for thee everywhere. Tread on the paths of truth and rectitude, 
just as shelterless persons without any conveyance feel happy when they 
teach a stream of water. 

13. O girls, just as women, endowed with noble qualities, pure, 
and highly educated are married to their deserving husbands, and serve 
them faithfully ; and educated husbands are married to worthy wives, so 
should ye be married ; and so shall we be joined in wedlock. 

14. O disciple, through various sermons, I enjoin upon thee to purify 
thy voice, thy breath, thy eye, tKy ear, thy navel, thy penis, thy anus ; 
and all thy dealings. 

15. O disciple, through my teaching, let thy mind be filled with 

10. Roaming freely of the breath with wind means, yottr breath should be tall of force 
and strength like the wind. 

14. The teacher addresses the student, advising him to keep all the organs of his body 
and mind pure, healthy, and free from evil desires. 

15. In the last portion of the verse the wife of the teacher addresses her husband and 
he addresses her. 


noble qualities, thy voice and breath be strong, thy eye clear in vision, 
thy ear quick of hearing. Let thy evil designs be removed, and thy 
intentions fulfilled. Let all thy doings be pure, and may thou daily 
derive happiness. 

O exalted teacher, guard this disciple, and spoil him not through 
fondness and wrong teaching. O noble teacheress, protect this girl, and 
chastise her not uselessly. 

16. O sinner, demons pay homage unto thee. Get out ye evil 
spirited. I stand before such a devil for dishonouring him, rather I 
chastise such a despicable fellow with great disgust. I carry such a 
satan to the lowest depth of distress. O disciple, the discriminator 
between virtue and vice, and cultivator of goodness, understand all the 
intricate problems, fill the Earth and Sun with water rendered pure 
through thy yajna. Let the learned person know thy yajna performed 
with clarified butter. Let the Earth and Sun filled with the greasy 
substance of Homa attain to the air which carries up the water purified 
by thy yajna. 

17. Ye masters of knowledge, just as waters purify us, so do ye 
wash away this indescribable sin and ignorance of mine. O learned 
persons keep me away from the vice of false malice, and accusation of 
the innocent. May noble, virtuous deed save me from sin. 

18. O warlike hero, may thy mind in battle be filled with know- 
ledge, and thy breath be united to life's force. O hero, thou art the 
killer of foes. May the fire of righteous indignation created by battle 
mature thee. Facing millions of the army of enemies, let not the heat 
generated by battle disturb thee. 

May thou get refreshing drinks to fight in war with the velocity 
of wind, and speed of the sun. 

19. Oh warriors, drinkers of water, drink refreshing water. O 
warriors expert in statesmanship, follow the policy of heroic action. 
O general, thou shouldst stop the foes in the air. With thy martial 
and commanding voice spread thy soldiers in all regions, by-regions, 
fore-regions, back-regions, and regions in which the enemy goes, and 
conquer the foes, by slaying their warriors. 

20. O destroyer of the strength of the enemy, O general endowed 
with beautiful knowledge, shine forth in the battle-field subduing all 

16. This verse condemns vice and upholds virtue. The disciple is advised by the 
preceptor to purify water and air through the daily performance of yajna, spread them over 
the Earth and send them up to the Sun. 


thy foes, as the in-going breath pertaining to our soul, overcomes all 
other breaths in every part of the body. 

Just as Udsn breath permeates all our organs, so do thou O general 
shine forth in the battle leading all your warriors. Let thy diverse 
forces in uniform gather together in large numbers. O general, may all 
warriors behave friendly towards thee for thy protection. May thy 
mother, father and relatives be pleased to see thee moving in the midst 
of warriors. 

21. O disciple, a student in the science of government, sail in 
oceans in steamers, fly in the air in aeroplanes, know God the Creator 
through the vedas, control thy breath through yoga, through astronomy 
know the functions of day and night, know all the Vedas, Rig, Yajur, 
Sama, and Atharva, by means of their constituent parts. 

Through astronomy, geography, and geology go thou to all the 
different countries of the world under the sun. Mayest thou attain 
through good preaching to statesmanship and artisanship, through medical 
science obtain knowledge of all medicinal plants, through hydrostatics, 
learn the different uses of water, through electricity understand the 
working of ever-lustrous lightning. Carry out my instructions willingly. 
May the smoke of thy yajna and military machines reach the sun, and 
may their flames go up to heaven ; and may thou cover the earth with 
the ashes, the residue of thy yajna. 

22. O praiseworthy king, do not destroy canals, wells, tanks, corn 
fields and forests. Protect us at every place. O Justice-loving king, we 
take a solemn vow that cows and learned Brahmans whom thou declarest 
to be unworthy of destruction, will not be killed by us. We will stick 
to this resolve and so shouldest thou. 

O king, in thy rule, may waters and medicines be friendly to us, 
and unfriendly to him who dislikes us or whom we dislike. 

23. O learned persons, see that these waters contribute to your 
purity, comfort and usefulness. Air can be used and abused. May 
pleasure-promoting yajna grant us happiness, may the sun give us health 
and comfort. 

24. O virgins, I set ye down in the assembly of learned bachelors. 

21. Angas are th constituent parts of the vedas. They are six in number sciences of 
pronunciation, fcWCT. rituals qpq grammar ozn^^I, etymology (H^'tf> astronomy vtflf^TCi prosody 
!Jte*?. Their study helps in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the vedas. 
HWfl may also mean with thy splendour, prestige, and agony caused in the heart of foe. 

24. The mistress addresses the girl pupils. 


Ye are cognisant of the diverse qualities of sun and lighting, ye know 
fully well the science of the control of breath, ye can make selection of 
learned husbands. 

Those of you, who after marriage live with husbands brilliant like 
the sun, and with you whom, live brilliant husbands, should both advance 
our domestic dealings. 

25. O virgins, just as we live with our husbands and perform the 
Havan, so do ye. Just as we impart instruction unto ye for mental 
peace, for discriminating between virtue and vice, for spreading happi-, 
ness, and acquiring brilliance like the sun, so do ye uplift the domestic 
life for the diffusion of all kinds of happiness. 

26. O noble king, like a father go near thy subjects, and let the 
subjects like sons come near thee to seek protection. Just as fire is 
kindled with wood-sticks, so hear my complaint and kindle justice. Let 
versatile, learned and noble-minded queens, like mothers, hear the 
complaints of women, and do justice unto them. 

You magistrates who distinguish justice from injustice, listen to our 

O supreme king, endowed with knowledge, hear like sacrificing 
learned persons, our requests made in an humble, laudatory tone. 

27. O noble and virtuous subjects, select as your king for the 
benefit of the learned persons and Brahmcharis who preserve their 
semen, one, born out of you, who is high like the flood in water, fit for 
service with food, endowed with strength, capable of subduing his foes, 
and completely capable of adding to the happiness of his kingdom. Ye 
too constitute a part of those learned persons. 

28. O farmer, thou art fit to cultivate the land, I uplift thee for 
the purification of space. Get waters from waters, and medicinal 
plants from plants. 

25. The mistress addresses her girl students. *NJTO[is the domestic life, the household 
yajna, which the newly married wife is asked to advance and uplift through her devotion, 
piety and sagacity. 

28. A learned teacher addresses a cultivator. A farmer tills the land, and grows the 
plants. Those plants ^ftTOP are used for performing Agnihotra. The oblations being rare- 
fied rise up to heaven, fill the space Antriksha with vapours, purify the air, and descend 
down to earth in the form of pure rainy water, which again grows the plants. This is a 
natural process going on in nature ; aided by our yajna. Farmer is the main source of the 
growth of plants, whereby Yajnas are performed, which fill the space with vapours, which 
bring down pure rain, which again helps in the growth of plants. 


29. O King, whomsoever thou protectest in the battle and appoint- 
est for the supervision of food supply, deserves the award of a permanent 
pension for his maintenance. This is a proper rule. 

30. O my subjects, in this world created by God, the Giver of 
happiness and the Source of all splendour, I receive ye with the strength 
and coolness of the sun and moon, and the disease-killing, and bodily 
humours equilibrium maintaining qualities of the herbs. 

For me full of splendour, in a civilised manner, pay open-heartedly 
the tax which is highly useful, is levied on all your products, which 
conduces to efficient administration, which is utilized for the advance- 
ment of industries and improving the cattle breed. O my subjects, ye 
who take interest in the welfare of your king, deserve to be welcomed by 
me. Please me by paying your taxes. 

31. O subjects and legislators, satisfy my mind, satisfy my speech, 
satisfy my breath, satisfy my eye, satisfy my ear, satisfy my soul, satisfy 
my progeny, satisfy my cattle, satisfy my subordinate officers, so that 
my officers may not feel sad. 

32. O Lord, we appoint thee as a king, as thou possessest the 
vigour of a Vasu Brahmchari, as thou hast got the strength of a Rudra 
Brahmchari, as thou art full of splendour, full of knowledge like an Aditya 
Brahmchari, as thou hast the power of killing the proud foes, as thou art 
full of dignity, and art quick in attacking in the battle-field like a falcon, 
as thou strergthenest our finances, and advancest the knowledge of 

29. He who succeeds in the battle, rules over many persons whom he subjugates. 
Similarly one who is in charge of food-supply is the master of the destinies of thousands of 
persons who depend upon him for the supply of necessaries of life. 

30. A king addresses his subjects. He is described to prossess the strength and coolness 
of the sun and moon, spoken of as arnr>, and the healing properties of the herbs spoken 
of as hands. Just as medicinal plants remove our diseases, so does a king arrange for the 
maintenance of the health of his subjects by spending liberally on sanitation, and medical 
institutions . 

There are three affections or humours gTcTC: in our body ; i. e>. 3T?T, fftf, W t t.*. 
flatulence, bile and phlegm. The harmonious equilibrium of these maintains the body in a 
healthy state. The king advises the subjects to pay gladly the taxes imposed, which will 
be utilised for their advancement. 

31. The king addresses the subjects. 

32. A Vasu Brahmchari is one who observes the vow of celibacy for twentyfour 
years, one who remains celebate for 36 years and acquires knowledge is Rudra Brahmchari, 
and he who continues his studies observing celibacy for 48 years is called an Aditya 
Brahmchari. The verse means the king selected should not be voluptuous and slave to 
passions, but one who has duly observed the vow of celibacy and acquired knowledge. 


33. O king thy rule extends over Heaven, Earth and mid-air wide 
region. With that power show obligation to this worshipper who per- 
forms the yajna, and has recourse to measures conducive to the propaga- 
tion of national wealth. 

34. O ladies, ye are the possessor of practical wisdom, removers 
of all impediments, augmenters of wealth, helpers in the yajna, and 
lovers of your virtuous husbands. Fulfil this sacrifice of domestic 
life. Being invited taste with your husbands the sweet juice of the 
plants like Soma. 

35. O woman, full of physical and spiritual strength, be not afraid 
of thy husband, shake not with terror, cultivate the strength of your 
body and soul. O man, thou also shouldst behave similarly towards 
thy wife, ye both, like the sun and earth should become strong and re- 
solute ; whereby the shortcomings of ye both be removed, and ye become 
happy like the moon. 

36- O mother, love thy children, who run unto thee from east, 
west, north, south and all other directions; and they too should love thee. 

37. O mighty, glorious king, render thy subjects praiseworthy. 
Thou art the conqueror of foes. None but thee is the giver of pleasure. 
I say this unto thee. 


1. O man, for realising God, the Lord of Speech purify thy mind. 
Just as objects are purified by the rays of the sun, so purify thyself with 
the outward and inward powers of a strong king. Be a learned man, 
work pure-heartedly for the sages, who are adorable by thee. 

2. O superb man of knowledge, sweeten our foods. O learned 
preacher cf virtuous deeds, whatever well-known name free from harm, 
thou hast, for the acquisition of power and carrying out thy instructions, 
I attain to true deed, truthful speech and wide atmosphere of prosperity. 

3. O brilliant soul, self-made art thou, for all subtle and gross 
bodily organs, and for the learned that purify us like the beams of the sun. 
May knowledge and vedic lore be acquired by thee. 

O virtuous soul, I praise thee for thy nearness to God. Attain to 
that Adorable, Truthful God. Thou hast promptly crushed and killed the 
demon of ignorance. I extol thee for longevity and the acquisition of 

4. O aspirant after yoga, thou art the master of yamas and 
niyamas. Control thou the internal vital breaths, mind and organs. 

O rich lord, guard the supremacy emanating from yoga. Remove 
through the power of yoga all ills arising from ignorance, whereby thou 
mayest obtain supernatural power and the fulfilment of desires. 

5. O Yogi, I place in thy heart knowledge spacious like the sun 
and moon and mid air's wide region. Like a friend, acquiring learning 
from the sages, and practising internal austerities, gladden others with 
the preliminary and advanced usages of Yoga. 

6. O supreme yogi, thy soul is self-made and eternal. Thou art 
competent to cultivate all spiritual, mundane and physical forces. I 
instruct thee to follow the lustrolis usages of yoga, for exhibiting the 
practices of yoga like the sun, and for leading a pure and noble life by 
controlling breath. 

May thou an aspirant after yoga attain to a mind full of yogic 
concentration, and know the best course for the observance of truth. 

2. Through the grace and instructions of learned persons, one attains to the height of 
prosperity, truthful speech and true deed, Free from harm means fit to afford protection. 

5. God addresses a yogi. I means God. 

6. In this verse also God addresses a yogi. Just as the sun spreads lustre on the 
globe, so should a yogi teach the practices and systems of yoga to others. 


7. O yogi, the cultivator of purity, and expert in the practices of 
yoga, adorn thyself with the manifold definite virtues of mental peace 
and contentment. O yogi, the possessor of diverse qualities, I send unto 
thee the hunger-allaying food. O elevator of the soul through yoga, 
thou possessest the yogic power to protect the pure yogis. I instruct 
thee to practice such a yoga. 

8. O student and teacher of yoga, these created pleasant objects 
like water etc. long for ye both. Come with them. O aspirant after 
yoga, thou hast been accepted with yogic yamas and niyamas, by the 
teacher of yoga, for acquiring the knowledge of the animate aud inani- 
mate objects through the power of yoga 

O teacher of yoga, this yoga is like your pain-dispelling house. I 
long for thee, well versed in the practice of yogic concentration, and the 
student of yoga, full of qualities necessary for yoga. 

9. O student and teacher of yoga, the augmenters of true know- 
ledge, living in unison like the vital breaths the Pran and udan, here is 
this your accomplished supremacy of yoga, Listen to my praise. O 
worshipper, thou art endowed with noble traits, I welcome thee, who 
controls the vital breaths, the Pran and Udan. 

10. O learnd persons, the discriminators between right and wrong, 
ye and we, should be delighted with acquirable riches, just as cows are 
with grass. O noble and friendly souls, ye both give us daily the speech 
that rightly teaches us the knowledge of yoga. O worshipper, this 
knowledge of yours is thy shelter like a house. We welcome thee along 
with the observers of Truth. 

11. O student and teacher of yoga, resplendent like the sun and the 
moon, desire to develop yoga by your sweet and dawn-like pleasant 
speeeh. O student of yoga, thou hast been welcomed for thy noble 
traits. This yoga of yours is a house unto thee for comfort. 

We approach thee, well versed in yogic laws of the control of breath, 
and thy teacher, expert in the sweet practices and methods of yoga. 

7. In this verse God addresses a yogi. A yogi ought to be very careful fn his diet, 
He should take little but nourishing diet to satisfy his hunger. 

9. Mitra and Varuna are the disciple and teacher. The dhciple is spoken of as fofcf, 
and the teacher as g^uras he dispels the deficiencies and drawbacks of the disciple ; or the 
teacher may be considered as fJf5T being friendly and affectionate to his pupils, and the disciple 
as WT who cultivates virtues and shuns vices. 

10. fo3ra*on are the student and the teacher of yoga ; 3Kngn*l also means the teacber 
and the disciple who aspire after Truth. 


12, O yogi, thou art the master of all the branches of yoga. This 
yogic propensity of thine conduces to thy happiness. Through yoga, 
freed from the shackles of ignorance, thou art full of peace. Thou 
elevatest thy soul through various yogic practices. 

Like all the ancient sages and yogis and modern yogis, thou per- 
fectest the yoga, which is highly commendable, deeply seated in the soul, 
pleasure-giving, inimical to nescience, quick at success, elevating, 
victory-giving, and quiverer of bodily organs. 

Let the guardians of yogic force, and yogis resplendent with the 
power of yoga, instruct thee in yoga. Mayest thou be invincible through 
that yoga. Protect thou the manly power, which in turn will protect 

13. .O yogi, endowed with yogic force, cultivate noble traits, like 
an exalted hjro. Go to all places. Be friendly towards the charitably 
disposed person, who perfects his riches through charity. 

Thou art the mainstay of yoga, being full of mental peace, free from 
desire for passions, full of strength like the sun and earth, and purifier of 
all like the sun. 

14 O well mannered disciple desiring to learn yoga, we your 
teachers, are the givers for you of uninterrupted, chivalrous strength 
of the knowledge of yoga. 

May our preliminary method of teaching, acceptable to all, be 
accomodating to thee. May he, who is spiritually advanced and highly 
learned amongst us, be first of all friendly to thee. 

15. O pupils, just as a learned teacher, the protector of knowledge 
tries for advancement, so should ye, to be great, resort to truth and 
virtuous deeds. 

12. This verse clearly describes qualities and characteristics of a yogi. There is no 
ambiguity about its meaning. Mr. Griffith remarks "The text taken with a variation from 
R.V, 5.44.1 is hopelessly obscure." I find no obscurity in it. Mr. Griffith interprets 
Shanda as a demon for whom the cup is drawn, and then offered to a deity, whereas 
Mabarshi Dayananda interprets the word as 'full of peace.* A yogi is spoken of as invincible, 
but Mr. Griffith remarks ; 'The right hip of the high altar, on which the Adhvaryu deposits 
his cup is addressed and secured from the attacks of demons. 1 What sense is there in 
calling the hip of the altar as invincible. The interpretation of vedic mantras by Mr. 
Griffith is a meaningless jargon, the perusal of which shakens one's faith in the revelation 
of the vedas God does not utter nonsense in the vedas, which are full of sense, wisdom, 
knowledge and truth. A biased interpreter cannot arrive at the correct significance of 
vedic hymns. To him the plainest verse seems to be hopelessly obscure, which is highly 


Just as affable, sweet, high-minded, happy ladies, well versed in 
yoga, and a learned yogi, remain contented, so should yee, like them. 

16* O' skilful ruler, thou art equipped with army, the essential 
mainstay of kingship. I fix in its orbit, in the midst of spacious regions, 
this beautiful moon that covers the luminous stars, and is linked with 
the sun and the waters that it attracts. Just as learned persons wisely 
and respectfully accept a young pupil, so do I accept thee for curbing the 
sinful and establishing the code of morality. 

17. O' skilful ruler, this art of government is thy mainstay. Just 
as thou, master of wealth, and protector of thy subjects, and the wise 
people of thine, both perform Havan with alertness, and determined 
mind, and acting wisely contribute to the welfare of the state, so should 
each subordinate of thine, on the signal of thy finger, remove enemies 
from all sides. Let the wicked and agonising foe be cast aside. Protect 
thy subjects. 

Let the learned, who quell the foes, add to thy happineS5. O 
people protect the ruler that grants ye independence and fearlessness. 

18. O' ruler, having loyal subjects, whose maker art thou, fill with 
profuse wealth him who does noble deeds. Be thou patient like the 
Sun and Earth. Thou art the support of the just. With the moral 
power of thy justice, may the unjust be suppressed. 

19. In their majesty, eleven mighty substances reside in heaven, 
on the earth and in respiration. Just as they perform their functions 
faithfully, so should you the members of the House of the People, carry 
on the administration of the State with zeal and devotion. 

20. O' ruler, thou art an embodiment of humility and vedic lore, 
thou art the doer of laudable deeds, and worthy of respect. Protect 
the administration of justice. May the virtuous, and the learned 
protect thee. May thou fully protect the learned, and all works that 
contribute to prosperity. 

21. O' learned people, just as the amiable ruler purifies himself 

19. (a) The eleven substances in heaven are, Pran, Apan, Udan, Vyan, Saman, Nag, 
Kurma, Krikla, Dev Dutt, Dhananjya and soul. The first ten are the names of different 

(b) The eleven substances on the earth are Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Space, Sun, 
Moon, Stars, Ego (31JW) and Mahat Tatva (H^Tccf), Intellect, the second of the 25 principles 
of the Sankhyas and matter. 

(c) The eleven substances in respiration are, Ear, Skin, Eye, Tongue, Nose, Speech, 
Hands, Feet, Anus, penis and mind. 


for knowing God and the veda, tries to acquire military knowledge, 
makes strenuous efforts for the advancement of scholars and friends of 
learning, is eager to produce foodstuffs which add to our vitality, exerts 
for the collection of medicines and canalizing waters, desires for the 
light of the sun and improvement of all material objects, avoids vice to 
acquire virtue, so should ye and other citizens do. O ruler, successful 
administration is thy aim. We honour thee for the betterment of the 
learned, and noble qualities of thine. 

22. O General, I appoint thee, well versed in knowledge, the doer 
of valorous deeds, advanced in age, full of dignity, expert in the know- 
ledge of arms, as Commander-in-chief of the forces. I direct thee to 
lead a grand life. I advise thee to be God-fearing. The command of 
the army is thy foremost duty. I enjoin thee to preserve the interests 
of the state, to perform praiseworthy vedic acts, cultivate and preserve 
noble qualities. 

23. We elect thee as head of the state, for the betterment of 
our country's administration, for the protection of the learned, the 
friendly and noble souls. 

We elect thee for the promotion of political conferences, for the 
encouragement of the learned and lofty souls. 

We elect thee, for the promotion of engineering works, for 
establishing electrical power-houses, and for the advancement of 

We elect thee for making full use of electricity and water, for 
promoting industrial works, and spreading their knowledge. We elect 
thee, the master of the science of yoga, for the spread of literacy, and 
encouragement of the sages who preach religious truths. 

We elect thee, the gratifier of those who know God, for the 
promotion of scientific knowledge, lor the spread of theism and vedic 

22. In this mantra the head of the state is advised to appoint a man as Commander-in- 
chief who is the embodiment of knowledge, spirituality nnd valour. I refers to the head of 
the state. 

23. In this mantra the subjects have been asked to elect their own ruler, who should 
be imbued with knowledge and noble qualities, and devoted to improve the country industri- 
ally and mechanically. This mantra is a clear proof that the vedas preach democracy, and 
are against autocracy. 


24. Just as masters of the science of archery, who arc at the top 
of the learned, like the sun that stands highest in the atmosphere, know 
the qualities of ores inside the earth, are well known for their good 
behaviour in the path of righteousness, afford delight to all, and are 
respected by all like a guest, protect mechanical arts through their self- 
less life, establish the qualities of lustrous fire as a king establishes the 
greatness of his country in the world, so should all do. 

25. O' God, Thou art realised through spiritual knowledge, Thou 
art unchangeable, the earth rests in thee, Thou art firmest amongst the 
firm substances like sound and space, Thou art most immortal amongst 
the immortal, Thou art the fountain of the light of truth. I constantly, 
with a determined mind and voice accept Thee, as leader of humanity 
on the path of righteousness, and Creator of the universe. So now 
may Thou, the dispeller of all miseries, make our people all of one heart 
and mind, and free from foes. 

26. O' performer of yajna, thy substances collected for the yajna, 
go forth in air everywhere. The substances offered in the yajna, being 
purified are let loose from the clouds in the sky, and come down to the 
earth. I ask thee to perform that yajna, which is conducted by 
Adhvaryu, Hota, Udgata and Brahma, and carry out thy resolution with 
a stout heart and truthful speech. 

Thou art the exalted light for the learned. 

27. O' teacher, grow thou pure for my outward breath, and impart 
knowledge to me. O 1 giver of spirituality, grow thou pure for my 
spreading breath, and supply food to me. O imparter of knowledge grow 
thou pure for my upward breath and grant me prowess. O' preacher of 
truth, be attentive to my speech and eminence. O educator teach me 
as how to improve my soul-force and intellect, and how to acquire sound 
knowledge. O teacher of grammar, teach for my ear that catches sound, 
the relation of the words with their meanings and their use. O' learned 
guest and teacher teach me true principles. 

28. O teacher of yoga and knowledge of God, reveal thy soul-force 

24. Swami Dayananda gives the purport of this mantra as follows : 
Just as those who have the knowledge of the Dhanur Veda gain victory over their 
enemies by the use of fire in arms and planes, so should all others do. 

26. In this mantra God inculcates the yajman to perform the yajnas. Adhvaryu, Hota, 
Udgata, and Brahma are the custodians and conductors of the yajna with separate duties 
allotted to them, 


for my soul. O giver of knowledge, teach me yoga> for the amelioration 
of my soul. O' giver of strength, for my long life, give me the disease- 
killing medicine. O' learner and teacher of yoga, ye both strive for 
imparting noble qualities to my descendants. 

29. O' king, who art thou ? Who amongst us all art thou. 
Whose son art thou ? What is thy name ? We want to have thy know- 
ledge, and satisfy thee with wealth. 

I like the majesty of the Earth, the Space, and the Sun, desirous of 
my betterment, wish to have good subjects like you; be possessed of 
warlike soldiers like you, be vigorous by the use of life-giving substances. 

30. O King, thou art the master of the art of administration, we 
accept thee as our Lord, in all the twelve months of Chaitra, Vaisakha, 
Jyaishtha, Ashadha, Sravana, Bhadra, Asvin, Kartika, Margashirsha, 
Pausha, Magha, Phalguna months, and for the protection of us all. 

31. O Speaker and members of the Assembly, shining like the sun 
and fire, assemble together, and add to our immense pleasure through 
didactic discussions. Protect our welfare with your trained intellect. 

You have been initiated in the rules and duties of government. We 
realise your relation towards us. The art of administration is your she- 
lter. We explain this to you. 

32. The members of the Parliament, well versed in vedic lore, 
throw light on learning and science ; and overcast the sky uninterruptedly 
with planes. The President of the Republic is ever young, stout in body, 
friendly and imposing. Those brilliant and illustrious members take 
you as loyal subjects. Justice is your shelter. We teach you the above 
mentioned arts. 

29. This mantra is a dialogue between the king and his subjects. In the first part of the 
text the subjects question the ruler to know hjs identity. In the second half, the ruler replies, 
identifying himself completely with the men placed in his charge. 

30. The subjects accept the king as their ruler throughout the year, and the king accepts 
the subjects as his advisers for the whole year. This is the ideal of democracy. The ruler is 
elected vide vedic teaching. There is no vestige of autocracy, despotism or totalitarianism. 
The king is made and unmade. Chaitra is Mid March to Mid April. Vaisakh is April-May, 
Jyaishtha is May-June, Asbadh June-July, Sravana, July-August. Bhadra, August-September, 
Aswin, September-October, Kartika, October-November, Margashirsha. November-December, 
Pausha, December-January. Magha, January-February. Phalguna, February-March. 

31. We means the Speaker and members of the Parliament, and you the subjects. 
The text is a dialogue. In the first half, the people request the Speaker and members at 
the House of the People, and in the latter half of the text they reply. 


33. O' ye all learned people, the nourishers and preservers of 
humanity with noble qualities ; the imparters of knowledge, accept this 
son of a charitably disposed person as your pupil. 

O pupil, I accept thee as a seeker after knowledge. I instruct thee 
to serve all the learned persons, whereby thou mayest enlarge thy store 
of knowledge. I move the learned to impart good instructions to thee. 

34. O ye all learned people, come near us, hear our invocations. 
Seat yourselves upon this seat. O son, thou hast been accepted as a 
pupil by the learned, we hand thee over to them for acquiring know- 
ledge. Let the attainment of learning be thy aim. We desire thee to 
receive knowledge from them, 

35. O 1 ruler, the remover of our difficulties, worthy of praise, and 
guardian of the subjects, advance the cause of education in the universe, 
as thou hast drunk deep the essence of knowledge with thy efforts. 

O valiant king, under thy just rule, the wise and the learned, 
carry out thy sound policy. 

O king, thou hast been recognised for the protection of the subjects. 
We like thee for thy good relations with the subjects and thy august 
personality. The spread of education is thy foremost duty. We recog- 
nise thee as our ruler for thy good relations with the subjects and thy 
august personality. 

36. We learned persons accept as our ruler, thee, the introducer 
of new plans for our advancement, the master of loyal subjects, the 
embodiment of virtue, the most advanced in noble qualities and acts, 
the queller of the irreligious, the pure, the specimen of endurance, the 
master of prowess, and the helper and educator af all. 

As thou art the master of all laws big or small ; we accept thee, for 
having good subjects, and possessing supremacy. The administration of 
justice is thy duty. As thou art the master of all laws big or small, we 
accept thee for having good subjects and possessing supremacy. We 
accept thee as our head for enhancing the might of the people. 

37. O' Commander of the army, fearless in the extirpation of foes, 

34. We refers to the parents. 

35. Mahidhar and Griffith have wrongly interpreted STTOfa as the grandson of Manu 
and the son of Sharyati, as there is no mention to this effect in the Shatapath Brahman, and 
the Vedas are free from historical references. Rishi Dayananda translates it as through the 
exertion of hands and feet. 

37. I means God. In this text God asks the Commander of the army to do his duty 
faithfully and energetically. 


thou art accepted as head according to military laws. This exalted 
position is a source of inspiration for thee. 

I enjoin thee to prepare for war embodying the use of shooting 
weapons. I acknowledge thee as exerting utmost for the battle. Be 
thou friendly unto all, and lead thy soldiers. Just as the sun, imbibes 
the essence of all objects through air, so should'st thou realise the 
significance of all objects. Acquire knowledge, and suppress the 
opponents of truth and justice. Be victorious in the battle-field. Make 
all free from fear everywhere. 

38. Thou, head of the state, the conqueror of enemies, the lord of 
five classes of subjects under thy sway, and armies, strong in body and soul, 
take with thy meals, invigorating herbs, for pleasure and conquest. Fill 
thy belly with the sweet flow of well-cooked meals. Thou art the 
sovereign of all great deeds and requiring deep thought. Thou hast been 
initiated in the rules of administration ; we harness thee for battle involv- 
ing the use of arms and weapons. This battle is the source of thy 
prosperity ; hence we goad thee to that battle. 

39. O' God, Thou art attainable through yoga. Thy worship 
contributes to our good and advancement. We serve Thee to become 
great. Thou art Supreme, Come like a just leader. Thou impartest 
pleasure to humanity. Thou art coupled with temporal and spiritual 
knowledge. Through omniscience Thou knowest us all. Unlimited is 
Thy might. Thou art vast and Great. Noble souls take Thee as the doer 
of great deeds and full of splendour. Depending upon Thee, we are 
encouraged to be great through acts of prowess. 

40. O 1 Eternal, Omnipresent God, Thou art attainable through 
yoga, we resort to Thee for supremacy that results from yoga. This yoga 
performed for Thine attainment conduces to our welfare. Hence we 
worship Thee for emancipation. Thou art Great. Like the raining cloud, 
Thou art famous with the praises of the worshipper. Knowing Thee, the 
yogi attains to spiritual advncement. 

41. Just as rays exhibit the shining all-penetrating sun to the whole 
world, so do the learned, with truthful speech expatiate on God, All 
knowing, the light of all, for the benefit of humanity. 

42. God is wonderful, mightier than all the forces of nature and 
learned persons. He is the Displayer of air, water and fire. He is the 

38. Five subjects : Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishas, Sudras and Dasyus. 
We refers to learned persons expert in military arts. 


Protector of the Sun, Earth and Atmosphere. He is Resplendent, and soul 
of all that moves and all that moves not. Always worship Him alone. 

43. O f God, for the attainment of yoga, lead us on, through the 
path of yoga, to all the secrets of yoga. Whereby, we may offer Thee 
ample adoration through vedic texts. Thou, the Giver and Knower of 
Yoga, remove from us the sin resulting from the crookedness of our heart. 

44. This first warrior, the master of medical science, keeps us 
free from disease on the battle field. This second warrior, the destroyer 
of foes, marches forth on the battle field. This third warrior, the preacher, 
should encourage the fast moving brave soldiers. This fourth warrior, 
full of delight, should subdue the irreligious foes. 

45. O' people, just as I have attained to your beauty through my 
beauty ; so like the Omniscient God, the President of the State should 
fix ye in your respective duty. 

O head of the State, the encyclopaedia of knowledge, like the 
lustrous sun, through the path of righteousness, settle thy mature policy, 
and exert in unison with the members of the House of the People. 
O' ye rich persons, the givers of gold as remuneration lead a religious 

46. May I honour the Brahman, who knows God and the Vedas, is 
sprung from a laudable father and grandfather, is a sage himself, knows 
the knowledge imparted by the sages, is the fit recipient of rich guerdon, 
and is charitably disposed ; so should you approach the learned who 
possess noble qualities, acts, and attributes, are the bestowers of virtue 
on us, and learn good traits from them. 

47. O' teacher, I, thy pupil anxious to lead a life of Brahmcharya 
for 24 years have been handed over to thee by the learned. May I 
acquire knowledge. May the learned live long. Grant happiness to me, 
the seeker after knowledge. 

43. This verse is identical with 5*36, but has a different interpretation. 

44. In this text four kinds of warriors have been mentioned as necessary in war. One 
who is a medical man, and looks to the health of the soldiers. The other is a preacher, who 
with his eloquence keeps up the drooping spirits of the soldiers. The third scolds, chides and 
rebukes the foes. The fourth defeats the foes. Victory is won by the concerted action of all 
the four. This verse is identical with 5*37, but has a different interpretation. 

45. Rishi Dayananda writes in the purport of this mantra, that a king should organise 
three societies for effective administration of his rule, Raj Sabha, which should deal with the 
political affairs of the state, Vidya Sabha, which should spread educatidn, and Dharam 
Sabha, which should administer to the spiritual requirements of the people. 

46. I means the ruler, the head of the state, and you the people, the subjects. 

47. Three stages of Ifie are childhood, manhood and old age. 


O* teacher, the subduer of the wicked, I thy pupil, desirous of 
leading a life of Brahmcharya for fortyfour years, have been handed over 
to thee by the learned. May I learn the ways of achieving salvation, and 
my teacher the science of yoga. Grant me, the seeker after knowledge, 
the pleasure of the three stages of life. O illustrious teacher, I, thy pupil, 
desirous of leading a life of celibacy for forty-eight years, have been 
handed over to thee by the learned. May I enjoy the pleasure of know- 
ledge $ and my teacher feel comfortable both in heat and cold. Grant 
the plersure of full knowledge to me, the seeker after knowledge. O 1 
self-controlled, sinless, learned teacher, I, thy pupil, free from the 
pleasures of a married life, have been handed over to thee by the learned. 
May I attain to the pleasure of salvation > and my learned teacher 
acquire the knowledge of God and the vedas. 

Grant me, a student of thine the pleasure of a long life. 

48. Who bestows. Upon whom does he bestow ? God bestows. 
To soul is bestowed the fruit of its actions. 

God is the giver and soul the receiver. O 1 soul, for thy benefit, 
do I give this vedic instruction. 

48. I means God. 


1. O' Brahmchari, who hast observed celibacy upto forty eigtit 
years, I who hast led a life of celibacy for twenty-four years, select thee 
as my husband. Thou knowest the details of religious lore, dost possess 
an august personality. This domestic life contributes to thy prosperity. 
Protect it. May the arrows of Cupid never torment thee. 

2. O' glorious husband, thou never keepest anything secret from 
me, thou befriendest the charitably disposed person. O' laudable wealthy 
husband thou art learned. May thy gift of knowledge and riches reach me 
soon. I select thee as my husband, as thou art always a source of comfort 
for me. 

3. O' husband, thou art never neglectful, thou guardest both the 
present life, and the life to come. Thou shining like the sun, in know- 
ledge, if thou controllest thy organ of procreation, wilt derive perpetual 
pleasure in thy affairs. O' finisher of the fourth Ashrama (stage of life) 
I select thee as my husband for my perpetual happiness. 

4. Marriage of the learned couple is a source of pleasure. O noble 
persons may your fine intellect, that understands the significance of 
married life, make you well versed in knowledge after the completion of 
student life ; and teach you how to conduct truthful dealings, and tread 
on the path of virtue. May you conduce to the pleasure of the newly 
married couple, through the knowledge and teaching you receive from 
the learned. 

5. O' husband, the master of different sciences, may this married 
life, in which thou drinkest the juices of different medicinal herbs, always 
give thee pleasure. O entrants into married life, stick to truth, honouring 
the vows taken at the time of marriage. In a home, where the husband 
and wife fulfil honestly the duties of married life, is born a son, who 
fulfils your desires, is sinless, enterprising, earns riches and prospers. 

6. O f God, the fountain of happiness give us happiness today, 
tomorrow and on each day that passes ; whereby, with our refined 
intellect, we may perform noble deeds in our married life, full of beauty 
and manifold aspirations. 

7. O 1 husband, thou hast been united with me through the tics 
of marriage. Thou art the worshipper of God. Thou art the master 
of foodstuffs ; grant them to me. Safeguard your married life. I accept 
thee as the preserver of the yajna of our domestic life, the lord of riches, 
the pattern of beauty, and the progenitor of offspring. 


8. O husband, thou hast been united with me through the ties of 
wecjlock. Thou art the master of fine houses, and a man of position. I 
give well cooked food to thee, full of vitality. This is thy comfortable 
edifice. I accept thee as the giver of different kinds of comforts, I place 
thee in the company of the learned. 

9. O prosperous and handsome husband, thou hast been united with 
me through ties of marriage. Thou art the embodiment of gentleman- 
liness, the lord of wealth, the master of a loyal wife, and the son of a 
father, having the knowledge of the Vedas. May I prosper on all sides 
following the teachings received at the time of marriage. May I obtain 
the in: perishable knowledge that resides in the inmost recesses of the 
hearts of the learned. May I, receiving complete instruction from my 
teacher, a father unto me, realise on all sides the existence of God. 

10 O 1 husband, full of affection for me, the supplier of excellent 
comforts for me, the dispeller of all of my miseries, truthful in speech, 
drink the juice of medicinal herbs. O' master of a devoted wife, full of 
prowess and semen, thou art the progenitor of offspring. Impregnate 
semen in me. May I give birth to a valorous son, in connection with thee, 
the impregnator, the lord of vigour, and the guardian of the children. 

11. O' husband, thou hast been accepted by me for married life. 
Just as a charioteer yokes the horses, so art thou fully competent to carry 
on the duties of a married man. May I serve thee seated in a war chariot 
yoked with disciplined horses. Ye members of my family, full of noble 
qualities, for acquiring prosperity, protect me and my husband, working 
"together like horses for pulling on this chariot of our married life. 

12. O' affectionate and heroic husband, thou art the giver of 
scientific knowledge, polished speech, land and good instruction. Thou 
art conversant with the Yajur-veda, the Sama Veda, and the Rig Veda. 
Thou art invited and honoured by the learned. Invited by thee I eat the 
delicious meal prepared by thee. 

13. O 1 philanthropic husband, thou removest the sins of the 
donors, Thou removest the sins committed by ordinary human beings. 
Thou removest the sins committed by the parents. Thou removest the 

12. Naming three vedas means Karma, Jnana and Upasana, and not that the vedas are 
three and not four. Thee in both places means wife. 

13. Chairty covers a multitude of sins. The husband is asked to remove the flaws of 
the donors by asking them to make the proper use of their wealth which will make them pure 
and noble by giving it in charity for the good of humanity. Sins can be avoided by didactic 
teachings by a selfless, learned husband. 


sins committed by yourself. Thou removest every sort of sin. The sin 
that I have knowingly committed, and the sin that unawares I have 
committed, of all that sin, thou art the remover. 

14. O, teacher, the giver of boons, the instructor of all doings, 
with noble intentions, water and food, remove thou our physical 
deficiency, and give us wealth. May we strengthen our bodies by the 
vow of celibacy. 

15. O' adorable and learned teacher and preacher, as thou leadest 
us on the right path with the nobility of thy mind, teachest us exertion/ 
with thy sweet and joyful words, givest us knowledge through the learned 
and the teachings of the vedas, layest before us for example, the noble 
acts performed by the sages through wisdom and truthful speech, hence 
thou art worthy of respect by us. 

16. O' highly learned persons, acting upon your judgment, may we 
approach amongst ye, him, who gives us good knowledge, removes the 
ills of ignorance, imparts knowledge to us day and night out of his vast 
store, and removes the ills of our body. 

17. O 1 householder, thou art the source of happiness to all, the 
begetter of prosperity, the bringer-up of children, the guardian of the 
treasure of knowledge, the controller of vices, the extinguisher of the 
darkness of ignorance, the enlarger of pleasure, the pervader in all noble 
qualities and acts, being charitably disposed towards thy offspring, 
fulfil thou rightly the duties of married life, and grant stores of riches 
to the sacrifices 

18. O' noble-minded learned people, earnestly have we acquired 
this wealth, retain it by self-effort and preserve it with the help of 
others. We prepare these comfortable houses for ye and amass wealth 
for mutual use. May ye also grant us abundant riches. 

19. O' good-natured teacher, persuade them to be religious-minded, 
who have gathered round thee to acquire knowledge. O, married people, 
lead ye all a life of happiness, taking nutritious diet, drinking pure 
water, rightly performing yajnas, and sharpening your intellect. 

20. O' learned person, we married people, have, in this world, 
accepted thee as Hota in this yajna which is fulfilled through ceaseless 

16. This verse has not been translated by Griffith and Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, as 
being a repetition of yajur 2'24 and 8' 14. No doubt all these three verses are the same in 
wording, but different in meaning. Readers can see for themselves the different interpretations 
put by Maharshi Dayananda on them. 

17. Sacrificer : the yajman, who performs the yajna faithfully. 
20, Hota ; one of the watchers and helpers of a 


O' learned person, them knowest the details of the yajna ; come 
unto us, perform according to vedic rites, the yajna that leads us to 
prosperity, and grants us peace of mind through its performance. 

21. Ye, married people, who know the laws of gravitation, having 
known the science of geology, know ye the art of government. O % self- 
controlled, married learned people, let each one of ye, perform in a 
truly religious spirit this yajna of married life for pure dealings. 

22. O noble householder, perform rightly thy duties of married 
life ; serve thy king, fully understand thy nature. O performer of 
yajna, perform truly and justly this yajna of domestic life, full of vedic 
texts, and giver of physically fit and spiritually advanced offspring. 

23. O' ruler, be just for progress. For easy walk make the 
inaccessible paths fit for journey. Establish the path of justice, so that 
people being God-fearing lead a religious life. 

Never tell a lie. Don't use abusive language like him who hurts 
the feelings of noble souls. 

Be not angry like a venomous serpent. Thou, full of valour, 
shouldst always try to keep ever ready thy fetters and sharp instruments. 

24. O' married man, understand thou fully, the significance of 
water and the lustrous fire. 

With full knowledge of the qualities that lead to success, 
unfaltering in nature, keeping thy gold in safety, preach thou in each 
house, the deeds that lead to the fulfilment of aims. Let thy tongue 
taste clarified butter and mayest thou duly protect thy body. 

25. O' householder, let thy heart devoted to the study of the 
vedas, full of reverential words, controlled by vital breaths, be engaged in 
virtuous acts. May thou enjoy food, fruit and water. In affectionate 
accents, we urge thee to discharge faithfully thy duties of married life. 

26. O' good tempered, lovely women, retain carefully, dearly loved, 
and well nurtured child in the womb. 

O' nice, dignified husband, this is thy domestic life, make it 
resplendent with pleasure and instruction, and guard it in every possible 

27. O' husband, thou art the guardian of my pregnancy, a slow 
walker, a captivator of the heart, an accumulator of wealth in a righteous 
way ; and supreme among the learned. 

Thou enjoying the company of the wise and ordinary mortals, guard 
me against the ignoble and impious sin, I may be tempted to commit to- 
wards lascivious and ordinary people. 

25. We : Other learned householders. 


28. Let, still unborn, the ten-month old child move with the 
secundines. Just as the wind moves, as the ocean moves uninterruptedly, 
so may this ten-month child come forth together with the secundines. 

29. O' wife, thou hast a womb free from disease and offspring meet 
for adoration. May I graciously receive thee with the child undeformed ; 
after cohabitation with thee desirous of pregnancy. 

30. A husband, the dispeller of miseries, handsome in appearance 
full of dignity, and strong in mind should wish for successful, pregnancy in 
his wife. 

He should preach to mankind the one footed, two-footed, three- 
footed; four-footed and eight-footed knowledge of the vedas. 

31. O' adorable, learned married persons, in whomsoever's house ye 
go, and observe therein the display of wealth and fine qualities, he 
is truly the cultivator of earth, and master of speech. 

32. O' praiseworthy and well built husband and forbearing wife, 
desire to fulfil with pleasure, and perform this domestic yajna. May ye 
both provide us with food and clothes. 

33. O married man, thou art the dispeller of foes, and sprinkler 
of happiness like a cloud. In this chariot of thy life of a house-holder, 
possessing water and riches, are yoked two horses of restraint and 
attraction. Take a vow to lead the life of a householder. Appease thy 
drooping mind with the sayings of the vedas. Thou art fully equipped 
with the requisites of married life. I order thee to lead married life full 
of prosperity and sixteen traits. This is thy home. I order thee to lead 
married life full of prosperity and sixteen traits. 

28. Secutrdines :-After-birth Jrayu, 

30. One- f oo ted : that teaches the significance of Om alone. Two-footed .--that tells of 
the pleasures of this world and the next world. 

Three-footed -that preaches the delights of speech, mind and body. 

Four-footed :-That tells us of Dharma (religion) Artha. (worldly prosperity). 

Kama (Desire) and Moksha (Salvation, final beatitude). 

Eight-footed that dilates on four Ashramas and four Varunas. 

Pt. Jai Chand, Vidya-Alankar, interprets two-footed as words and their significance. 
Three-footed as Rig, Yaju, and Sam. 

32, Yajna :-Grihastha. i.e., married life. 

33. Sixteen Kalas or parts in the life of a householder 

1. Pran (Breath), 2. Shradha (Faith), 3. Kham (happiness), 4. Vayu (Activity), 
5. Jyoti (Brilliance), 6. Apa (water) 7. Prithvi (Forbearance), 8. Indriya (organ), 
9. Manas (mind), (10) Anna (food), 11. Virya (Semen), 12. Tapa (Penance, reli- 
gious austerity), 13. Mantra (understanding), 14. Ichha (Ambition), 15. Loka 
(Mankind), 16. Nam (Anger or censure) vide Prashnopanishad. A Grihasthi should 
cultivate these sixteen qualities. Pt. Jai Chand, Vidya-Alankar, mentions sixteen 
ministers of a country as 16 Kalas of a ruler. 
I : God. 


34. O' protector of riches, and dispeller of foes, harness in the 
chariot thy pair of studs, long-maned, stout in body, and fast to lead 
thee to destination. Know thou the requests made in our applications. 

Thou art fully equipped with the requisites of married life. I 
order thee to lead married life full of prosperity and sixteen traits. 
This is thy home. I order thee to lead a married life full of porsperity 
and sixteen traits. 

35. Pair of trained horses, carry the commander of forces, whose 
strength is unconquerable. 

O brave king, accept thou the praises of the seers of the purport of 
the vedas, of the warriors, and the homage of ordinary mortals. I order 
thee to lead a married life full of prosperity and sixteen traits. This 
is thy duty as a ruler. I order thee to lead a married life full of pros- 
perity and sixteen traits, so that thy subjects and soldiers may seek thy 

36. Than whom there is none other born more mighty, who hast 
pervaded all places. God, the giver of blessings to the whole world, 
maintains the three lustres in all substances. He is the giver of sixteen 

37. O' people, the powerful central ruler, and the noble provincial 
ruler, serve and protect ye first. I serve ye after them. 

For the attainment of knowledge and progress, may we all be con- 
tented with strength, truthful speech, and divine vedic lore. 

38. O ruler, the doer of noble deeds, and a student of the vedas, 
be thou pure. Grant us strength, and the study of the Vejdas. Grant 
me wealth and affluence. We have chosen thee for administrative 
purposes. We accept thee for the grant of strength and the attainment 
of God. This country is thy home. We accept thee for the grant of 
strength, and the attainment of God. O' lustrous ruler, thou art splendid 
amid the sages. May I among mankind be bright with lustre. 

39. O 1 powerful ruler, having attained to strength through thy 
army, and arising in thy physical and spiritual strength, thou shockest 
thy jaws. 

34. In this verse reference is made to a married ruler. First portion refers to the 
subjects, and the second to God. 

36. Three lustres : sun, lightning, and fire. Shodashi :-- the sixteen kalas mentioned 
in the Prashnopanishad. He does not possess all these qualities in Him, but is their Giver 
and Author. A Grihasthi should worship Him alone. 

37- I :- A learned public-spirited person. 

39. Shocking the jaws indicates readiness for battle* 


We have chosen thee for administrative purposes. We accept 
thee for the grant of strength and the attainment of God. This country 
is thy home. We accept thee for the grant of strength and the attain- 
ment of God. O' most lustrous ruler, thou art the mightiest amongst the 
kings fighting for victory. Among mankind I fain would be most mighty. 

40. Just as resplendent rays and fires make known the objects of 
this earth, so do I make known men. 

We have chosen thee for administrative purposes. 

We accept thee for the grant of strength and the attainment of 
God. This duty of administration conduces to thy prosperity. I remind 
thee to spread the light of knowledge and lead a pure life. I urge thee 
to follow the Self-Effulgent God in administering justice and spreading 

O brightest ruler, thou art brightest among the sages. Among 
mankind I fain would be the brightest. 

41. The learned as seers, verily dilate upon God, the Creator of 
the vedas, the Embodiment of purity and effulgence ; for the good of 
humanity. May we realise that God. We accept thee for the control 
of highly active breath, through yoga and laws of austerity. 

Thy universal pervasion through the union of cause and effect is 
an unsurpassed authority. We accept Thee as the Giver of resplendent 

42. O' exalted wife , possessing vast knowledge, eatable and drink- 
able articles, smell thou the jar. Mayest thou obtain thousands of juices 
of medicinal herbs, whereby thou mayest be free from sorrow. Fill us 
again with prosperity. Let riches come again to me. 

43. Praiseworthy, delightful, worshipful, lovable, pleasuregiving, 
well known for good behaviour, Inviolable, full of knowledge, Adorable, 
Knower of the vedas, worthy of respect. These are thy names O 1 wife. 
Teach me the good lesson of acquiring noble qualities. 

44. O 1 general, beat our foes away, humble the men who challenge 
us. As the sun removes darkness, so send down to a degraded position, 
him who seeks to do us injury. 

42. The jars in which the wife keeps eatables should be smelt and examined by her 
if they are fit for consumption and have not become rotten and decayed. 

43, In this verse eleven names of a wife have been enumerated, e. g. t Ida, Ratna, 
Havya, Kamya, Chandra, Jyoti, Aditi, Saraswati, Mahi, Vishruti and Aghanya. How beauti- 
ful and splendid this verse is, which gives eleven qualities a woman should possess. 


We accept thee equipped with forces for the grant of hafrpinesfc 
and dispelling our foes. This action of thine is the secret of thy rule. 
We urge thee to grant us happiness and remove our enemies. 

45. Let us invoke to-day, to aid our struggle for existence, the 
Lord of the Vedas, the Doer of all noble deeds, and the Knower of what 
passes in our minds. May He hear kindly all our invocations, Who 
gives us all bliss, Whose works are righteous. 

This act of God is due to His love. We pray unto Thee for pros- 
perity and success in all actions. We adore Thee for success in all actions 
and for prosperity. 

46. O' doer of all good deeds, with ever-growing knowledge, thou 
selectest as a ruler one who is free from vice and irreligion, the giver of 
prosperity and protection. The educated subjects bow unto him. Exert 
that he becomes the suppressor of the wicked and the master of all 
resources. This act of thine is due to your love. We invoke thy aid 
for prosperity and success in all actions. We pray to thee for success in 
all actions, and for prosperity. 

47. O 1 noble king, thy praiseworthy speech dispels our ignorance. 
I accept thee, the knower of Gayatri metre verses, for knowing the 
attributes of fire and electricity. I accept thee, the preacher of the 
significance of vedic verses in Trishtup metre. 

I accept thee, the expounder of the Jagati verses, for acquiring all 
good qualities, actions and attributes. Anushtap verses are thy preceptor. 
We have accepted thee for all these qualities. 

48. O' irreligious husband, I warn thee against cohabitation with 
the pure and noble wives of others. O' evil-minded husband, I desist 
thee from approaching the tender-hearted wives of others. O' ill-inten- 
tioned husband I keep thee away from going near the philanthropic wives 
of others, O' unsteady husband, I censure thee again and again for teasing 
the delightful wives of others. O v stone-hearted husband, I separate thee 
from the company of sweet -tongued wives of others. O' ignorant husband, 
full of virility, I prohibit thee from sexual intercourse in day's light and 
sun's beams. 

46. Vedas preach the doctrine of democracy. A ruler is selected by election and not 

47. Gayatri, Trishtup, Jagati and Anushtup are metres in which the vedic verses are 

48 . This is a beautiful verse in which the wife is described as the saviour of her husband 
from moral degradation. 


49i O' learned and educated King, the giver of pleasures, thy 
beauty shines pure like vast space. Be thou the undefiled leader of holy 
religion. Be thou the excellent leader of thy advancing country. What- 
ever invincible and stimulating popularity is thine, for that popularity I 
take thee. O' king, as our stimulator for noble deeds, may I utter true 
words for thee, the doer of noble deeds. 

50. O' virtuous and prosperous King, eagerly know thou the 
lovable and protective conduct of a learned person. O f charitable King, 
our impeller towards progress and affluence, controlling thy passions, 
know thou the conduct of a religious person. O 1 learned and wealthy 
King, being friend unto us, know thou, the beautiful conduct of all sages. 

51. O' married people, in this domestic life is delight, here is surety, 
here the accumulation of wealth and the performance of virtuous acts; 
enjoy yourselves here. Produce the child. Let it suck its mother. Give 
us riches and abundance with noble intentions. 

52. O' learned person thou contributest to the progress of our 
government. In thy company may we obtain the light of wisdom; and 
attain to final beatitude. May our rule extend from the earth to the 
sky. May we obtain spiritual enjoyment, knowledge and pleasure. 

53. O 1 commander and soldiers, who march forward in a battle, 
kill the man with warlike instruments, who fain would war with us. 

If the forces of the enemy approach our sturdy forces and try to 
increase their strength, kill them without fail, and drive them away, for 
your own happiness. 

O 1 Hero, the Tenderer of our foes, rend our foes in all possible ways, 
so that we may be rich in offspring, rich in brave soldiers, and rich in food 
to feed with, everywhere, on earth, in ether, and sky. 

54. O' married people; if ye truly realize God, the Lord of mankind, 
who rests in the fullness of joy, as mentioned in the vedas, revealed by 
Him; if ye understand the head of the State, who observes the laws of 
the land; if ye follow the physician, who effects cure through medicines, 
and take pure food; ye will ever remain happy. 

55. O 1 learned persons understand, for success in your transactions 
the use of electricity, wind, and cloud. Know Ye the Dhananjay Vayu, 
which is praiseworthy, friendly, and pervades all objects. Know ye 
God, present in our souls, ever near us for our protection, ever shining 
before us, and well-versed in His function. 

55. Dhananjay a a kind of vital air nourishing tha body. 


56.O 1 married people in this world, just as ye honour and seat on A 
dais a learned person who visits your house, so should ye use electricity 
in well thought out sources of wealth, collection of waters, in fires to be 
burnt, in skilfully manufacturing all useful and serviceable articles. 

57. O' all learned people fully realise your conduct towards diffe- 
rent objects of the universe, know ye the electricity that maintains all 
beautiful objects, the aged sun, the invisible matter brought into creation, 
the invigorating vital airs, pure semen and the noble, active suppressor of 
foes. Thus ye become the utilisers of all objects, and eaters of milk 

58. Those who through Homa spread wide upto clouds the fragrant 
spices, have devoted their lives to noble deeds, are accepted as mighty 
souls, are the well known seers of men, and are known as powerful like a 
storm, are eaters of eatables, and should all be recognised as wise, learned 
preachers of humanity. 

59. Those, who for their bath manage to get pure water, construct 
canals, soar high in space, by their strength maintain the worlds, who in 
their prowess are most brave and powerful, whose power is not known to 
ordinary mortals, who are comprehensive in character and noble in nature, 
and whose praise is sung by the ancient sages, are received by the learned. 
They always remain happy. 

60. The yajna grants us foodstuffs and spreads the light of 
knowledge, the learned perform it, may knowledge thence come to me. 
The yajna goes to men and clouds, the wise perform it; may riches come 
thence to me. The yajna goes to seasons and the Earth, the sages per- 
form it, may come thence each season's comfort to me. 

Whatever sphere the yajna (sacrifice) reaches, which the religious 
minded people perform, may happiness come thence to me. 

61. Thirtyfour threads diffuse this yajna of the world. They 
sustain it with supply of food. I skilfully unify their different functions 
and duties. May this yajna be controlled by the learned. 

59, *rat : (yayo) refers to the priest and the worshipper according to Maharshi 
Dayananda, and to God and Zjff yajna by some other commentators. In this verse is sung the 
praise of the priest (Hota) and worshipper (yajnaan) who through their yajna purify and 
maintain the universe. 

61. Thirty four threads that weave the fabric of this universe are eight vasus : sun, 
moon, earth, water, fire, air, sky. lightning; eleven Rudras : Pran, Apan, Vyan, Udan, Sman, 
Nag, Karma, Krikal, Devdutt, Dhananjaya, and Matrishwa, twelve Adityas : the twelve 
months of the year, soul, God and matter. 

I refers to God. 


62. The material of a yajna (sacrifice) goes far and wide in diffe- 
rent objects. It extends to the heaven in eight directions. O' sacrifice, 
pour on my offspring plenty of wealth and prosperity. May I through 
good conduct enjoy full age. 

63. O' married man, desirous of prosperity, with thy noble be- 
haviour, become the master of gold, steeds and warriors. Perform the 
yajna with materials which strengthen the organs of the body, and purify 
the world. 


1 O f virtuous and prosperous king, preach through vedas, the art 
of administration conducive to comfort and wealth. Direct duly the 
man at the helm of affairs. 

May thou, the embodiment of noble qualities, the sustainer of earth, 
and purifier of our wisdom, the protector of knowledge through the 
spread of education, improve our intellect, and share our wealth as 
directed by the vedas. 

2. O' king elected by the learned, for carrying out the behest of 
God, I accept thee, well versed in knowledge, yoga practices, and full of 
humility, leader of leaders, expert in science, and full of affection, as my 
lord. This administration is thy mainstay. I accept thee, most beloved 
for attaining to prosperity. 

Thou hast been elected by the people. I accept thee, that indulges 
in sea trade, is the master of strength-giving articles like ghee, fliest in 
space in an aeroplane, and is full of affection ; as my lord. This kingdom 
is thy mainstay. I accept thee, most beloved for destroying foes. 

Thou art full of plans, I accept thee, the traveller in all parts of the 
world, the flier in heavens, the bestower of justice, the devotee of duty 
and God, free from affliction ; and the lover of humanity, as my lord. 
This kingdom is thy mainstay. I accept thee, most beloved for the 
attainment of happiness. 

3. O' king, I utilise the essence of waters, that infuse life, are 
gathered in the sun, and spread in all directions. I advise thee to 
preserve 'the essence of waters' essence for thy own good, Thou hast 
legally been elected. I accept thee, full of affection, as my lord, for the 
attainment of God. 

This kingdom is thy home. I accept thee most affectionate, for the 
attainment of happiness. 

4. I grant wisdom to the learned, collect food for and give strength 
to you married people, charitably disposed, well-versed in vedic lore and 
engaged in various acts of religion. O' learned person thou art equipped 

2. This verse mentions the various qualities of the person, who is elected as a king or 
head of the state by the people. The veda does not believe in autocracy or totalitarianism. 
It believes in democracy. 

3. Espcnce of waters' essence :~ Virya, semen. I may mean Purohita. 

4. I*:- King. Ye :- husband and wife or subjects and officials. 


with the requisites of a ruler and married life. I accept thee full of 
happiness, for prosperity. This is thy home. I accept thee, most lovely, 
for destroying foes. 

United are ye twain, with bliss unite me apart from a wicked soul. 

5. O' commander of the army thou art the thunderbolt of the 
king, who, expert in battles, wins the war, with thy assistance, May we 
speedily bring under us, according to vedic justice, the vast, undivided, 
honour-giving land ; on which the whole mankind is settled. May God, 
the Illuminator of all, and generator of the universe sustain us on it. 

6. In control of breath lies longevity, in waters lies the healing 
medicine. Having realised the praiseworthy qualities of breath and 
water, grow thee fleet and strong. 

O f noble-minded wife and broad-minded husband may the com- 
mander of the army, the winner of battles, win the campaign, with your 
strength, forceful like the waves of the ocean, and roaring like the 
fast sea. 

7. The learned, who like the wind, mind and twenty seven articles, 
primarily harness swiftness in this world, may acquire alertness as well. 

8. O 1 well equipped and qualified king, may the masters of all 
sciences harness thee to the work of administration and mechanical 
enterprises, may the expert of the science of velocity, put swiftness in 
thy feet. Be thou active like the wind. 

Being ever wary, endowed with a religious bent of mind, like a 
powerful king, attain to greatness and glory, with splendid royal 

9. O' king, the swiftness laid in thee in secret, resembles the swift- 
ness granted to a falcon, and the swiftness found in air. Be thou power- 
ful for us, with that swiftness and army. Be thou the winner of battles, 
and our saviour through war. 

O' nice, brave soldiers, serve your commander, acquire wisdom 
and food, win battles, and enjoy fragrant substances. 

10. May I realise in this world, the nature of God free from pain 

6. Thee : general of the army. 

7. Twenty seven articles : All encompassing air. Pran, Apan, Vyan, Udan, Smam 
Nag, Kurma. Krikla, Devdutt, Dhananjya, Mind, five organs of action (Karma Indriyas and 
five organs of perception (Gyan Indriyas) and five elements, earth, air, water, fire, 
and space. 

10. I in the first part refers to the king, in the second part to a philanthropist, in the 
third to a student, the seeker after knowledge ; and in the fourth ' to a warrior* Each in 
turn advises mankind to rise as he has done. 


and full of delight ; Who is lustrous, and generator of the universe. 
Whose cause and effect of the universe are true ; Who nourishes all 
material objects, and is most high. May I rise, through the prosperity, 
and excellent gifts of the king, the creator of riches, the giver of 
comforts, and dispenser of justice. 

May I rise through the highest pleasure I obtain from the know- 
ledge imparted by my learned preceptor, the giver of imperishable 
knowledge, the embodiment of noble attributes and actions ; and the 
encyclopaedia of learning. 

May I rise through the victory-giving battle, and the persuasion 
of the commander, the subduer of wicked foes, the inciter to victory 
over opponents, the expert in the science of military warfare, the dis- 
penser of justice and full of humility. 

11. O' preacher, acquire knowledge. Let the learned speak to 
thee the ennobling language of the vedas. May they impart knowledge 
to the instructor. 

O' king win the battle. May the learned speak to thee the langu- 
age of the duty of kingship, and bring victory to thee. 

12. O' guardians of justice, advance thereby the knowledge of the 
vedas, and the learned who protect them. Bring victory to the king 
in the battle. 

May ye be free in speech. O 1 guardians of justice, bring thereby 
like the sun's beams victory to your commander in the battle. - May ye 
grant to your king success in a wealth-producing pursuit. May this 
your utterance of statesmanship be true. May ye be free in speech. 

13. May I , the general, stout in body and soul, win the battle with 
the help of God, in Whose universe reside the eternal causes, Who is 
the giver of all affluence, the Illuminator c>f all, Supreme in knowledge, 
and the Guardian of the Vedas. O active, learned persons, winners of 
battle, see the enemies from a distance and go towards different direc- 
tions to check their onward march. 

14. Just as this fast horse bound by the neck, and at the flanks 
and in the mouth, ever accelerating its speed, passes by the mile-stones, 
with full force and goes to the army ; so does the cammander of the army, 
with due orders, make it march on speedily. 

12- Vanaspati, the guardian of justice is compared to the beams of the sun. Just as 
they impartially fall on all high and low, without distinction, so should the guardian of 
justice be impartial to all. S^ftfa tf?*Rro, fatff 1-5 van according to Nighantu means the 
beam of the sun. 


15. O' Government officials, he alone can conquer the foes, who 
marches speedily according to plan, on well constructed roads, with 
equipment and firm determination like the wings of a fast flying bird, 
the falcon that soars high desirous of prey, and the fleeting horse. 

16. May the heroes expert in the science of warfare, marching 
uniformly, well respected and well fed, breaking the bodies of strong 
thieves and rascals, attain to everlasting happiness in battles, through the 
deeds of us the learned. May they banish for us all disease-like foes. 

17. The state officials, who are advanced in knowledge, listeners 
of religious books, full of wisdom, masters of their subjects, seekers after 
different branches of knowledge, lovers of their souls, leaders of social 
life, and acquirers of mighty wealth in battles, should all, listen to our 
learned discussions. 

18. O' truthful, aged, steadfast and wise officials, protect us in 
each fray. Enjoy the reward of victory in the battle. Be joyful, be 
satisfied. Tread on paths, which sages are wont to tread. 

19. May I get in full, bounteous wealth of knowledge. May I get 
sovereignty over Heaven and Earth, in which reside all shining objects. 
May I get the knowledge of healing medicines. May I obtain learned 
father and mother. 

Ye, mighty warriors, winners of battles, going to the battle-field, 
purified in heart, obey the orders of your general. 

20. For the attainment of full knowledge, noble deeds ; for the 
attainment of happiness, religious life ; for the attainment of definite 
object, activity, for the advancement of wisdom, the habit of reading and 
teaching, for retention of knowledge, truthful speech ; for arithmetical meas- 
urement of day, the science of arithmetic ; for checking the waste of time 
in infatuation, a word of wisdom ; for the fool who revels in vice, 
a word of caution ; for the degraded, wicked soul, advice to ward off 
evil deeds ; for the strong person amongst the low and despicable, speech 
revealing the true nature of things ; for the attainment of God, the Lord 
of the universe, the knowledge of yoga; for the king, the knowledge 
of all affairs, are essential. 

21. May life be devoted to obeying the orders of God. May life-breath 
thrive through practice. May eye thrive by the study of natural objects. 
May ear thrive by listening to the vedas. May questioning improve 
throngh mutual discussion. May worship of God thrive through celibacy, 


May we be the true sons of God. May the learned attain to final emanci- 
pation and thereby enjoy happiness. 

22. I enjoin thee for agriculture, advancement, wealth, and pros- 
perity. Thou art persevering, law-abiding, preserving and eminent. 
May food grains be produced from this venerable Earth. May the worthy 
science of geology be studied, and water and food grains produced thereby 
from the Earth. May our physical force, wealth, wisdom, and knowledge 
be for your service. 

23. I, being First and Affluent, lend wisdom and prosperity to this 
king, the driver of all miseries and shining with knowledge, justice and 

May the medicines produced on the earth or grown in water, be 
highly efficacious for us. May we, the ministers, act tactfully for the 
betterment of the State, remaining alert, and always keeping the interests 
of the government foremost, 

24. I, the king, born in my state, afford shelter to all habitations, 
and enforce my policy. 

May he, who truly knowing all his duties, realises taxes from those, 
unwilling to pay, receive from us riches, that bring us heroes. 

25. He is fit to be our King, who knows the course of conduct, as 
inculcated by the Vedas, who advances in knowledge, behaves properly, 
conduces to the prosperity of his old subjects, and all these provinces of 
the state, and tours throughout his territory. 

26. Let us elect him, for our protection, after due deliberations, 
as king, who is amiable, and destroyer of foes like fire, who has received 
education from the learned, who has observed the vow of celibacy for 
forty eight years, who holds sway over administrative problems, is 
supreme among the learned, is master of all the four vedas, and protector 
of the sages. 

27. O' King, with a sound policy, for the spread of knowledge, 
urge, the lover of impartial justice," the teacher of all sciences, the master 
of riches and the vedas, the leader of men, the learned mistress, the 
lover of vedic lore and the brave warrior for noble deeds. 

21. Final emancipation . Mukti, salvation, deliverance, redemption. 

22. I :- God. People should learn sacrifice, and place all their resources in the 
service of humanity. They should learn geology, cultivate land and grow more food. 

23. I :~ God. 

24. I :-- King. He :-King. Us .-.. Subjects. 

He alone should be elected the King, who can protect the State, and realise taxes 
from the reluctant subjects. 


28. O' King, speak truthfully and kindly to us h^re, be graciously 
inclined to us. Winner of thousand warriors, grant us happiness* for 
thou art the giver of wealth. 

29. As the Lord of Justice gives us good instruction, as the 
nourisher gives us strength of body and soul, just as a learned man gives 
us knowledge, so let the mother, a sweet-tongued and nice instructor 
impart knowledge unto us. 

30. O' good-natured educated person, I, in this world created by 
the Effulgent God, appoint thee as King with the knowledge of the Vedas, 
with arms strong like the sun and moon, with hands swift like the wind. 
I anoint thee with supreme kingship in this state well organised by the 

31. O' King, just as thou, with the monosyllabic Om elevatest 
thy subjects, so may I elevate them. Just as the King and his men like 
the sun and moon, with dissyllabic metre, elevate bipeds, so may I 
elevate them. Just as the just King, with trisyllabic metre elevates 
the three worlds, so may I elevate them. Just as a King desirous for 
prosperity, with quadrisyllable metre subdues the four-footed cattle, so 
may I subdue them. 

32. O 1 King, the nourisher of all, with penta-syllabic metre, thou 
hast won the five regions, may I also win them. Resplendent like the 
sun, thou, O' King, with six syllabic metre has controlled the six seasons, 
may I also control them. O' King, fast like the sun, as thou with hepta 

30. I refers to the priest who anoints the King. 

31. I : a high state official or any person of the state. Monosyllabic metre is Daivi 
Gayatri Chhand. Dissyallabic metre is Daivi Ushnik Chhand. Trisyllabic metre is Daivi 
Anushtup Chhand, Quadrisyllable metre is Daivi Brlhati Chhand. A king through the 
knowledge of vedic Mantras in these metres elevates and subdues the animate and inanimate 

Three worlds :-Earth, Atmosphere and Sun, or sun, lightning and fire, or high, mid, and 
low regions. According to Swami Dayananda's view they arc birth, place and name* 

32. Pentasyllable metre means Daivi Pankti Chhand. Five regions > North, South, 
East, Westi and overhead direction. 

Six-syllabic metre means Daivi Trishtup Chhand. Six seasons are Spring, Summer, Rains, 
Autumn, Winter, Dews. 

Hepta-syllabic metre means Daivi Jagati Chhand. Seven domestic animals are cow, 
horse, buffalo, camel, goat, sheep, and ass. 

Octosyllabic metre means Yajushi Anushtup Chhand. 

Gayatri according to Pt. Jai Dev, Vidyalankar, and vedic Sansthan Mathura mean earth, 
that protects and nourishes us all. Maharshi Swami Dayananda interprets it as self-preserving 


syllablic metre rearest the seven domestic animals, so may I also reaf 
them, O* learned King, as thou with octosyllabic metre followest the 
self-preserving policy, so may I also follow it. 

33. O' King, the friend of all, just as thou knowest, with nine- 
syllabic metre, Him, deserving of praise with the aid of knowledge, 
action and meditation; Him may I know. O' praiseworthy King, just as 
thou, with decasyllabic metre knowest Him mentioned in virat verses, so 
may I also know Him. 

O* giver of riches, just as thou with hendecasyllabic metre knowest 
Him mentioned in Trishtup verses, so may I also know Him. O 1 ye all 
learned persons, just as you with, dodecasyllabic metre, know the teaching 
conveyed in Jagati metre, so may I also know it. 

34. Just as the Vasus, by thirteen syllabic metre, know the thir- 

33, Nine-syllable metre means yaju^hi Brihati Chband. Decasyllabic metre means 
yajushi Pankti. Hendecasyllabic metre means Asuri Pankti. Dodecasyllabic metre means 
Saamni Gayatri. The knowledge of the vedic verses in the^e metres leads one to the knowledge 
of God and wordly affairs. 

34- Vasus are the Brahmcharis who have observed the vow of celibacy for 24 years. 

Thirteen-syllabic metre means Asuri Anushtup Chhaod. Thirteenfold objects: Ten 
pranas, soul, Mahattatva (2nd of the 25 principles of the Sankhyas) and primordial matter. 

Rudras : the Brahmcharis who have spent 44 years in celibacy and study. 

Fourteen syllabic metre means Saamoi-Ushnik Chhand. 

Fourteen-fold objects .--Ten organs (5 Gyana and 5 Karma organs), mind, intellect, dis- 
cernment and egotism. 

Adityas :-The Brahmcharh who have observed a vow of celibacy for 48 years, and 
studied all the four Vedas. 

Fifteen-syllabic metre means Asuri Gayatri Chhand. 

Fifteen fold objects .--Four Vedas, four-up-vedas (Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharva 
Veda , Artha Veda), Six Angas, Shiksha (the science which teaches the proper pronunciation 
of words), Kalpa (the science of rituals). Vyakarna (grammer). Nirukta (Etymology), Chhand 
(Prosody), Jyotish (Astronomy), and beauty in action. 

Aditi : the queen with immense wealth and glory. 

Sixteeen-syllabic metre means Samni Anusktup Chhand. 

Sixteenfold objects :--(!) Pramana (Testimony) (2) Pr;;mey (Theorem) (3) Sanshey 
(Doubts), (4) Prayojan (Application), (5) Drishtanta (Illustration), (6) Siddhanta (Principle), 
(7) Avayava (Syllogism), (8) Tarka (Logic), (9) Nirnaya (Decision), (10) Vada (Discussion), 
(11) Jalpa (Discourse), (12) Vitanda (Wrangling). (13) Hetvabhasa (Fallacy), (14) Chhala 
(Semblance), (15) Jaati (Futile answer), (16) Nigrhasthan (Flaw in an argument by which 
a disputant is brought low). These sixteen objects are mentioned in Nayaya Darshan. 

Prajapati .--King who rears the subjects. 

Seventeen-syllabic metre means Nichrid-Arshi Gayatri Chhand. 

Seventeenfold objects .--Four Vamas (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaish, Shudra), Four 
Ashramas (Brahmcharya. Grihastha, Banprastha, Sanyasa), Shravan (Hearing), Maw* 


teenfold collection of laudable objects, so may I also know them. Just as 
the Rudras by fourteen-syllabic metre know the fourteenfold collection of 
laudable objects, so may I also know them. Just as the Adityas with 
fifteen Syllabic metre know the fifteenfold collection of laudable 
objects, so may I also know them. Just as the Aditi, with sixteen- 
syllabic metre knows the sixteenfold collection of laudable objects, so may 
I also know them. Just as Prajapati, with seventeen-syllabic metre, knows 
the seventeenfold collection of laudable objects, so may I also know them. 
36. O' King, the lover of truth, conduct thy rule with justice. Utter 
truthful words for the learned, whose policy shines like the fire. Behave 
in a religious spirit towards those lords of justice who work in the 
east. Be charitable to the learned, who are fast-witted like the wind 
and are put in charge of the southern part of the country. Use 
inspiring language towards the learned officials stationed in the west, 
who fully understand politics like all the wise. Behave respectfully like 
a state representative towards those just officials appointed in the north, 
who are regular in their duty like the in-going, and out-coming breath, 
and who give true lead to the subjects. Use the language of a sage 
towards those who brilliant like the moon, give happiness to all, and who 
acquire knowledge, cultivate humility, are religious-minded, and worship 

36. O 1 King, utter truthful words for the learned, who have master- 
ed the science of electricity, and reside in the east. Behave in a 
religious spirit towards those yogis, who are well versed in the intricacies 
of the science of yoga, and reside in the south. Drive knowledge 
from the learned, who know the science of material objects, and reside in 
the west Learned knowledge that benefits all, from those who grant 
happiness to all and reside in the north, preach Dharma to those, who are 
swift-witted like the mind. Learn medical science from those who know 
the Ayur Veda, and the properties of medicinal herbs, are well placed 
in life and busy with their noble profession, and adore medical knowledge 
and religion. 

37. O' King, oppose the proud, happy powerful, and trained army, 
and drive our enemies away, subduing powerful foes. In this State 

(Cogitation), Nidhidhyasan (Meditation), Desire for the non-obtained, Retention of the obtain- 
ed, Development of the retained, proper use of the developed, Desire, and endeavour for 

In the last four mantras 31 to 34, the duties of the king and the subjects are described, 
which they should realise, and derive happiness therefrom. 

36. Everybody should travel far and wide and add to his store of knowledge. 


advance knowledge, gain strength and practice justice. 

38. O' King rightly, I with the glory of the just and prosperity- 
bringing commander of the army, with the strength of the nearby army, 
with the general's arms stout like the sun and moon, and with the skilful 
hands of a physician, accept thee for slaying the demons. Just as thou 
hast slain the demon so may we slay the demon. Just as we have slain 
that so may we slay all others. 

39. 0' King, thou art the creator of supremacy, useful like fire for 
the domestic people, the lord of the trees, the friend, faithful companion, 
and religious leader of the lovers of religion, the master of the Vedas, 
aged among the aged, and the protector of the cattle. May the religious, 
truthful learned people urge thee to serve thy people. 

40. 0' learned people, this lover of his subjects, is the King of you 
the Kshatriyas, and us the Brahmanas, and the people living afar. Him, 
the son of that father, and that mother, (for the protection of the people, 
for great supremacy), for sovereignty over the virtuous, and for obtaining 
huge wealth, do ye render free from foes. 

38. I :-any person amongst the subjects. 

39. Just as Soma is the lord of medicines, so a King is the lord* the protector, the 
grower of trees. 


1. O' wise persons, the means through which ye control breath, 
create electric power, and conquer foes, should also be employed to 
acquire sweet, strength-infusing, refreshing, and sovereignty-bestowing 

2. 0' people, ye are the givers of Kingship, that brings knowledge 
and showers happiness, bestow on me the kingdom, in a righteous manner. 
Ye are the knowers of government that showers happiness, and the givers 
of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on him, who can protect it. Ye are the 
definer of the duties of Kings, and masters of a strong army, bestow on me 
the Kingdom, in a beautiful speech. Ye are the givers of Kingship, and 
masters of a strong army, bestow the Kingdom on the deserving. 

3. O* wealthy people, givers of Kingship, bestow on me the 
Kingdom in a righteous manner. Ye, the masters of knowledge, and givers 
of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on him who can protect it. 

Ye royal women, imbued with knowledge, strength and supremacy, 
givers of Kingship, bestow kingdom on me in a righteous manner. Ye 
self-controlled ladies, the givers of Kingship, bestow kingdom on him, who 
deserves it. 

Ye kind ladies, givers of kingship, bestow kingdom on me in a 
righteous manner. 

Ye' kind ladies, givers of kingship, bestow kingdom on the self- 
controlled hero. 

O 1 ye protectors of the people, givers of kingship, bestow kingdom 
on me in a righteous manner. Ye controllers of breath and givers of 
kingship, bestow kingdom on him, who protects his subjects. 

O valiant King, guarded by the armies which give thee women-like 
protection, and are the givers of Kingship help me a considerate successor 
in the election as a king, 

O f King, praised by the subjects, the electors of a ruler, help pass 
on the Kingship to the well-praised deserving person. 

1. Water is sprinkled over the King at the time of the Coronation ctremony, 

2. It is the duty of the people to elect him as their ruler, who deserves the honour. 

3. This verse preaches the height of democracy. Men and women are equally and 
jointly entitled to elect a man as their King who fully deserves the honour, 


4. O' people, protectors like the sun, with your spirit of true 
justice, ye are the givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on me. 

Ye, protectors like the sun, ye, seekers after knowledge, are the 
givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on the deserving person. Ye people 
educationally brilliant like the sun, the givers of Kingship, bestow 
Kingdom on me in a befitting manner. 

O' people ye are educationally brilliant like the sun and are the 
givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on the deserving person. Ye, bringers 
of joy, and givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on me in a befitting 
manner. Ye bringers of joy and givers of Kingship, bestow kingdom on 
him who is deserving. 

Ye builders of cow-sheds, and bestowers of kingship, bestow Kingdom 
on me in a befitting manner. Ye builders of cow-sheds and givers of 
Kingship, bestow Kingdom on him who is deserving. Ye high-aimed 
people, and givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on me in a befitting 
manner. Ye high-aimed people, and givers of kingship, bestow Kingdom 
on him who is deserving. Most powerful are ye, and givers of kingship, 
bestow kingdom on me in a befitting manner. 

Most powerful are ye, and givers of kingship, bestow kingdom on 
him who is deserving. 

Endowed with might are ye and givers of kingship, bestow kingdom 
on me in a befitting manner. 

Endowed with might are ye, and givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom 
on him who is deserving. 

Man-nourishing are ye, and givers of Kingship, bestow Kingdom on 
me in a befitting manner. Man-nourishing are ye, and givers of kingship, 
bestow kingdom on him who is deserving. 

All-nourishing are ye, and givers of Kingship, bestow kingdom on me 
in a befitting manner. All-nourishing are ye, and givers of kingship, 
bestow kingdom on him, who is deserving. O 1 people, full of knowledge 
and virtue, enjoying independence, ye are the givers of kingship, bestow 
kingdom on him who is most deserving. Let the sweet medicinal herbs, 
ripen in the spring and other seasons. O' people procuring mighty power 
for the Kshatriya, rest in your place, inviolate and potent bestowing on 
the Kshatriya mighty power. 

4. This excellent verse enjoins upon the people, possessing different sources of strength 
to exercise their vote carefully, fearlessly, cautiously and disinterestedly in electing the 
most deserving person as the head of the State. The Vedas favour democracy, and denounce 
autoc racy. 

CHAPf ER X 103 

5. O' king, thou art the light of greatness, may my light of know- 
ledge grow like thine. Acquire truthful speech and knowledge coupled 
with practice for learning the science of electricity, and laborious nature 
of a doctor for learning medicine. Learn astronomy for acquiring the 
knowledge of sun. Learn grammer for understanding the vedas. Learn 
Yoga for the control of breath. Study the vedas for the knowledge of 
God. Acquire discrimination for the knowledge of soul. Acquire the 
art of eloquence for a good speech Learn prosody for composing poems. 
Learn science for understanding the attributes of atoms. Learn to 
lead an active life for acquiring wealth. Learn politics for becoming 
a king. 

6. O' King, thou art the flawless friend of the vedas. Thou, with 
the use of disease healing herbs, leadest the life of a Brahtnchari. In 
this world created by God, ye, male and female students, engaged in study, 
lead a life of high morals I purify ye, like the beams of the sun, with 
your unbroken pledge of celibacy. Ye are the producers of brave Kings 
in a nice way. 

7. A good King should put in charge of educated and respectable 
nurses the children of women, well bred, ever happy, rich, famous, invio- 
late, calm like water, well dressed and decorated with ornaments, expert 
in domestic affairs and advanced in Knowledge. 

8. 0* King thou art the strength of the royal family, the giver of 
longevity to the warrior, the mainstay of princely power, and the 
administrator of your Kingdom. Thou art the destroyer of foes, as the 
sun is of clouds. 

Thou art the friend of friends, the gentleman with gentlemen. 
Thou art the cleaver and tormentor of foes. Thou art the preacher of 
truth. With thee to aid may this hero slay like cloud the foe that 
dissembles justice. May the warrior protect the King in front, protect 
him rearwards ; protect him side-wards ; guard him from all quarters. 

9. O' men, know ye fully well, the learned householder, approach 
properly, the commander of the army who slays the foes, and has listened 

5. In this verse different sciences a ruler should learn to become efficient have been 

6. The King should arrange for the compulsory education of boys and girls in the 

7. The mother should not suckle the child for more than a few days, when an educated 
nurse should be put in its charge. The mother becomes weak by long suckling. 

9. If men understand these personages, they will certainly be happy in life. 


to the recitation of all the sacred religious booki. Know fully Well iht 
friendly and noble persons, devoted to truth. Befriend fastly the doctor 
expert in the science of medicine. Understand thoroughly the uses of 
electricity and land, the givers of happiness for all. Get truly a learned 
mother, the giver of comforts. 

10. O' King, conquer the opposing creatures who bite and torment 
others ; and go forward to the East. May thou obtain Gayatri, the 
psalm of Rathantra, the triple praise-song, the spring season, God and 
the rich treasure of knowledge. 

11. O' King conquer foes by advancing towards the south. May 
thou obtain, the knowledge conveyed in the Trishtup verse, the Brihat 
Ssm, the fifteenfold praise-song, the summer season, the military force and 

12. O' King advance towards the West. May thou obtain the 
knowledge conveyed in Jagtai verse, the manifold knowledge of sStm 
Veda, the seventeenfold praise-song, the Rainy season, the store of wealth 
and the Vaishyas. 

13. O 1 King advance towards the North. May thou obtain the 
knowledge conveyed in the Anushtap verse, the manifold knowledge of 
S5ma Veda, the twentyonefold praise-song, the Autumn season, the rich 
treasurer, and Shudras (servants for service). 

14. O' King, ascend the zenith. May thou obtain the Knowledge 
conveyed in the Pankti Shakvari and Rewati verses of the Sam Veda, the 
thirty-threefold praise-song, three divisions of time, both seasons, Winter 
and Dews, Arithmetic, the science of nine digits ; thirtythree gods, the 
study through Brahmcharya and riches. Cast aside the head of a thief. 

10. Rathantra : One of the most important Samans, consisting of verses 22, 23 of 
Rig Veda VII 32, and and Samveda II ; 1. 1. II. Trivrit Stoma : a recitation in which first, 
the first, three verses of each triplet of R. V. IX, 11 are sung together, then the second 
verses, and lastly the third. 

Thriple .--that gives us the strength of mind, speech and body. 

11. Brihat: One of the most important Sama hymns. Samaveda II. II. 1. 12 taken 
from R. V. VI. 46. 1. 2. 

Fifteenfold : which contains mention of five Pranas i.e., Pran, Apan, Vyan, Udan, Sman. 
Five organs, i e , ear, eye, nose, mouth, and skin and five elements water, earth, fire, air and 

12. Seventeenfold : Five Karma Indriyas, (organs of action), Shabd (speech), Sparsh 
(touch), Rup (sight), Ras (taste), Gandh (smell), Five Bhutas (earth, water, air, fire and ether), 
Cause, and effect. 

13. WH has been translated as Shudras as well. 

Twenty-onefold : Sixteen Kalas, Dharma, Arth, Kam, Moksha, and soul. 


15. O God ! Thou art the brilliance of supremacy, may my knowledge 
shine like Thine. Save me from death. Thou art vigour and victory. 

16. O Preacher ! the friend of all and O commander, the destroye* of 
foes, ye both go to the house of a seeker after truth, and dilate upon the 
immortal and the mortal substances. Just as the sun and moon bring 
day and night, for the transaction of our various desirable dealings, so 
should ye both full of lustre and supermacy spread knowledge. 

17. O King I install thee with brilliance like the moon, lustre like 
the fire, splendour of knowledge like the sun, and the might of mind like 
the lightning, Be lord of princes. Guard constantly all acts conducive to 

knowledge and religion. 

18. O learned generals, this is your King and of us Brahmanai, 
the devotees of God and of the Vedas. He is the well-qualified King of 
the subjects. 

Produce such a foeless King, the son of such-a-man, and such a 
woman, for healthy teaching of his people, for adorable warrior-class, for 
mighty lordship, for mighty domination over princes, for enhancing the 
wealth of the wealthy. 

19. O royal skilled engineer, construct sea-boats, propelled on 
water by our experts, and aeroplanes, moving and flying up-ward, after 
the clouds that reside in the mid-region, that fly as the boats move on the 
sea, that fly high over and below the watery clouds. Be thou, thereby, be 
prosperous in this world created by the Omnipresent God, and flier in both 
air, and lightning. 

20. O God, Thou only comprehendest all these created forms, and 
none besides Thee. Give us our hearts, desire, when we invoke Thee. 
Just as Thou art the Lord of that invisible world, and this visible world, 
so, may we be righteous lords of rich possessions. O God I the Tormentor 
of the wicked, Thy remembrance relieves us of miseries. For that we 
worship Thee. We worship Thee at home in truthful words. 

21. O King, thou art invincible, admirably handsome, and a mighty 
bolt for the foes. I appoint thee for alleviating the miseries of humanity, 

14. Thirty threefold :- 8 vasus. 11 Rudras. 12 Adityas, Soul and God. 

17, I : Purohit. 

See Manu, 9, 303, 311, for the qualities of Soma, Agni, Surya, and Indra in the King. 

19. Conveyances to be used on land, water and in air should be constructed by skilled 
engineers, which take us from one place to the other, from one country to the other. The us* 
of these conveyances is essential for international intercourse. 

ai, I:- Priest, 


for imparting instructions to all, for presiding over the Assembly and the 
army, and for government. I enjoin thee to guard thy state politically, 
with the advice of wise statesmen. May we be attached to thee with 
heart and soul. May thou be victorious. 

22. O renowned King, equipped with arms, may we never behave 
unrighteously towards thee. May thou never shaken thy belief in the 
Vedas and God. May we never die in poverty. O conqueror of foes, 
ascend the chariot. Thou controllest the reins and noble horses. 

23. We should behave righteously towards the religious-minded 
and learned householder, derive medical benefit from herbs and trees, 
inculcate the practice of yoga for the vigour of the priests, follow noble 
instructions for the improvement of physical organs controlled by the 
soul. O mother endowed with noble qualities like the Earth, don't injure 
me by wrong instructions. May I never injure thee. 

24. Worship God alone, who solidifies material objects, resides 
in the hearts of yogis, is Omnipresent, prevades the atmosphere, is the 
Giver of all gifts, prevades the earth, is adorable, ubiquitous, present in 
the hearts of godly persons, and in fine objects ; dwells in space ; is the 
creator of waters, and Earth, Revealer of the Vedas, and Maker of Clouds, 
mountains and trees. He is true in His nature and Mighty. 

25. O God so great art Thou : life art thou, give me life. Thou 
yokest all in noble deeds : Thou art splendour, give me splendour. 
Strength art thou : give me strength. O King and subjects, I make the 
strength of your arms depend upon God, the fountain of strength. 

26. O Queen, thou art happy, doer of virtuous deeds, and imparter 
of justice. So be eagerly engaged in delight-giving knowledge. Acquire 
carefully education that conduces to pleasure. Teach all the females the 
art of Kingship. 

27. O Queen, just as thy excellent husband, wedded to the vow of 
Brahmcharya, and master of nice wisdom, for universal sway, always sits 
in a court of law and administers justice, so shouldst thou. 

22. Just as an expert driver sitting in the car controls the reins and horses, so should 
the King, at the helm of state affairs, manage them skilfully and efficiently. 

25. I:-Purohit. 

26. In this verse, God preaches that there should be separate female magistrates to do 
justice to the famales, and male-magistrates for the males, as in the presence of males, females, 
through shyness and fear, canot speak out their mind and make a frank, oral or written state- 
meat. Males should teach the boys and females the girls. The vedas are against co-education. 


28. O King, thou art the conqueror of foes, May these five regions 
be prosperous for thee. O King, the master of spiritual knowledge, thou 
art the maker of the state. Thou art the creator of prosperity through 
righteous dealings. Thou art affable in nature through real power. Thou 
art the giver of comforts, through the splendour of thy subjects. Thou 
makest the wicked and the enemy weep, and art full of happiness. Thou 
art the doer of many acts; contributor to the welfare of thy people. Thou 
endeavourest again and again. Thou art the grantor of prosperity. 
Therewith grant me strength to do my duty. 

29. O King, just as spacious fire, dutiful and serviceable, residing 
in the midst of other allied objects, duly receives oblations of ghee, and 
gives happiness by diffusing them through the beams of the sun, soshouldst 
thou, the guardian of justice, large-hearted, and servant of the State, 
acquire sovereignty. So should the true workers exert. 

30. I go forward urged onward by the impelling God, the truthful 
speech full of Vedic knowledge, the justice based on real facts, the Earth 
that rears different cattle, our supremacy, the master of vedic knowledge, 
the unperturbed tranquillity, the fiery strength to suppress the enemies, 
the pleasure giving brilliance of the moon, and by the tenth, i.e., acting 
upon the qualities, actions, and nature of the Effulgent, Omnipresent God. 

31. O King and people try to be good teachers and preachers like 
the sun and moon, try hard to obtain the knowledge of the Vedas, exert 
your utmost, for supremacy that affords protection. By leading a re- 
ligious life, being pure like the air, endowed with noble qualities, full of 
knowledge, be friend unto God, by practising yoga. 

32. O learned King, full of supremacy, thou the observer of the vow 
of celibacy, art accepted by us, for the betterment of the learned teachers, 
for acquisition of the knowledge of the Vedas, for power and protection. 
Just as agriculturists whose fields are full of barley, reap the ripe corn, 
and remove the chaff in order, so bring food in a decent way to the 
aged, who deserve respect and homage. . 

33. O Speaker of the Assembly and Commander of the Army, ye, 
the united protectors of the State, and doers of altruistic deeds, protect 
from evil deeds and carnal pleasures, the rich cultivator, nicely busy with 
agricultural performances. 

28. My:-Purohit's 

30. In this verse ten qualities, a King should possess have been enumerated. 

And tne tenth -Nine qualities have been mentioned before, this tenth quality, a King 
should possess is the inner urge by God. 


34. O wealthy and adorable King, with the force of wisdom, enjoy 
the gladdening rule of thine ; may a learned and devoted wife serve thee. 
O' Speaker of the Assembly and Commander of the Army, protect the 
State, following the usages framed by the learned, as father and mother 
protect their child. 


1. An aspirant after superhuman power for the acquisition of 
spiritual knowledge, should first of all harness his mind and intellect 
with yoga. Having fully realised the high light of Omniscient God, he 
should show it to others on this earth. 

2. We, the yogis, with full concentration of mind, according to 
our resources, in this world created by the supreme Lord, should strive 
to acquire His Light, for our happiness. 

3. The master of the knowledge of yoga, having concentrated his 
mind on God, should with his intellect cultivate noble qualities, which 
spread the light of knowledge, and add to happiness* God guides them 
who advance scientific knowledge. 

4. The learned, who give and take knowledge, unite their mind 
and intellect riveted upon God, Who is Mighty and the fountain of 
knowledge. He alone, the Knower of all acts, worlds and sciences, 
declares law. Mighty is the praise of God, Who is the creator of the 
universe and Giver of knowledge. 

5. O seekers after yoga, I, wedded to truth, unite my soul with 
God, realised by past sages through prayer and meditation. 

May that God be realised by ye both through diverse efforts, just 
as a learned person finds the true path and sticks to it. All noble souls 
should listen to yoga vidya, so that they may acquire salvation and reach 
regions full of joys. 

6. O yogis, the learned souls, should follow through contemplation, 
God, the Embodiment of happiness, and the Giver of peace. The Omni- 
present, Effulgent Lord, the creator of the universe, brings into existence 
the material worlds through His glory and power. He alone deserves 

7. O God, the Bestower of knowledge, and Father of all accom- 
plishments, create for our advancement the pleasant usages, and their 
protectors. O Sustainer of the Earth, Master of fine qualities, acts and 
nature, and Purifier through knowledge, purify our thought and will. 
O Guardian of the Vedas, by their revelation unto us sweeten our 

3. I : Purohit. 

Ye both : Who preach and practise yoga. 


8. O God, the Fulfiller of our noble desires, our Impeller through 
Omnipresence, direct rightly our yajna, the protector of the learned, the 
bringer of friends, the promoter of truth, the giver of wealth, the develo- 
per of happiness, performed with Rig-vedic hymns. Speed praise-song 
with the sacred verse. Speed the journey we make in good planes. 

9. O Vedic speech, in this world created by the Omniscient Lord, 
I with the forces of sun and moon and the pran and apan forces of the 
air, with the teachings of verses in Gayatri metre, accept thee dear 
as breath. 

O vedic speech, bestow on me, from this alter knowledge, the 
benefactor of humanity. Grant me the strength of knowledge dear as 
breath, through verses in Trishtup metre. 

10. O vedic speech, thou art the bestower of knowledge, benefi- 
cial for the people like woman. Through thee, in this place of knowledge, 
may we be able to explore learning. With a life of celibacy for 48 years, 
may we improve our learning. 

11. The skilled artisan, following the instructions given in the 
Anushtap verses, firmly taking in hand the shining implement and 
measuring the power of electricity, hidden in substances, should use it 
carefully on the earth. 

12. O learned person, with the skill of art, thou hast attained to 
fame under the sun, thou art connected with air's mid-realm through 
electricity thy asylum is on earth. Being the master of aeroplanes, go 
ahead with nice well-balanced speed. 

13. O artisan and his master, ye both, the bestowers of happiness 
like the sun and air, harness electricity in this aeroplane, possessing the 
speed of fire and water, seating and taking us afar. 

14. O friends, in every deed and battle, we call for succour, our 
King, the mightiest of all. 

15. O King, thou whose paths are pleasant, with thy powerful 
and devoted army, come, destroying the forces of thy wicked foes. Come, 
overtaking the territories of the enemies. Spreading gladness all around, 
accept the chieftainship of thy commander of the army, who makes the 
enemies weep. Granting fearlessness to all thy subjects, speed through 
the wide air. 

11. Swami Dayananda gives its purport as such : People should know that electricity 
exists in all substances just as it does in iron and stones. Having its full knowledge, and 
using it well they should construct fiery instruments and aeroplanes. 


16. O learned person, just as we skillfully evolve from a part of 
the earth, electricity, dear as breath, and the giver of comfort, and just 
as we procure atmospheric electricity, dear as breath, and the giver of 
comfort, so shouldst thou skillfully prepare electricity which like the 
sun conduces to our comforts. 

17. The first and foremost God illuminates the sun before twilight. 
He also illuminates the days, and multiple beams of the sun. He alone 
establishes the Heaven and Earth. 

18. O learned King, just as a swift horse, having started on his 
way, causes terror in all battles, and just as a householder wants to see 
with his eyes, fire arranged in a beautiful place, so shouldst thou shake 
all battles and spread knowledge to each house. 

19. O learned King, according to thy desire, trample upon the 
foes, hanker after sovereignty and knowledge, and having accepted us as 
thy subjects on the earth, instruct us in geology and electricity ; so that 
we may use that knowledge. 

20. O learned King, thy humility and dealings are resplendent 
like the sun, thy seat is firm like the Earth, thy soul is indestructible, 
like the space, thy goal is vast like the ocean. Having measured thy 
strength carefully attack the enemy with thy army. 

21. O prosperous, learned person, just as we, the givers of wealth, 
from the surrounding of each dwelling place of ours, exploring the 
science of fire, acquire wisdom for worldly prosperity, so shouldst thou 
elevate thy self. 

22. O learned geologist, wealth-giver, just as a strong horse jumps 
up, so should'st thou attain to greatness in this world; acquire absolute, 
beautiful happiness free from pain, derivable from a saintly life. May we, 
in the enjoyment of happiness, explore the pervading electricity full of 

23. O seeker after knowledge, just as I with learning and ghee, 
clearly manifest the properties of air, that pervades all substances, that 
moves transversely, is vast in vitality, highly powerful with the oblations 
of corn, vast in velocity, and visible, so I make thee also understand the 
properties of air. 

21. The verse can also be translated as such. "O 1 learned persons, ye are the givers 
of wealth. Go forward from the present position for great prosperity. Digging, according to 
your instructions from the bosom of the earth, the lustrous metals like gold, let us be devoted 
to the good of humanity/* 

23. I: God, 


24. O man, just as heat and air pervading the body are useful to 
their sustainer, who fastly moves the organs of the body, like one attempt- 
ing, who fastly moves the organs of the body, like one attempting to fulfil 
his desire; So I, for the grandeur of man, manifest, with immaculate reason, 
the properties of the heat that sets in motion the air inside the body; so 
shouldst thou enjoy that heat. 

25. O learned person, know thou, the handsome, charitably-disposed 
renowned person, giving in charity gold to the learned person who acquires 
from all sides substances fit for charity, like the householders who pre- 
serve foodstuffs. 

26. O learned person, aspirant after power, we unanimously select 
thee. as our commander, the day by day destroyer of the citadel of our 
treacherous foes, possessing iron determination, good looking features, and 
vast knowledge. 

27. Thou, Sovereign Lord of men, just King, resplendent like fire, 
brilliant like the sun, speedy destroyer of the wicked, with air and waters, 
with clouds and stones, with forests and beams, with medicinal herbs, art 
adorned in every way, being pure amongst the subjects. 

28. O geologist and artisan, just as I, in this world created by the 
Effulgent Lord, like the powers of attraction and retention of the atmos- 
phere and earth, and like the force and swiftness of air, following in your 
wake, explore from a part of the earth, electricity, giver of full comfort, 
luminous, resplendent with imperishable lustre, gracious like air; and just 
as, with your assistance, we, explore from a part of the atmosphere, 
electricity, pervading like refined air, doing no harm, excellent amongst 
all nourishing substances, and administering to the prosperity of the 
people, so should all do. 

29. O learned person, thou knowest the qualities of integration 
and disintegration of the All pervading electricity, thou art worthy of re- 
spect. May thou progress with the aid of knowledge and scientific skill, 
having known the all round raining clouds, the support of water, the ocean 

24. I God. 

26. A man possessing tha virtues mentioned in the verse should be selected as a 
commander of the army. 

27. The King should make full use of the air, waters, clouds, stones, forests, beams and 
medicinal herbs for the good of his subjects. 

28. Powers of attraction and retention found in the atmosphere have figuratively been 
described in the verse as its arms, and the force and swiftness of the air as its hands. Electri- 
city is to be explored from the earth and atmosphere. 

I ; a scientist. We : Workers. 


and the material substances embedded in it, from which the sun, residing 
in the atmosphere, takes up with its beams; and adds amply to thy 

30. O wife and husband, ye have entered the domestic life with all 
its responsibilities, like the two faultless objects which are full of com- 
forts, fit for service in many ways. There are in your house deeds of 
virtue and worldly gain, which are the props of your domestic life. 

Dwell peacefully in that house, making full use of the nourishing 
and protecting electricity. 

31. O wife and husband, ye full well knowers of objects, protec- 
tors of all, enjoyers of happiness, make use with your thinking faculty, 
of ceaseless, ever flowing brilliant, and all pervading electricity. 

32. O learned person, well versed in religious lore, thou art the 
care-taker of cattle. The harmless and advanced well read person, the 
nourisher of all, accepts thee, having derived electricity from the sky, 
high above the world. 

33. O King, may the noble pupil of the harmless scholar, having 
mastered the comforts-giving objects like electricity, possessing the 
knowledge of the vedas, and master of all sciences, make thee, the killer 
of foes, and breaker of their forts, shine. 

34. O warrior, thou art well equipped with food-stuffs and water, 
and imbued with valour. May the army of heroes, with the teach- 
ing of the art of government illuminate thee, the destroyer of the wicked 
and winner of wealth in every battle-field. 

35. O learned person, fond of charity, full of knowledge, reside in 
pleasant happiness. On the basis of virtue, establish good relations 
between the King and the subjects. Taught by the sages, thou shouldst 
justly respect noble qualities. Give long life to the king and his people. 

36. He acquires happiness, who follows the charitably disposed 
learned persons, is an aspirant after religious practices, resplendent with 
noble traits, a seeker after knowledge, pure-tongued, passing mighty, 
wise through religious austerities, foremost amongst the celibates, a 
possessor of thousands of virtues, a grasper of noble characteristics, and 
pure like fire. 

30. The purport of this verse as given by Swam! Dayananda is, that we should con* 
struct houses full of doors, comfortable in all seasons, affording all round protection, and 
installed with electricity. 

32. He who knows the use and science of electricity never leads a life of poverty, 


37. O learned person, praiseworthy, chastiser of the wicked, 
loved by the sages, and sinless, acquire beautiful and attractive complexion. 
Be pure. Thou art full of noble qualities. Assume the role of a teacher. 

38. O skilled physician, arrange for the supply of pure and sweet 
waters, with their help, let medicinal plants with goodly berries spring 
for the cure of consumption-like diseases of the people. 

3d. O wife, the embodiment of fine qualities, may the air blowing 
in the mid-region, purified through yajna, strengthen thy well trained 

O learned husband, giver of comforts, thou hast got a heart discip- 
lined by the wise through the pleasant exercises of breath, may I bring 
thee, the source of happiness, reverence, glory, strength and well-being. 

40. O householder, full of riches, blazing like fire, well-renowned 
for knowledge reside in a comfortable nice house, and robe thyself in 
many-hued attire. 

41. O householder, lord of good deeds, arise. With Godlike 
thought protect us well. Shining like fire, sharer of all good things 
verily splendid to behold like the resplendent sun ; study all sciences 
with thy praiseworthy qualities. 

42. O learned teacher, arise erect, for our protection, like the 
brilliant sun high up in the sky. May thou, like shining beams, follow 
the pursuit of knowledge, with disciplined intelligent pupils trained in 
the art of grappling with knowledge. We specially invoke thee. 

43. O learned person, just as the sun, well-known on the Earth and 
the Sky, beautiful, infuser of strength in medicinal plants, wonderful, 
moving all around, subdues the glooms of nights, so should the child obtain 

44. O intelligent son, steady be thou to acquire knowledge, learn 
statesmanship, be stout in body, be active, learn the use of fiery instru- 
ments, be diffuser of happiness, and teacher of moral duty of protecting 
the weak. 

45. O beloved son, be propitious to creatures of the human race. 
Weep not for the objects between the heaven and earth, in air's mid region, 
and for trees. 

37. A teacher should possess the qualities mentioned in the verse. 

42. We :-the pupils. 

44. The father instructs the son as to the qualities he should possess. 

45, One should not weep over the wordly objects, but should try to protect and utilise 


46.* O noble son, like the fast moving, neighing, running, strong 
horse, die not ere thy time. Utilising electricity for thy safety, waste 
not thy energy. Just as the powerful, adorable sun takes away waters 
from the sea, and causes rain, so shouldst thou come hither for bestowing 

47. O good children, just as we realise, like air, the true, indes- 
tructible, steady, excellent, protection affording electricity, so should ye 
remain happy, after mastering this auspicious electricity. The medicinal 
food like barley, which ye obtain, is secured by us also. 

O physician, remove from us in various ways the unimpartible pain 
of diseases, and being well versed in medical science, banish all our evil 

48. O women, use medicinal plants laden with bloom and goodly 
fruit, so that your conception experienced at the time of menstruation 
may stay in the womb in its proper place. Use the medicines prepared 
from nice flowery herbs full of fruits. 

49. O husband, resplendent with thy wide-extending strength, 
chastise the voluptuous, and degraded women, painful to mankind like 
fell diseases. May I remain in your comfortable house, as the wife of 
one, highly graceful, pure in dealings, and lustrous like fire. 

50. O wives, be pure and sweet like waters, and full of happi- 
ness. Stick to us steadfastly, for energy, valour, and highly memorable 

51. O wives, we have got to perform a highly pleasant, joyful 
duty in this domestic life. Just as mothers in their longing love feed the 
child, so should ye perform it in a spirit of love and devotion. 

52. O wives, calm like waters, be contented in our house, and 
rear good sons. May we nobly attain to ye. 

53. O husband, friend unto all, for the health of the people, with 
the aid of knowledge, justice and instruction, having determined the 
earth and space, thou givest me pleasure : I bring fame unto thee, master 
of the vedas, and enjoying good reputation. 

54. O husband and wife, just as airs, making the sun shine, set 
the earth aglow with lofty light : and as the brilliant sun, born of airs, 

47. We : parents. 

48. For the preservation of their conception, women should use medicines which help 
in its proper growth. 

50. Husband and w ife should always remain together and be never separated, 
on the battle-field. This is the grand vedic ideal of their constant companionship. 


sheds constant light on material objects, so shouldst ye enlighten the 
people, with knowledge and justice and bring happiness unto them. 

55. O husband, just as a potter with the dexterity of his hand 
and skill, utilizes the clay, so render soft-hearted the celibate girl, well 
trained by the vasus, the Rudras, and the self controlled instructors. 
Take her as thy wife, who through love makes the girls strong. 

56. O venerable, ever-happy wife, utilise the services of a maid 
servant, who, full of love, with lovely looks, nobleminded, cooker of nice 
meals, places the cooking-pan in thy hands. 

57. O householder, thou art the head of domestic yajna. Prepare 
medicines with thy cooking skill, thy arms, and thy intellect, May thy 
wife bear semen in her womb, as a mother bears her son in her lap. 

58. O learned celibate young woman, thou art steady like air, 
and giver of happiness, may the learned Vasu Brahmcharis, with the 
teachings of Gayatri verses, as given in the Vedas, make thee my wife. 
O celibate young man, thou art steady like vital air, and full of 
forbearance like the earth, may the learned Vasu Brahmcharis, with 
the teachings of Gayatri verses as given in the Vedas, make thee my 
husband. Establish in me, thy wife, good progeny, abundant wealth, 
mastery of speech and land, and excellent valour. May we both 
handover the children born alike, to a learned teacher for acquiring 
knowledge. O learned celibate young woman, thou art stead-fast like the 
sky, and highly lovely, may the learned Rudra Brahmcharis, with the 
teachings of Trishtup verses as given in the vcdas, make thee my wife. 
O celibate young man, thou art steadfast like the sky, and full of love may 
Rudra Brahmcharis, with the teachings of Trishtup verses, as given in the 
Vedas, make thee my husband. May thou establish in me, virtuous 
children, abundant wealth, art of teaching, and excellent valour. May we 
both, hand over the children born of the same womb, to a learned teacher, 
the master of the Vedas, for learning the vedic lore from him. 

55. Vasus :, Learned persons who observe celibacy for 24 years. 
Rudras :- Persons who observe celibacy for 44 years. 

Girls strong - Improves the girls physically, intellectually and morally. 

56. Trained and intelligent maid-servants should be employed by householders to cook 

57. Medicines should be used for the preservation of conception. 

58- A Vasu Brahmchari is one who observes the vow of celibacy of 24 years. A Rudra 
Brahmchari remains celibate for 44 years, and an Aditya Brahmchari for 48 years. These 
learned persons unite the young man and woman in wedlock, reciting the vedic verses 
dilating upon the respective duties and responsibilities of domestic life. 

Born alike means born of the same womb, without distinction. 


O learned celebate young woman, thou art steady like the sky, and 
brilliant like the sun. May the learned Aditya Brahmcharis, with the 
teachings of Jagati verses as given in the vedas, make thee my wife. O 
celibate young man, thou art steadfast like the sky and brilliant like the 
sun. May the learned Aditya Brahmcharis, with the teachings of Jagati 
verses as given in the Vedas, make thee my husband. Establish in me 
good progeny, abundant wealth, full mastery of knowledge, and excellent 
valour. May we both hand over the children giving them instructions 
from their infancy, to a learned teacher, for receiving education. O 
beautiful and glorious wife, thou art steadfast like the vital air, and 
famous in all directions. May all the sages and preachers, with the 
teachings of Anushtup verses as given in the Vedas, entrust thee to my 
care. O husband, thou art steadfast like the vital air, and famous in all 
directions, may all the sages and teachers place thee in my charge. 
Establish in me, good progeny, abundant wealth, wisdom of speech, and 
excellent valour. May we both hand over our children for receiving 
education, to a learned teacher who preaches truth. 

59. O learned teachress, thou art the bestower of education. Let 
the son and daughter, observing celibacy, receive education from thee. 
Thou, like a mother, handest over the big earthen cooking-pan to thy 
pupils, to be placed near the fire, so that being trained in the art of 
cooking, they cook nicely their meals. 

60. O male or female student, may the vasu Brahmcharis, with 
the Gayatri verses as given in the vedas coach thee dear as life. May 
the Rudra Brahmcharis with the Trishtup verses as given in the vedas, 
coach thee, a seeker after knowledge. May the Aditya Brahmcharis^ 
with the Jagati verses as given in the vedas coach thee, pure like air. 
May all the noble teachers and religious preachers, with the Anushtap 
verses as given in the vedas, coach thee, lustrous like electricity. May 
the King coach thee in statesmanship. May the Lord of Justice coach 
thee in the art of administering justice. May the yogi coach thee in 
yogic practices. 

61. O child free from sin and blame, may the lady advanced in 

59. A teachress should give instruction to her pupils in the art of cooking also, 
besides teaching them other branches of knowledge. 

61. Just as earth is dug, well is constructed and water drawn out, so the teacher draws 
out the latent faculties of the head and heart of the pupil. The word W^ which means digging, 
has figuratively been used for developing the mental and intellectual faculties of the child. 

The student girl is advised in this verse, to lead a life of celibacy, and acquire know- 
ledge from different ladies mentioned therein. 


knowledge amongst the learned, expert in teaching, well read, in any part 
of the earth, educate thee, brilliant like fire. 

O educated young girl, may the wife of a learned person, most 
advanced in knowledge amongst the learned, well read, in any part of the 
earth, educate thee, dear as life. 

O girl, seeker after knowledge, may the lady advanced in knowledge 
amongst the learned, wise, sweet-tongued and well read, in any part of 
the earth, enlighten thee, strong as vital air. 

O girl, receiving education, may a learned, noble, beautiful lady, in 
any part of the earth make thee glorious like the sun. 

O girl student, may a lady advanced in knowledge amongst the 
learned, full of pure knowledge, and well versed in the vedas, in any part 
of the earth, make thee forceful like electricity. 

O girl desirous of knowledge, may a learned lady, attired in beautiful 
clothes, and air-minded, well-known for her virtues, the bestower of fine 
moral qualities, in a good place of the earth, make thee sweet, like the 
juice of medicinal herbs. 

62. O woman, protect the valuable ancestral property of thy 
glorious husband, who loves thee, is the guardian of the people, and master 
of various nice foodstuffs. 

63. O woman, let thy majestic husband, with lovely arms, with 
lovely hands, with lovely fingers, by the power he hath, make thee, resid- 
ing on the earth, pregnant. Thou shouldst serve thy husband without 
fear, and fill all directions with thy desire and fame. 

64. O educated girl, be highly active, and firm in noble resolves. 
Get ready, and shedding idleness, marry this husband. O friend, I hand 
over this girl to thee, to remain without fear. Never separate her from 

65. O man or woman, may the vasu Brahmcharis, illuminate thee 
like fire, with Gayatri verses. May the Rudra Brahmcharis, strengthen 
thee like vital breath with Trishtup verses. May the Aditya Brahmcharis 
make thee pure and lustrous, with Jagati verses. May all the sages and 
preachers of truth, make thee pure like medicinal herbs, with Anushtap 

62. Wife should inherit the property of her husband, and keep it in tact. 

64, I:- Priest. 

65. Gayatri verses :- which preach high sciences. 

Trishtup verses : which dilate upon action, meditation and knowledge, 
Jagati verses >which reveal the nature of material objectsi 
Anushtap verses :-which remove our miseries, 


66. Realisc> through the practice of truth, the thoughtful soul, fit to 
Understand the true essence of things and their use. 

Realise through yoga, mind, wisdom, and soul their impeller, know 
fully the firelike soul, the impeller of thought and knowledge. 

Realise well speech and steady abstraction of the mind, and their 
urger, the yogic force. 

Revere the wise ruler, the Protector of the people. 
Eulogise the Self Effulgent Lord, the Friend of all. 

67. Let all mortals seek the friendship of God, the maker of the 
universe. Let all use arms for glory and wealth, and possess truthful 
speech, fame and food. Just as thou prosperest thereby, let all of us 

68. O mother, wean us not from education, harm us not. Accomp- 
lish with determination the task undertaken. May thou and thy son thus, 
resolute like fire, finish this task worth doing. 

69. O wife, equipped with knowledge, and possessing learning vast 
like the earth, thou hast corrected the low mentality of self-interest- 
ed persons, with food and water, for their good. Make me thy husband 
prosper. Being non-violent, attain to fame in this domestic life. May 
this oblation be accepted by the learned. 

70. O husband, fed on fruits of trees, and clarified butter, ever 
worthy of respect, giver and taker, the son of the strong, wonderful in 
qualities, deeds and temperament, be famous in this domestic life for 
enjoying happiness. 

71. O well qualified girl, reject those who are equal or inferior to 
thee in strength and learning. I want to marry thee. 

Protect the good persons of the family, which I belong to. 

72. O learned and dignified husband, lord of conveyances propelled 
by fire, excellent in affording protection, loved by many, come hitherward 
from the farthest distance, for marrying this beautiful renowned and 
well-behaved girl, and overcome our foes along with her. 

67. Thou :-a lea mid person. 

70, Giver and taker i-The husband gives sound advice to the wife, and takes good counsel 
from htr. 

72. The veda condemns the near and advocates the distant marriages. Swami Dayananda, 
in his immortal book the Satyarth Prakash mentions in details the drawbacks of near, and 
advantages of distant marriages. Our : Parents, 


73. O most youthful young man or woman, tna^ we put in tne 
earthen pot all eatables belonging to thee. All that belongs to us, is 
thine. Eat the ghee that belongs to us. All that belongs to thee is ours. 
May we use the ghee that belongs to thee. 

74. O most youthful husband, whatever thou eatest, or whatever 
thy wife, free from greed, with control over her palate, eatest and the 
breath that comes sharply out of her mouth, that all is thine. Eat the 
ghee that is thine. 

75. Just as we, with unceasing care bring fodder day after day to a 
stabled courser, so may we, amassing all the enjoyable objects of life, 
pleased with food and growth of riches, leading a religious life, never 
injure this learned householder, fit for domestic life, free from injustice. 

76. Just as we put oblations in the fire enkindled on earth's navel, 
so we for ample increase of our riches, hail the commander of the army, 
most calm in the midst of armies, relisher of meals, much applauded, 
warrior, fast like electricity, and conqueror. 

77. Whatever hosts there are, fiercely assailant, charging all round 
with weapons, drawn up in order with arms. Whatever thieves there are, 
whatever robbers, all these I put under the care of the King for deserving 

78. O King, devour the burglars, with both tusks, destroy the 
robbers, with thy teeth. With both thy jaws, eat up the thieves and 

79. The burglars living among men, the thieves and robbers in 
the wood, criminals lurking in their lairs, these do I lay between thy 

73. We, us :- The near relatives of the boy or girl. 

74. There should be no distinction between the belongings of the husband and wife. 
What belongs to the husband is the property of the wife, and vice versa- 

75. We:- relatives and neighbours, 
Householder:- Wife. 

77. Just as everything put in the mouth of the fire is burnt, so boisterous enemies, 
thieves and robbers are placed under the King for due punishment. 

78. The language is figurative. The tusks, teeth and jaws of the King are his policy, 
punishment, discipline and diverse means of suppressing the evil-minded people. 

79. I :- Commander of the army. 

Thy:- the King. Just as grass is laid in the jaws of an animal to be chewn, so wicked 
persons are placed at the disposal of the King for punishment. 


&0. Turn thou to ashes, him, who would seek to injure us, the 
man who looks on us with hate, and the man who slanders and deceives us. 

81. Praiseworthy be my and his knowledge of the vedas. 

Praiseworthy be his manly strength and force. Praiseworthy be 
his victorious power and dynasty of whom I am the household priest. 

82. May I, with the strength of vedic knowledge and aid of God 
excel the wicked persons, in strength, and might. I ruin the foes and lift 
my friends to a high position. 

83. O Lord of Food, vouchsafe us a share of food that invigorates 
us, and brings no sickness. Onward, still onward lead the giver. Grant us 
maintenance both for quadrupeds and bipeds. 

80. Thou :- King. 

81. My:- the purohit or priest. 

His:- the householder, i.e., Yajman. 

82. I :- Household priest. 

83. Lord of food :- Priest or yajman (Sacrificr). 


1. Just as the shining beaming sun, exhibits the diverse material 
objects on this vast solid earth, so does a man, desirous of wealth, extre- 
mely lovely, full of vitality, enjoy undaunted life, free from the injury of 
foes, in his long life, and beget this learned offspring. 

2. Night and Dawn, different in hue, accordant, meeting together, 
suckle like two mothers one same infant the sun, which, pleasant in sight, 
shines between the heaven and earth. The powerful divine forces support 

3. God is adorable, Omniscient, Maker of the universe, worthy of 
worship at dawn, Shaper of all material objects, Bringer of good for the 
quadrupeds and bipeds, and Remover of their troubles, 

4. O learned person thou hast action, contemplation and learning 
for thy head. Gayatri is thy eye. Brihat and Rathantra are thy wings. 
Rig Veda is thy soul. Metres are thy limbs. The hymns of the yajur 
veda are thy name. The vamdevya saman is thy body. The deeds worth 
doing and shunning are thy tail. The yajnas are thy hooves. Thou art 
high souled, and master of noble qualities. Acquire knowledge and attain 
to happiness. 

5. O learned person, purified by the instruction of God, thou art 
the rival-slayer. Follow the teachings of Gayatri verses ; and utilise all 
earthly objects for thy benefit. Thou knowest the law of cause and effect, 
and art the destroyer of the proud. Know the significance of verses in 
Trishtup metre ; and control the mid-air. 

2. Him : the sun. 

Just as mother and nurse suckle the child, so do day and night protect and support 
the sun. 

4. Head :- Whereby a learned person removes all miseries. 
Gayatri :- The knowledge given in the Gayatri verses. 

Brihat and Rathantra :- The well known songs of the Sam Veda. 

Name :-The source of glory and fame. 

Vamdevya :-The portion of the Samveda, named so, as it is revealed by Vam, the one 
worshipful God. 

Tail :-The source of support. 

Hooves :- Just as hooves are the supporters of an animal, so the yajnas are the props 
of a learned person. 

5. Trishtup verses .--They deal with the spiritual and physical enjoyments and those 
derived from the forces of nature. Jagati verses give us the knowledge of the science of 
universe* Anushtap verses give us the desired happiness. 


Thou knowest the pervading electricity, are the chastiser of the 
opponents of the spread of learning. Master the knowledge derived 
from the verses in Jagati metre, and utilise the heat of the sun. 

Thou knowest the pervading air, and art the foeman-slayer, under- 
stand the instructions given in verses revealed in Anushtap metre, and 
master all directions. 

6. O people, just as a ruler attains to fame in a day, and thunder- 
ing like the lightning meets with the foes; just as the earth fills the trees 
with fruits, so he rewards soon, for the happiness of his subjects, their 
good and bad deeds. Just as the sun, blazing and manifesting visibly all 
the material objects, adorns the Earth and Heaven, and fills the universe 
with lustre, so a person possessed of noble qualities, be elected as a 

7. Return to me, thou ever-returning learned person, with life, 
literary lustre, progeny, and treasure, with wisdom that explains all 
departments of knowledge, with intellect and abundance. 

8. O scientist filled with the delight of knowledge; may thy visits 
be a hundred, and thy returns a thousand. With the increase of strength- 
giving wealth, give us anew the knowledge unknown before, give us again 

9. O learned teacher, save us again and again from vices. Protect 
us again and again. Grant us again and again noble resolves, nourishing 
diet, and valorous deeds. 

10. O learned person, shun evil deeds, and enjoy happiness, with 
wealth, and speech, the imparter of all enjoyable objects and the retainer 
of all knowledge. 

11. O King, enter the Assembly, I declare thee as the ruler. 
Stand steadfast and immovable. Let all thy subjects long for thee. Let 
not thy Kingship fall away. 

12. O ruler, the controller of foes and dispenser of justice, con- 
troller of thy kingdom like the eternal sun, release us from the up- 
most bond, let down the lowest and remove the midmost. So may we, 
for thy kingship, be sinless in the observance of thy true and just laws. 

7. A learned person visits the house of a householder now and then, and grants him 
through his instructions the objects mentioned in the verse. 

11. I .--Purohit, who anoints the King. 

12. The bonds fastened in the upper, middle and lower parts of the body can be released 
by the order of the King- 


13. O king, just as the brilliant sun rising early, resides beauti- 
fully in the sky before the dawns, removes darkness with its light 
and lustre, reaches the universe, and fills with splendour all material 
objects, so should'st thou live amongst thy subjects. 

14. God is the Destroyer of evil deeds, the Embodiment of purity, 
the Supporter of the virtuous, Steadfast in the laws of religion, the Imbiber 
of Truth, Omnipresent. Adorable, Present in the minds of the people and 
sages, Wedded to Truth, Ubiquitous, Creator of vital breaths, animals, and 
the vedas, the Bringer of clouds, True and Mighty. 

15. O aspirant after knowledge, shine thou in the presence of thy 
mother. Filled with the lustre of pure character and knowledge, sit in 
the lap of this thy mother, thy support like earth. Learn from her all 
holy ordinances. Never think of putting her to grief with distress and 

16. O majestic King, master of the vedas, tormenting the foes, 
seated in thy study room, live in the mid&t of thy subjects, with love. 
Be gracious, suppressing the enemies with the glowing strength of thy 

17. O King, the destroyer of foes, being propitious unto us thy 
subjects, be gracious in this world. Filling thy subjects living in all 
directions with grace, sit on thy seat of government, and be calm in thy 
task of administration. 

18. O King thou art firstly born like the sun in heaven; thou art 
secondly full of knowledge from amongst us. Thou art thirdly, most 
thoughtful among men, with control over senses. 

Just as a learned person constantly applauds and stimulates thee, so 
shouldst thou praise thy subjects. 

19. O learned person, may we know thy three duties in three 
stages. May we know thy name, parentage and birth place, worthy of 

14. The verse is the same as 10-24 but with a different interpretation and thus free 
from the cbange of repetition. 

16. A king makes all plans for attacking the enemies, in a calm silent contemplative 
mood seated in his study room. 

18. The threefold qualities of a King are mentioned in this verse. (1) he should be full 
of lustre and brilliance like the sun, (2) full of knowledge (3) a deep thinker and self 
controlled. The verse may also refer to Ashramas in which people should acquire knowledge, 
wealth, practise penance and spread vedic light. 

19. Three duties:- Knowledge, Action and Contemplation. 

Three Stations :- Brahmcharya, Grihastha and Vanprastha Ashram*** 


acceptance. May we know what peculiar name supreme thou hast hidden 
in intellect. In order to approach thee well, may we know thee as our 
assuager like the well. 

20. O learned person, I the lover of leaders, illuminate thee, like 
lightning in the sky. I, the judge of the worth of men, spread thy fame 
over seas, The high-souled literary persons, like the sun in the third 
high region, elevate thee in the midst of the subjects. 

21. The sun, like the roaring, lightning, helping the growth of 
medicinal herbs, speedily sets in motion the material objects, strikes 
against the earth with its beams, rising in full glory, kindles on all sides 
the Heaven and Earth with its rays ; and shines with full lustre in the 

22. Elect him as a ruler who is lustrous like the sun in fore-front 
of the dawns, the giver of wealth, the master of riches, the bestower of 
wisdom, the protector of prosperity, the observer of the vow of celibacy, 
the son of a strong father, and the controller of his senses. 

23. Elect him as a ruler, who is the protector of the whole world, 
springs to life in its midst ; fills the Earth and Heaven opposing the foes, 
cuts to pieces the powerful enemy, just as the sun cuts asunder the 
dense cloud, is full of knowledge, and respected by five classes of persons. 

24. God has established among mortals, knowledge, which is accep- 
table, purifier, knowable, wise and immortal. The same knowledge, with 
its active brilliance, pervading the universe, and sustaining the world, 
dispels darkness devoid of light. 

25. Know God, who manifests the universe, is fascinating, full of 
grace, the Giver of life free from calamities, displays Himself in imperish- 
able, lustrous earth, is All-pervading, Self -illuminating, full of manifold 
vitalities, and Creator of this world. 

26. O lovely, young learned person, the bestower of enjoyments, 
always select him as thy cook, who can prepare highly delicious, palatable 
meals, mixed with butter, fit to be taken by the wise. 

27. O learned person, appoint him as thy cook, who has worked 
with the rich, who feels pleased with praise and acts upon the instructions 
given, is dear to respectable persons, and knows the use of fire, lives 
peacefully with your sons and grandsons, and tears asunder the foes. 

20. I> God. 

23. Panch Jana> Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaish, Shudra, and Nishad, It may also mean, 
the four Ritvijas, Hot a, Adhwaryu, Udgata, Brahma, and the yajman, sacrifice!-. It may also 
mean, five praoas, as a ruler is expected to have control over his breaths. 


28. O learned person, the wise householders, under thy shelter, 
daily acquire with thy assistance, all sorts of riches worthy of acceptance. 
Desirous of wealth they resort to thee, as an agriculturist resorts to the 
stable filled with cattle, or wishes for clouds filled with rain. 

29. O learned sages, ye have applauded God, the Comforter of the 
people, and the Support of all. Give us wealth and heroic children ; 
whereby we, guardians of supremacy, free from hatred, attain to the 
sovereignty of the earth and political sagacity. 

30. O householders, just as fire is kindled with fuel, so serve the 
learned preacher with well-cooked food, Welcome thy preacher guest 
with ghee, just as fire is aroused with it in oblations. Give in charity, in 
this world, all things worth giving. 

31. O learned person, may all the sages nourish thee with their 
knowledge. Thou, rich in light of learning, and endowed with noble 
qualities, preach unto us elevating thoughts. 

32. O King, the preacher of knowledge, just as the sun, resplen- 
dent with its auspicious flames of fire, and shining with mighty beams of 
light, works in the universe, so attain to happiness, and destroy not the 
bodies of the subjects deserving protection. 

33. He alone is fit to rule, who spreads knowledge, and administers 
justice, kills the foes, roars like the lightning, protects the forest trees, 
wages battles on the earth, is expert in statesmanship, and endowed with 
noble qualities, speedily preaches religion, keeps with his power under 
control, the Sun and Earth, and spreads around his lustre. 

34. He should be put at the head of the army, who, full of brilli- 
ance, shines like the sun with lofty splendour, stands with the officers in 
our battles ; is loved by the learned, constantly on tour, full of bliss, the 
advocate of learning and religion, and known as the protector of the State. 

35. O learned persons, take in wedlock the girls, who like the 
pure water are full of vast intellect and learning, good-looking and well- 
behaved, full of glory, please their husbands in their beautiful homes; and 
make them happy and contented. Just as the beautiful and well educated 

32. Destroy not the body of any person. Don't five capital punishment. Hanging tn 
the fallows is thus prohibited in the vedas. 

33. This verse is the same as revealed in 12.6 and 12.21. The interpretation of each 
is different from the other. 

34. The soul after leaving the body at the time of death roams in air, waters and 
plants, before it enters the womb for rebirth. The doctrine of the transmigratiom of soul is 
propounded in this verse. 

XII 127 

WiVes bow unto you, so should you bow unto them. The husband and 
wife should love this child like life, as a mother does her son. 

36. O learned and tolerant soul, after roaming in waters and 
plants, thou enterest the womb, and art born again and again. 

37. O soul thou art born in plants, thou art born in trees, thou art 
born in all created animate objects, thou art born in waters. 

38. O soul, blazing like the sun. after cremation, having reached 
the fire and the earth for rebirth, and residing in the belly of thy mother, 
thou art born again. 

39. O soul, having reached the womb, again and again, thou 
auspiciously liest in thy mother, as a child sleeps in her mother's lap. 

40. O noble parents, advance us with food and life, protect us 
again and again from sinful conduct. O' son, remain aloof from vices, 
with thy force of character, and keep us away from evil intentions. 

41. O learned person, travel constantly in the world, with wealth 
and seasoned speech, the sources of enjoyment, and serve the people. 

42. O most youthful, and resourceful pupil understand the signi- 
ficance of the eloquent speech of mine, thy protector and sustainer. One 
will hate thee and another sing thy praises ; but never renounce the truth. 
I, an adorer of thine bow at thy feet. 

43. O preacher, the guardian of wealth, giver of riches to the 
deserving, full of commendable knowledge, and wisdom, thou knowest 
the truth. For the performance of all noble needs, and preaching the 
truth, keep far away from us all evil designs. 

44. O imparter of vedic knowledge and wealth, in the company of 

37. After leaving the body, soul is reborn. By nature it is eternal, immortal and unborn, 
but takes birth to reap the fruit of its actions. It is eternal with God and matter. 

38. The soul, after cremation, before it enters the womb, roams in waters, earth, fire, 
and material objects, the cause of creation. 

40. The verse is the same as 12.9, but with a different interpretation. 

41. The verse is the same as 12.10., but with a different interpretation. 

42. I : pupil. Mine the preceptor. 

In the first part the teacher instructs the pupil . and in the second, the pupil expresses 
his gratitude towards his teacher. 

43. A preacher is the guardian of the wealth of knowledge. He imparts this 
wealth to others. A preacher is expected to be a man of knowledge and truthful speech. His 
duty is to save humanity from evil thoughts. 

44. Adityas : Brahmcharis who lead a life of celibacy for 48 years, and acquirt 

Rudras .Those who remain celibate up to 36 years, and study the vedas. 
Vasus : Who remain celibate and study the vedas for 24 years. 
Brahmas .Who have mastered all the four vedas. 


the learned, may thou improve thy body with butter. After the comple- 
tion of study, let the Adityas, Rudras, Vasus and Brahmas, make thce 
renowned. Let the sacrificer's wishes be fulfilled. 

45. O learned persons, may all the aged and young scholars living 
at present in the world acting as teachers and preachers impart spiritual 
knowledge to this disciple filled with noble resolves. May thy teacher 
grant thee a dignified position. Shun unrighteousness, and follow 
Dharma, and stick to it particularly. 

46. O learned teacher, thou art the embodiment of knowledge. 
May I obtain thy strength for the accomplishment of wishes. Thou 
removest my evils as the fire reduces the fuel to ashes. Thou art full of 
strength like the lightning. Give me that strength. O' pupils, ye are the 
achievers of knowledge, ye are the observers of the real spirit of religion, 
hence always follow religion. 

47. O highly cultured person, thou art worthy of praise, being 
charitable in nature. Lightning and sun, ripen the juices of plants for 
thee. I take in my belly the juice thus ripened. I full of intense desire 
receive my wife, as my companion. Along with thee, I preserve the 
foodstuffs, like a fast horse. 

48. O social learned person, the splendour of thy knowledge is 
found in the soul, in the earth, in plants, and in waters. Wherewith 
thou hast overspread mid air's vast region. The light of the sun, that 
gives sight to man, is the bringer of rain. 

49. O learned person, with the light of thy knowledge, thou duly 
singest the praise of waters beyond the light of sun, and those that are 
beneath it here. Thou well preachest knowledge to the students who are 
expert in the art of speaking. 

50. All learned persons, endowed with various sorts of knowledge, 
free from disease and malice, friendly towards all, shrewd in actions should 
spread education and entertain hfgh aims. 

51. O preceptor, vouchsafe thy wisdom unto us. May the son born 
to us, be the begetter of different sorts of supremacy. Teach him while 
receiving education, praiseworthy eloquence, eternal knowledge of the 
vedas, and the Rigveda, the granter of success in all our actions. 

46. Tnis verse is a dialogue between the teacher and pupils. 

47. I : A householder. 

As a fast horse preserves the rider and speedily takes him to his dastlnatlon so I 
preserve the foodstuffs for proper use. 


52. O fire-like pure soul this is thine ordered birth, the giver of 
happiness and remover of misery, whence sprung to life, thou shinest 
forth. Knowing this do noble deeds, and cause our riches increase. 

53. O girl, thou art the imparter of knowledge; with vedic lore re- 
main steady like breaths. O celibate girl, thou art the master of 
different sciences, with thy religious life, remain steady like God. 

54. O girl, thy father, mother, and teachress who know the vedas, 
impart thee knowledge for the emancipation of thy soul. Preserve that 
knowledge with iron determination. Henceforth fill up all thy weak- 
nesses, and please the people with thy knowledge. 

55. The wives of learned persons, with beautiful bodies and tender 
limbs, having good cooks and servants to milch the cows, being reborn 
with knowledge, cook well prepared diet, in this beautiful domestic life. 
They observing the laws of Brahmcharya, give happiness to their husbands 
in past, present and future, in all pleasant domestic tasks and give birth 
to good offspring. 

56. O men and women, just as all vedic sacred speech, deep like 
the sea, protector of the vedas and noble souls, master of supremacy, 
magnifies on battlefields, the best amongst the warriors, and adds to his 
glory, so shouldst ye magnify all. 

57. O husband and wife, be dear to each other, shun sensuality, be 
one-minded, dress nicely. Attain together to your goal, and use your 
vigour for a common cause. 

58. Together have I brought your minds, your vows, and your 
thoughts. O teacher, our protector, be thou our guardian ; give food, 
physical and spiritual strength to the sacrificer. 

59. O learned preacher, in this world, thou art the follower of one 
principle, wealthy, physically and spiritually strong. Having made all the 
people blest, stick to thy duty of preaching ; thou giver of happiness, and 
the dispeller of miseries. 

52. Our :-Parents. 

The Ritugami parents produce a noble child, who adds to the wealth and fame of the 

58. I :- Acharya, preceptor , 
Your > Husband and wife. 

59. One principle : vedic truth. 

An updeshak should be a true follower of vedic principles, above want, physically 
and spiritually strong. He should never forsake his duty of preaching the truth* 


60. Be ye one-mined unto us, both of one thought, free from fault. 

Harm not the Dharma worth-attaining. Harm not him who preaches 
religion. Be ever gracious unto us, ye knowers of all knowledge. 

61. The learned woman, calm like the earth, preserves in her 
womb, like a mother, the healthy and beautiful son. 

May the Omniscient God, the source of all noble actions, relieve 
the child from pain, in all seasons, with His divine powers. 

62. O learned woman, calm like the earth, seek some one else 
besides our relatives of thievish and plundering nature. Don't wish for 
an irreligious or uncharitable husband. Whatever course of action thou 
choosest, may that succeed. To thee be homage. 

63. O woman, the embodiment of true conduct, thine are the 
foodstuffs, and substances brilliant like gold ; cut asunder ignorance, the 
source of bondage. In unanimity with yama and yami, uplift thy husband 
to the sublimest vault of happiness. 

64. O woman, awe-inspiring to the wicked, I put in thy mouth 
palatable food for the removal of thy physical ailments. People please 
thee invoking thee as Bhoomi. May I know thee in every way as the 
producer of good progeny, as earth produces foodstuffs. 

65. O husband, calm like the earth, I fasten on thy neck, the 
unbreakable binding noose of pure married life. The same do I fasten unto 
me for thee. I enter this life for longevity. Let none of us disobey the 
law of domestic life. Eat thou young man this food, which I eat. 

O wife, the embodiment of virtue, follow strictly the duties of 
married life. I give thee foodstuffs for thy prosperity. 

60. Ye :- Husband and wife. 
Us :-Teacher atd preacher. 

61. Just as the earth preserves electricity and fire in its wcmb, so should the mother 
preserve the child. 

63. Yama :-the male administrator of justice. 
Yami :-the female administrator of justice. 

In unanimity means in consonance with, according to the wishes of the king and queen. 

64. Bhoomi :-A woman is compared to earth. Just as earth produces nice fruits, 
flowers and grains, so does a woman give birth to noble children. 

65. The married couple should lead together a life of purity, and mutual love ; being 
free from sensuality. 

Unbreakable '-The vedic marriage is indissoluble and irrevocable, being a sacramant 
and not a contract. 


66. He alone is fit to lead a married life, who, like God, the 
Creator of the universe, and master of eternal laws, keeps constant 
company with his wife and behaves properly, who, like the sun, opposes 
the warriors on the battle-field, 

67. The intelligent ply the ploughs. The wise for the comfort of the 
learned, carry the yokes in different directions. 

68. O people, use various implements for cultivating the earth. 
Employ ploughs and yokes. Sow seed in a well prepared field. With the 
knowledge of the science of agriculture and full consideration, be quick 
to sustain and nourish yourselves. May we get the corn fully grown and 
ripened in the near fields. 

69. Happily let the ploughshares turn up the plough land, happily 
go the hard-working ploughers with the 'oxen. O air and sun, nourishing 
the earth with water, cause ye our plants bear abundant fruit. 

70. Approved by all the learned persons, strengthened and sprinkled 
with water and milk, the furrow be balmed with butter and honey. 
The furrow will give us ghee so we should water it again and again. 

71. O farmers the keen-sheared plough, the bringer of bliss, the 
protector of foodstuffs, moves awry. It is the giver of fast, comfortable 
conveyances. With it dig the solid earth for protection's sake. 

72. O cook, the preparer of palatable meals, please with thy 
vegetarian preparations, thy friends, the learned, the guests, the officials, 
and the Pranas and Apanas, the protecting parents, and the children. 

66. Just as the sun wages fight with the clouds, to make them rain, so should a true 
Grihasthi wage war with the enemies in a battle and subdue them. He should be brave like 
a warrior, and not timid. Ju?t as God, with His constant law creates the universe, and 
protects all men, so should the husband always remain in the company of his wife for her 
portection and behave properly towards her. 

67. Agriculture is considered to be highly essential for the good of humanity. The 
learned should follow this profession, and grow more food by scientific methods of cultivation, 
say the use of fertilizers and tractors. 

This verse can be applied for yoga as well, and interpreted like this. The yogis concen- 
trate on different organs through samadhi. Through Sushumna, they control their breaths in 
different ways. 

70. The orthodox commentators interpret Sita as the wife of Shri Ram Chandra. There 
is no history in the vedas. This is a wrong interpretation. Sita is the furrow traced in a 
field when it is ploughed. The furrow should be fed with milk, honey and water, so that it 
may grow sweet, fresh, good and pleasant corn. 

71. Plough is the instrument of agriculture, which gives us prosperity and wealth 
wherewith we can buy comfortable conveyances like motor cars and aeroplanes. 


73. O persons, just as ye become free from ailments by getting 
good food from inviolable cows, the source of prosperity, so should we. 
Just as ye attain to the end of night at dawn, so should we. Just as ye 
receive the light of this sun, so should we. 

74. We all should live together amicably, as the year lives with 
its parts, the dawn with its ruddy beams, the husband and wife with their 
wonderful achievements, the sun together with his dappled courser, the 
air, the earth with water, and the lightning with its exact thunder. 

75. May I know the herbs that were born three years ago in the 
earth, that pervade all the 107 vital parts of the body of the patients. 

76. O physicians imbued with manifold wisdom and deeds, protect 
my body from disease, with medicines having hundred, and thousand 
growths. Cure your bodies as well. Know the innumerable vital parts of 
your body. O mother thou shouldst also do like this. 

77. O people derive happiness by the use of herbs full of blossoms 
and fruits, conquerors of diseases like horses, and assuagers of physical 

78. O learned mother comforting like the herbs, may I speak 
unto thee in proximity, wholesome words. O active, virtuousson, may I, 
your mother, enjoy your horse, cow, land, home, clothes and soul-force. 

79. O souls, this unstable body like the decaying herbs is your 
home. God has given ye abode in this ephemeral world like water on the 
lotus-leaf. Enjoy this earth, nourish the body with food and medicine, 
and attain to happiness. 

80. O men go to places where there are herbs, just as kings go to 
the battle-fields. 

The sagacious physician, the slayer of fiendish ailments and chaser 
of diseases, tells ye the qualities of the herbs. Take service from him 
and them both. 

81. May I know for the health of this patient, all medicines, 

75. I : A physician. 

Three years old : The herbs that grow to full maturity in three years ; and are fully 

One hundred and seven vital parts of this body as given in the text mean the several vital 
parts in which the herbs pervade. 

77. Just as swift horses help us in conquering foes, so do the medicinal herbs conquer 
our diseases and physical discomforts. 

80. Him : Physician. 
Them : herbs. 

81. I : Physiciaa. 


efficacious in nature, full of juice, rich in nourishments, and possessing 
strength-giving power. May they all give me ease. 

82. Oman, just as strong cows go forth from their stalls and feed 
their calves, so do the healing virtues of the wealth-giving medicinal 
herbs, used properly, strengthen thy body and soul. 

83. O men, know the medicine that brings ye relief like the 
mother. Like flowing streams pay back the debt of gratitude. Keep 
afar whatever brings disease. 

84. Just as a thief steals into the cattle-fold, by breaking through 
the wall, so do all well-known healing plants, come out of the earth tearing 
it asunder, and drive out from the body whatever malady there is. 

85. When I, obtaining them beforehand, hold these medicinal 
herbs within my hand, the root of life'-killing disease like tuberculosis 

86. O medicines, when ye creep in a patient part by part, joint by 
joint, ye destroy his pulmonary disease, as a strong man destroys the 
delicate bodily parts of the foe. 

87. O physician, try to extirpate tuberculosis through well-regu- 
lated nourishing diet, through control of breath (Pranayam) and through 
medicines which fully relieve the patient of its pain. 

88. O women discussing together the merits of the qualities of 
medicines, follow these words of mine, that all medicines help each other. 
Just as one helps the other, so should your teachress protect you. 

89. Let fruitful and fruitless herbs, those that blossom and the 
blossomless, created by God, relieve us from disease. 

90. O learned persons, just as medicines .relieve me from sickness, 
so should ye, relieve me from the curse's evil, the offence committed 
towards the virtuous, violation of the orders of the xuler, and the entire 
sin against the sages. 

83. Any medicine or a physician that brings disease should be shunned. 

Just as a flowing stream, into which the people throw their filth does them good by 
watering their fields, so should you do good unto them in return* who are kind or nnkind to 

85. People should prepare medicines with their dexterous hands, and use them for 
eradicating fell diseases. 

I : Physician. 

88. Mine : Physician's. 

90. Curse :-The wishing of evil for others. 


91. The learned talk about the medicines, that like the rays emana- 
ting from the sun, come from an experienced physician. No disease shall 
attack the man, whom, while he liveth, these pervade. 

92. O woman, thou knowest fully all the herbs, whose King is 
Soma, and which possess innumerable healing properties. Thou art most 
advanced in their knowledge, prompt for the fulfilment of wishes, and 
sweet to the heart. 

93. O married man, God has created the various herbs, whose 
king is Soma, that overspread the earth. With their aid, grant semen 
for this woman, and spreacj the knowledge of these medicines 
unto all. 

94. O learned persons, collect all medicinal herbs, which are 
known to ye, and which ye hear of, which are near at hand, or are found 
at a distance. Advance the strength of the body with their use, and 
impart their knowledge to this girl. 

95. May not the herb I dig for some purpose, harm you, while 
being dug. May our and your bipeds and quadrupeds be free from 
disease by its use. 

96. O physicians, discuss together the healing properties of the 
herbs, with Soma as their head. O King we save from death the man 

whose cure a learned physician knowing the vedas and up-vedas 

97. O physicians know ye the medicines that cure catarrh, piles, 
tumours, consumption in diverse forms, fistula, diseases of the mouth, and 
those that cause excruciating pain in vital parts of the body. 

98. O people, use the medicine that cures the patient suffering 
from phthisis. It should be dug by a man expert in the art of smelling, 
by an exalted person, by a knower of the vedas, by a well qualified 
person, by a learned man and by a famous king. 

99. O medically trained wife! just as medicine is the source of 

91. These : medicines. 

93. The use of medicines during the conception days is essential for the preservation 
and growth of the foetus. At the time of conception also the use of medicines is necessary. 

96. We : Physicians. 

Upvedas : Arth Veda, Dhanur Veda, Ayur Veda, Gandharva Veda, 

93. A novice, inexperienced person ignorant of the nature and qualities of herbs should 
not dig them, so that they may not be destroyed. Expert and intelligent persons alone, hav- 
ing some knowledge of the medicinal herbs, should dig them so that they may not be destroyed 
and uprooted. 


Strength for me, removes my ailments and gives me power, so should'st 
thou conquer my enemies, subdue the men who challenge me. Conquer 
thou every kind of disease. 

100. O man, thou knowest the merits and demerits of the herbs. 
Whatever herb I dig, for whatever purpose or for whom I dig, mayest 
thou be long-lived, with its use ; and having attained to long age, be 
happy and famous by using the herb with a hundred shoots. 

101. O physician, be thou our companion, who givest heartfelt 
delight. Grant us happiness through the most excellent herb, whose 
retainers are the trees. 

102. God, whose laws are immutable, creates the Earth. He 
pervades the sun, fire, waters and air. He, being Primordial, creates 
the lustrous moon. Let us worship witt devotion, Him, Who is the 
Embodiment of happiness. May He not harm me. 

103. O man, utilise fully this earth, worthy of contact and full 
of water. Its impelled, internal heat makes thy seed grow. 

104. O learned person, whatever swiftness, purity, brightness and 
fitness for sacrifice, there is in fire, may we acquire them all for thee 
and for being virtuous. 

105. May I get from this heat of the earth, corn and all streng- 
thening foods. May I get the vedic speech, the repository of the true 
knowledge of the Mighty God, and the source of truth. 

May I banish diseases, that cause excruciating pains, disallow the tak- 
ing of meals, as are the source of trouble to my organs of sense and body. 

106. O learned person, possessing the light of knowledge blazing 
like fire, brilliancy of diverse forms, and height of wisdom ; thou art the 
giver of laudable knowledge to a worthy disciple. Thereby shine forth, 
thy lustre, life-strength, and knowledge worthy of adoration and hearing. 

107. O man, just as a son, passing through Brahmcharya Ashram 
(student life) acquires knowledge and with the light of his learning, 
fcnparts justice like the lustre of the sun, carries on his studies 
uninterruptedly, just as the sky and earth are allied together, so should'st 
thou receive education, manage the affairs of the State, and serve thy 
father and mother. 

108. O son, imbued with wisdom and wealth, to thee, the learned 
teachress and the mother nobly born, doing wondrous deeds for thy pro- 
tection, and master of admirable qualities, give food to eat. Rejoice 
thyself, always occupied with thy own praiseworthy hands in serving 
others, and never swerwing from the path of rectitude, 


109. O man, active like fire, possessing unusual strength unlike 
mortals, gaining power, possessing beautiful appearance, and preserving 
ancient wisdom, thou acquirest splendour thereby. Increase our wealth 
with the cooperation of other persons. 

110. O learned person, thou art the performer of prosperous sacri- 
fice (yajna), exceedingly wise, laudable, giver of huge riches, nice dweller, 
protector of foodstuffs and earth, and preserver of immemorial vedic 
wealth, hence thou art fit for veneration. 

111. O man, just as learned persons accept with praise songs for 
their happiness, the auspicious amongst the wise, the well-read, the 
expounder of all sciences, the master of vast learning, the embodiment 
of truth, and the leader of scholars, so shouldst thou do. They revere the 
past generations of men. Thus do I instruct thee. 

112. O king, may thy power spread in all directions. May thou 
advance. May thou the master of knowledge and the science of fighting, 
succeed in all battles. 

113. O man of peaceful nature may juicy nutriments be procured 
by thee, may thou learn military science for subduing the arrogant foes. 
May thou amass strength. May thou, thus progress, win immortality, 
following the noble teachings of God. 

114. O most gladdening, prosperous fellow, make progress through 
different means, like the sun with its beams. Strive for our prosperity, 
O friend of vast happiness. 

115. O learned person, just as a calf is fastened with its mother, 
the cow, so thou, desirous for spiritual advancement, concentrate thy mind 
with vedic speech obtained from God, the Support of all. 

116. O King, the foremost realiser of essence of problems, all loyal 
subjects turn to thee for the fulfilment of their wishes. Always protect 

117. He alone is fit to rule, wlio, full of brilliance, like the One 
Self-sufficient Lord, is worthy of homage, self-resplendent, and shines 
forth in God's attributes in the past and future. 

111. I: God. 

113. Juicy nutrimeott :~Mi& and wfttof* 


1. I realise within me God first of all, for increase of my know- 
ledge, good offspring and manly strength. So may noble virtues wait 
upon me. 

2. O God, Thou art the Support of waters, the Cause of fire, the 
Enveloper of ocean as it swells and surges, the Loftiest of all, Worthy 
of adoration by humanity, and full of Majesty in space. Shine forth for 
us with Omnipresence and Omniscience. 

3. That God alone is Adorable, Who. in the beginning of the 
universe, created everything, is wide ip expansion, Highest of all, 
Effulgent, and Worthy of worship. The sun, moon and other worlds 
in the atmosphere, stationed in their orbits, testify to His knowledge. He 
pervades them all through His Omnipresence and comprehends the 
visible and the invisible in space. 

4. God, is the creator of the universe, its one Lord, the Sustainer 
of luminous objects like the sun. He was present before the creation 
of the world. He sustains the earth, the sun and this world. Let us 
worship with full devotion of our soul, Him, the Embodiment of 

5. Seven forces realise Him. He engulfs this earth, the sun and 
the sky. In His fullness, He favourably possesses happiness and energy. 
Moving in Him, I willingly perceive complete pleasure. 

6. May the denizens of all planets of the universe obtain food. 
May all the living creatures residing in the atmosphere, the sun and 
roaming on the earth obtain food. 

7. Supppress through arms the movements of dacoits and plunderers 
who live in forests ; and lie hidden in unknown paths. 

8. Subdue with arms, all these evil-minded persons, who genera- 
lly remain hidden, and now and then appear in the day time, or walk 
freely in the light of the sun, or dwell in waters. 

2. This verse is the same as 1129, but with a quite different interpretation. 

5. Seven :*-soul, mind and five Pranas. Soul realises God, with the aid of the mind and 
five pranas. 

6. God supplies food to all creatures living on the earth in space and in the sun. This 
means there are living creatures in the Sun, Mercury, Mars, Uranus, and Neptune etc., whom 
God supplies sustenance, fltf does not mean serpent here, as Griffith interprets it, but moving 
living creatures, as interpreted by Swami Dayananda. 


9. O Commander of the army, increase thy vigour, master the 
earth well-ordered like a net. Thou art the extirpator of foes, attack 
them like a king equipped with ministers and military paraphernalia. 
Strengthening thy hold with most deadly weapons, facing and killing the 
fiends, subdue them soon. 

10. O Commander, specimen of morality, keep thy fast moving 
brave soldiers, well disciplined in the army. Like the swift movements 
of lightning, let them fall falcon-like on the enemies. With uninterrupted 
force, let fire-arms, brilliant like the flames of fire fed with ghee, rain 
over the foes ; and train well thy horses. 

11. O destroyer of foes like fire, put shackles on and speedily 
punish the troublesome evil-minded enemy of yours and ours, may he be 
far or near, so that he may not harm us. May thou be the harmless guar- 
dian of the people of thine, 

12. O king, make progress in thy duty of administration, extend 
happiness to the virtuous. O terrible chastiser, burn down the irreli- 
gious foes. O splendid person, humiliate and consume utterly like dried 
up stubble, him, who encourages our foe. 

13. O King, rise high, punish the wicked foes righteously, mani- 
fest the objects prepared by our steady scholars, enhance pleasures. 
Destroy the kitchens and other places of plundering of the vigorous 
enemies. Kill the foes. I settle thee with fire's ardour. 

14. O king, just as this sun, in the midst of luminous sky, as the 
Head of earth, foremost of all, the protector of all, satisfies men with the 
strength of waters, so shouldst thou be. I appoint thee for kingship, 
with the strength of the sun. 

15. O learned person, know, that country flourishes, in which, 
there are men like thee active as air, leaders of supremacy, and heads of 
justice ; where there are men to carry on the administration of the land 
with good statesmanship; where ~the country is preserved by efficient 
officials ; and where the wisdom-inspiring and pleasure-giving speech 
is used. 

16. O queen, living in the company of thy religious-minded 
husband, and adorned with dress, ornaments and good qualities, acquiring 
knowledge and practising religion, remain steadfast. Being free from 

13. I :-Purohit or general. 

14. I .The priest. 

16. Samudra has been cnmpared to lust, Just as ocean is endless so is lust. 


distress, advance the country under thy rule. Let no lascivious person 
torment thee, let not thy husband with beautiful body, harm thee. 

17. O learned queen, the King establishes thee, full of knowledge, 
reverence, and wide fame, on the seat of justice, like a canoe at a suitable 
place on the waters of the ocean. Thou art comforting like the Earth. 
Be famous in doing justice unto females, as thy husband does unto men. 

18. O Queen, thou art patient like the earth, hence control the 
earth. Thou, the organiser of household affairs, and the conductor of 
full administration, art firm like the earth, hence steady the earth. 
Thou art unagitated like the glorious sky, hence do the earth no injury. 

19. O woman, may thy learned husband, protect thee, with 
pleasure-giving deeds and beautiful peaceful acts, for full longevity, 
removal of misery, acquisition of various noble performances, vigour, 
veneration, and religious duties. May thou attain to fame, living perma- 
nently with thy husband, as cause and effect are inseparable. 

20. O woman, just as the grass increases widely from all sides, 
with hundreds and thousands of joints and knots, so lengthen out our 
line of descendants with sons and grandsons. 

21. O beautiful, well-built woman, just as hundreds and thousands 
of bricks build and magnify a house, so dost thou increase our family with 
hundreds of sons and grandsons, and profusely enrich it with thousands of 
articles. We serve thee with nice presents. 

22. O brilliant learned teachress, gladden us with all thy tastes, just 
as lights in the sun, with their beams, spread brilliance all around. With 
all those tastes make us always friendly towards the lovely famous person. 

23. O learned persons, whatever love ye have got for the sun, the 
cows and horses, with all that inculcate love in us, just as the teacher and 
preacher incite our love for learning. O unbiassed learned examiner, 
examine us. 

24. The woman, who, filled with the light of different sorts of 
knowledge, spreads learning, and the morally advanced person, who shines 
like lightning, may both these husband and wife attain to happiness. 

Live permanently like soul, with thy husband, who is learned and 
godly in nature. O woman, thy husband, the guardian of his progeny, 
establishes thee, endowed with learning on this earth, in a place of res- 

22* Lovely famous person may mean the husband of the teachress, 
Tastes : Likings, hobbies. * 

23. Students address their teachers, 


ponsibility, for the acquisition of happiness, removal of suffering, and the 
practice of yoga for preaching noble qualities, actions and attributes. 
Imbibe thou full knowledge. 

25. Let the Chetra and Baisakh months, parts of spring, born of 
heat, mutually inter-related, contribute to my prosperity. Let these 
months be the source of happiness to all. In those months let sun and 
earth, and water be pleasure-giving. Let medicinal herbs grow in them, 
and heat be useful to us. O learned persons, wedded to truth, keeping 
before ye in spring time, the fervent seekers after knowledge attain to 
prosperity. Just as the sun and earth, through the dispensation of God, 
steadfastly work together like breath, so should you wife and husband 
live constantly together. 

26. O wife, thou art unconquerable by foes. Being patient, tolerate 
me thy husband. Possessing a thousand manly powers, anxious to oppose 
an army, overpower the foes. Just as I keep thee satisfied so shouldst thou 
keep me pleased. 

27. In spring the zephyrs blow coolly like water, the rivers and 
oceans flow calmly, and medicinal herbs are filled with sweet juice. 

28. In spring the nights are sweet, the days are sweet, the terres- 
trial atmosphere is sweet, and light, our protector, is sweet unto us. 

29. In spring, let trees give us sweet fruits, sun physical strength 
and cows sweet milk. 

30. O man, in spring, seat thyself in the deepness of waters, lest 
sun, lest heat burning in all men, should afflict thee. Let well-built 
subjects be under thy control. Let highly useful rain pour. Think deeply 
and favourably over these points. 

31. O learned person, as sun, the protector of our vital organs, the 
cause of rain, the sustainer of pleasant water, attains to all pleasure-giving 
regions, the mainstay of achieving our desires on earth, space and sky, in 
past, present and future, so shoulcht thou. Tread thou the path of virtue^ 
as did thy ancestors. 

32. O mother and father just as the Mighty Sun and Earth nourish 
the world, so shouldst ye desire for the completion of our noble task of 
getting education and rear us full with nourishments. 

23. Chetra is March-April. Vaishakha is April-May. The heat of these months is useful 
to us in ripening the wheat crop. 

29. TO3: may also mean rays of the sun and lands. They also give as pleasure, 
32. This verse is the same as 8-32, but with a different meaning. 


33. God is the adorable, inseparable companion of the soul ; which 
realises through His grace the actions and laws of the Omnipresent God. 
O man, ye should also observe them. 

34. O woman, thou art firm, and the master of noble qualities. A 
learned person is first born of thee, and afterwards is born of virtuous, 
talented gurus. Thy husband, equipped with the knowledge conveyed by 
the Gayatri, Trishtup, and Anushtup vedic verses ; improving his talent 
thereby, derives learning worthy of exchange. 

35. O man thou art self-effulgent through knowledge. O woman 
thou art graceful through learning and virtuous conduct. Strive together 
for knowledge, riches, strength, fame, food, heroism and offspring. I en- 
join ye, to protect your bodies and foodstuffs, being sweet like the water 
of a well, and observing the teachings of the vedas. 

36. O learned, powerful person, verily harness thou thy steeds, 
whicK are well disciplined and trained, and carry the conveyance with 
full force in thy attacks on the foe with righteous indignation. 

37. O learned person, trained by ancient scholars, and charitable in 
nature ; yoke like a charioteer thy steeds, well disciplined by the experts. 
Seat thyself on the seat of justice. 

38. Just as rivers flow, so do speeches, purified in the inmost recesses 
of the heart and mind, come out of the mouth of a learned person. I, full 
of brilliance, acquire those speeches, coming like the fast-moving showers 
of rain from the midst of lightning. 

39. O learned person, thou hast acquired the knowledge of all 
objects of the universe, and the wisdom of lightning-like brilliant persons 
being lovely of all human beings. We resort to thee for praise, for love 
for the acquisition of spiritual knowledge, and for the light of justice. 

40. O learned person, thou art luminous like fire, with the light of 
thy knowledge. Thou art the giver of knowledge with thy splendour. 
Like gold thou art the giver of innumerable comforts. We pay homage 
to thee for acquiring vast knowledge. 

41. O learned person, just as lightning supports with water, the 
sun, that measures innumerable objects, and exhibits the whole universe, 

33. The verse is the same, as 6-4. 

Actions : creation, sustenance and annihilation of the universe. 
Laws : Righteousness and performance of noble deeds. 

34. A man takes his physical birth from his mother, and spiritual birth from his guru the 
teacher, hence he is called DwijanmS (twice born). 

Worthy of exchange :-Knowledge is a commodity which is received, and imparted, 

142 tfAJUR VEDA 

and is worthy of praise, so shouldst thou purify the inmost recesses of thy 
heart. With thy glowing strength keep afar all diseases. Making the 
progress, make your son live for a hundred years. Always shun pride. 

42. O learned person, in the vast space, harm not the wind's 
impetuous rush, the bond of ocean-wide water, and the cloud the tawny 
child of rivers. 

43. O learned person just as I constantly search for electricity, 
newly produced, full of accomplishments, creator of foodstuffs, pure like 
water, powerful like the horse, knowable by the highly learned, and 
using it skilfully in each season, do not harm the indivisible beautiful 
earth, so thou shouldst not harm electricity and this earth. 

44. O learned person, residing in the supreme Lord, vast like the 
space, harm not the vast Earth, attracted by the sun, the repository of 
water, created by the Pre-eminent God, the Giver of countless fruits, and 
the Cause of our protection, nor harm the lightning, the precursor of the 

45. O learned person, may thy displeasure spare the fire that has 
its being from the heat of the Earth, or from the lightning of the sun, 
whereby the Omnific Lord engenders creatures. 

46. God is Wonderful and Powerful amongst all material objects. 
He is the Manifestor of Pran, Udan, and fire. He pervades the air, 
earth and heaven. He is the Creator and Sustainer of all that moveth 
and moveth not. 

47. O King, born as man, and wide-awake, possessing thousand- 
fold vision, progressing for the attainment of happiness, don't destroy 
the bipeds and quadrupeds, and useful denizens of the ' forest ; but 
protect them. Increase thy wealth with those cattle, and possess a 
strong body. The injurious beast of the forest should be put to grief by 
thee. Let thy enemy, whom we dislike, be put to grief. 

48. O King, don't destroy -this one-hoofed beautiful horse, soon 

42. Learned persons through the performance of yajnas should get timely rain, and there- 
by prolong their life. 

43. In the text all commentators use 'jtffafrcl'-t DU t Maharshi Dayananda uses the word 
tjsfafal I 

45. This verse can be translated thus as well : 

O learned person, don't show disrespect to God, Who is more learned than a yogi, more 
illuminating than the luminous sun and beautiful earth, who creates all creatures. 

48. I :-God. 

A king should protect the useful, and tame beasts of the forest, and subdue the wild and 
ferocious ones. 

Qne hoofed .-Having one hoof in each foot, 

CHAPTER Xft! 143 

agitated and writhing with pain in battlefields. I point out to thee the 
forest rhinoceros. With his protection add to thy prosperity and physical 
strength. Let the wild and uncontrolled rhinoceros be put to grief 
by thee. Let thy enemy, whom we detest, bs put to grief. 

49. O sagacious King, in this world, don't harm this bull, the 
giver of thousands of comforts, the source of immense milk, and worthy 
of protection. Harm not in God's creation, the cow, the giver of milk 
for mankind, and innocent in nature. I point out to thee the forest cow. 
With her destruction add to thy prosperity and physical strength in the 
midst of vast space and under God's guidance. Let the wild forest cow 
be put to grief by thee. Let thy foe, whom we dislike, be put to 

50. O learned King, don't kill the two-footed men and birds, and 
four-footed cattle, the source of comforts. Don't kill the sheep that 
covers our bodies with blankets, and is foremost worthy of protection 
amongst God's creatures. I point out to thee the forest camel. With 
his protection add to thy prosperity and physical strength. Let the wild, 
uncontrollable camel be put to grief by thee. Let thy foe, whom we 
dislike be put to grief. 

51. The unborn soul is educated through the power of God. He 
then sees God, existing before the creation of the universe, and the 
Generator of all. The learned, through that soul, attain to pre-eminent 
godly life ; and the virtuous to an exalted position. I point out to thee, 
O king, the forest porcupine. Utilising her add to thy prosperity and 
physical strength. Let the untamed porcupine be put to grief by thee. 
Let thy foe, whom we dislike be put to grief by thee. 

52. O most youthful leader, protect the pleasure-giving persons, 
hear their songs. With thy soul, protect their offspring. 

53. O man, I give thee the knowledge of the moving air for the 
medicinal herbs filled with the wetness of water, clouds, brilliant elec- 
tricity, open space, control of breath, fleeting mind, acquirable speech, 
a well-furnished house, ear that hears various sounds, the sky and mid 

50. I :-God. 

Even the wild forest beasts like camel, cow, rhinoceros should be tamed, protected and 
utilised, but the ferocious and uncontrollable destroyed. 

51. A j means the eternal soul and goat. The goat should not be killed. The pofcupine 
which is uncontrollable should be destroyed, but not the one that can be tamed. 

I .-God. 

53. I i-Teacher or God. 

The teacher teaches his pupil different sciences, to equip him fully with knowledge. 


region full of water, ocean full of water, sandy tracts of water, foodstuffs 
that grow through water. I preach unto thee the significance of vedic 
texts couched in Gayatri, Trishtup, Jagati, Anushtup, and Pankti metres. 

54. O wife, this fire is primordial. It is the cause of Pran (breath), 
the source of life. Spring is the result of Pran. Spring is the cause of 
Gayatri, whereby we sing the praise of God. From the Gayatri comes 
the Gayatri metre. From the Gayatri comes the prayer. From the prayer 
come action, contemplation, and knowledge (Karma, Upasana and Jnana). 

As the fruit of these three comes the pleasure of liberation 
(Moksha). A learned person is the cause of producing intense pleasure 
like Pran. Thou accept me as thy husband, the protector of progeny. 
I gain strength to create offspring from thee. 

55. O wife, in the south resides this air, the source of all acts. 
From that air the doer of all deeds, comes the mind. From the heat of 
the mind comes the summer. The eulogiser of summer is the Trishtup 
metre. From the warmth of Trishtup comes the intense glow. From the 
intense glow comes the mid-day. From mid-day comes the day of the 
full moon. From that comes the ear the organ of receiving and strength- 
ening knowledge. Just as a king, with his knowledge, administers justice 
to his subjects, so do I, with thee, cultivate a contemplative mind for the 

56. O wife, this sun rising in the East goes to the west, illuminat- 
ing the universe. The lustrous rays of the sun are its eyes. The eye 
enjoys the rainy season. The Jagati verse is the expositor of the rainy 
season. From Jagati is derived the knowledge of vedic verses. From that 
knowledge comes prosperity. From prosperity we get the knowledge of 
seventeenfold powerful soul. From that knowledge comes the knowledge 
of different phases and objects of the world. The eye makes us receive 

Just as a husband, the guardian of offspring attains to discerning 
knowledge with his educated wife, so do I with thee gain power from 
the world. 

54. In spring Gayatri verses are generally recited. 

Vasishtha Rishi : Pran. 

Moksha : Emancipation, salvation. 

55. The subtle connection between the things mentioned has not been understood by me. 
Bhardwaj Rishi means ear and is not the name of a Rishi. 

56. Jamadagni Rishi means eye, and is not the name of any person, vide Shatapatha 
8-1-2-3. The verse is not fully understood by me. Seventeen fold powerful means posseesing 
various powers. Vide Shatapatha 8-1-2-4. 


57. O wife, this North direction is the giver of comforts. Ear is 
the source of its pleasantness. The ear is related to autumn. The 
significant Anushtap verse is the expositor of autumn. From Anushtap 
is derived the verse that explains speech. From that verse is derived 
the means of churniLg the objects. From that means is derived the 
principle of perfecting twenty one sciences. From that principle, we 
derive the ear, the cause of friendship with all, the receiver of the 
significance of words, the manifestor of various objects, and listener to 
the singing of Sama Veda. I, thy husband, the guardian of the offspring, 
along with thee, use the ear for the good of the people. 

58. O learned wife, the highest of all things is intellect. From 
intellect is born speech. Winter is the offspring of speech. The Pankti 
verse is the expositor of winter. From Pankti springs Nidhanvat a part 
of Sama Veda, that comments on the mystery of Death. From that springs 
knowledge, the source of acquisition. From that knowledge are "derived 
the twelve and thirty three songs of the Sama Veda. With those songs, 
knowing strength and the objects that contribute to wealth, the door of 
noble deeds and the master of vedic lore, behaves rightly. I, thy husband, 
the guardian of offspring, with thee, acquire speech full of knowledge 
and sound instructions. 

57. Vishwamitra Ri^bi means the ear. This verse is not well understood by met 

58. Vishvakarma Rishi means speech, vide Shatpath 8-1-2-9, 


1. O woman, thou belongest to a firm nation. Thou hast got a 
permanent house. Thou art resolute. Enter in a religious spirit the 
stable domestic life (Grihastha Ashrama). Use the vast knowledge of the 
art of cooking. May the learned teachers and preachers, themselves 
admirers of pure domestic life, settle thee in it. 

2. O woman, thou belongest to a noble family. Thou hast plenty 
of water. Thou art full of pleasures, and givest them to others. Settle 
in thy house on this earth. The Rudras and vasus instruct thee. Imbibe 
these vedic instructions for the auspiciousness. May the learned teachers 
and preachers, themselves admirers of pure domestic life, settle thee 
in it. 

3. O woman, just as the master of forces and employees, with 
their aid, standing in the midst of learned persons, advances for battle and 
pleasure, so shouldst thou advance in this world. Just as a father looks to 
the comforts of his son, so shouldst thou. With pleasure adorning 
thy body with clothes and ornaments enter bodily the domestic life with 
thy husband. May the teachers and preachers, themselves admirers of 
pure domestic life, settle thee in it. 

4. O woman, thou art aspirant after vedic eulogies. Thou art 
the protectrixof the earth, handsome and well-named ; full of butter and 
other good edibles. May all the learned persons revere thee. Stay in 
this domestic life. Give us wealth that produces good children. May 
the learned teachers and preachers, themselves admirers of pure domestic 
life, settle thee in it. 

5. O wife, I, thy learned husband, engaged in the performance of 
noble deeds, establish thee on the surface of the earth, as mistress of the 
house, thee, the recipient of deathless mental knowledge, the mainstay of 
all directions, the guardian of the house, the place of hearing children. 
I establish thee on the earth like the rays of sun, as mistress of the house. 
Thou art pleasant like the wave of waters. May the learned teachers and 
preachers, the performers of sacrifice for self-protection, establish thee 
in this domestic life. 

6. May-June (Jayeshth), and June-July (Asarh) constitute the 

1. Ashwina may also mean father and mother, who settle their daughter in domestic life, 
ju>t a^ learned teachers and preacher , settle her. 

0. Compare 13-25, where the praise of spring has been sung. 
' In this verse the praise of summer is sung. 


summer. This season due to intense heat, removes cough. May 
Heaven and Earth, may waters, medicinal plants, and fires, obeying 
the exact laws of nature, separately contribute to my prosperity in 
this season. 

May fires, similar in nature, that exist between the heaven and 
earth, make the summer strong, just as spiritual forces strengthen the 
soul. O husband and wife, receiving life from God, remain steady like 
Heaven and Earth. 

7. O man or woman, the learned teachers and preachers, thy 
'guardians, establish thee in this world, for the acquisition of all objects, 
and mastering the science of fire, and we too establish thee. 

Associate thyself with seasons, love waters, cultivate virtuous 
traits, try to prolong life and recite the Gayatri Mantra, hold dear thy 
breaths the source of happiness. 

O active man or woman, the learned teachers and preachers, thy 
guardians, establish thee in this domestic life, for the attainment of God, 
the Leader of the universe, and we too establish thee. Associate 
thyself with seasons, love waters, be friendly towards Vasus, live in the 
company of highly learned persons, the imparters of knowledge. 

O celibate man or woman, seeker after knowledge, the learned 
teachers and preachers, thy guardians, establish thee in this Brahmcharya 
Ashram (student life) for the study of religious books, the source of 
happiness for all $ and we too establish thee. 

Associate thyself with seasons, hold dear thy Pranas (vital breaths) 
which retain all objects ; love the Rudras } befriend the learned, who 
arrange for the study of the vedas. 

O learned man or woman, the learned teachers and preachers, thy 
guardians, establish thee in this world, for spreading knowledge and 
happiness unto all, and we too establish thee. Lead thy life according 
to seasons, love all noble deeds, regulate thy diet and sport according to 
twelve months of the year. Be friendly towards the highly learned 
persons, who arrange for the preaching of full knowledge. 

O manor woman, the preacher of true ideas, the learned teachers 
and preachers, the guardians of vedic lore, establish thee in this world, 

7. Vasus : Fire, Earth, air, space, sun, moon, sky, stars. 

Rudras: Pran, Apan, Vyan, Udan, Saman, Nag, Kurma, Kr&al, DevDutt, 
Dhananjaya, and soul. The first ten are the names of breaths, 
Adityas : the twelve months of the year. 
We . L,earaed persons or parents. 


for the diffusion of knowledge useful to humanity; and we too establish 

Regulate thy life according to seasons 5 perform pleasure-giving acts, 
love all the preachers of truth, and cultivate friendly relations, with the 
discriminators between truth and falsehood for the good of others, and for 
the dispensers of pleasant life. 

8. O husband, guard thou my pran, guard my apan. Guard my 
vyan through different nice devices. Illumine my eye. Fill my ear with 
religious sermons. Strengthen my vital breaths. Get medicinal plants. 
Protect bipeds. Protect quadrupeds. Manage well the household affairs, 
as sun, with its brilliance pours the rain. 

9. The Brahman is foremost in the society, like head in the body. 
His force lies in the protection of humanity through knowledge, religion 
and austerity. The Kshatriya is a class amongst men. His power lies 
in affording happiness to humanity through justice, humility and strength. 
The Vaishya is another class, who amasses foodstuffs. His strength lies 
in becoming the lord of riches. The artisan, Shudra is another class of 
men, whose strength lies in doing hard work. 

The king, the doer of all good acts is, lovable, lord of all subjects 
and independent. It is the duty of man at the helm of affairs, to muster 
different forces for the protection of his body. It is the duty cf the strong 
man, who is competent to give happiness to others, to attain to supremacy, 
and grant power to others, 

It is the duty of an affluent person to nourish his family. It is the 
duty of a man heroic like a tiger, to be invincible by an enemy. He who 
is powerful to subdue foes, powerful like the lion, should afford protection 
to his people, like the roof of the house. 

He who like the camel can take upon his shoulders this responsibility 
of managing the affairs of the State, should like the earth take upon him- 
self the burden of all enterprises. _ 

It is the duty of a man, strong like an ox, to protect his subjects and 
treat all straightly and justly. 

It is the duty of a person well-known for his intellect and honour, to 
undertake projects that lie before him. 

8. Pran : the air that goes upward from the navel. 

Apan : the air that goes downward from the navel, and is emitted through the 

Vyan : the air that is diffused in different joints of the body. 


10. Like the bull that conveys the cart, the physically developed 
person should ripen his semen and undertake duties of a house-holder. 
The souls that like the milch-cow nourish others, are fit to rear the world. 

The master of the three vedas should praise God through action, 
contemplation and knowledge. 

The person brilliant like the sun, should through eminence and know- 
ledge illumine himself and others. He who controls his five organs, can 
control his five breaths. He, who is engrossed in action, contemplation 
and knowledge, is fit to eradicate his sins. 

He who knows all the four vedas, constantly prays to God. 

11. O husband and wife, behaving like lightning and earth, with 
mature intellect, make your domestic life cemented like a brick. Just as 
the sun and earth with their might restrict the atmosphere, so should ye 
bind your foes and remove miseries. O man just as thou removest the 
affliction of thy wife, so shouldst she remove thine. 

12. O woman, may thy husband well-versed in doing various noble 
deeds, fix in his heart thee, full of reverence, praiseworthy knowledge, 
and vast store of learning. Thou shouldst offer water to all, for the safety 
of their Pran, Vyan, Udan, and Saman, for their prosperity and preser- 
vation of character. Increase the store of laudable, pure water. Don't 
destroy the sweet and disease-uprooting water. May thy husband, loving 
thee like life, keep thee safe with great well-being, his splendour and 
pleasant knowledge. Live constantly with thy godly husband like the 

13. O woman, thou art brilliant like the East, modest like the 
South, calm and lustrous like the West, self-effulgent like the North. 
Like the vast upper and lower directions, thou hast been made the mistress 
of the house. Please thou thy husband and other relatives. 

14. O woman, may thy husband, the doer of various noble deeds, 
establish like sun-light on water, in his heart, thee, full of knowledge. 
Grant full light to all the members of the family for strengthening their 
Pran, Apan, Vyan. Thy husband dear like vital breath, is thy Lord. 
Live constantly with thy godly husband like the sun. 

10. The last two sentences can be interpreted as a Banprasthi in the third Ashram, or 
Sanyasi in the fourth Ashram. 

Three Vedas : Mean the Vedas that dilate upon Gyan, Karma and Upa^ana. 
12. Pran, Vyan, Udan, Saman are different vital airs or breaths in the body. 


15. Shravan (July-August) and Bhadrapada (August-September) 
constitute the rainy season, and they contribute to my prosperity. In them 
there is the touch of heat and cold. 

Just as the Sky and Earth thrive in these months, so shouldst ye, 
husband and wife, prosper with your enjoyment. 

Just as waters, plants and fires separately thrive in the rainy season, 
so should noble persons, with unanimity of purpose, and sameness of 
knowledge, prosper. 

Just as the Sky and Earth thrive in the rainy season, so should learned 
persons utilizing the rainy season for their comfort, come in contact with 
it like lightning. O husband and wife, live together in this season firmly 
and affectionately like breath. 

16. O men, Aswin (September-October) and Kartik (October-Novem- 
ber) constitute the Autumn season. Both these months contribute to my 
enjoyable comforts. In them there is the touch of heat and cold. Let 
them make the Sky and Earth thrive. Let waters and plants grow by 
their means. Let the fires of our body that regulate all actions function 
separately. Let the learned people enter these two months gloriously, 
desiring for happiness. O husband and wife live together firmly like 
space, in this good season. 

17. Preserve my life, Preserve my Pran. Guard my Apan. Guard 
my Vyan. Preserve my eyes. Preserve my ears. Strengthen my speech 
with good instructions. Satisfy my mind. Preserve my soul. Vouchsafe 
me light of knowledge. 

18. Wisdom gives pleasure. Intellect grants strength. Discern- 
ment gives freedom. Food gives physical force. Yoga with five 
components gives light. Affection gives fame. Matter affords shelter. 
Intense attachment to pleasure creates sexual enjoyment. The mani- 
festation of different sciences gives knowledge. The worshipper of God 
knows Him. Dependence on physical, mental, and spiritual enjoyments 
gives happiness. The force that rules the universe is the source of 
strength and pleasure. People should take advantage of these and add 
to their store of happiness. 

19. Earth is full of freedom. Heaven is extremely pleasant. 
Light is knowlege. Years enhance our wisdom. The stars are free in 

15. Just as breath is never separated from the body, so should husband and wife be not 
separated from each other. 
My : Preceptor. 
17. The husband addresses this verse to his wife, or vice versa. 


their movements. Let speech be truthful and mind free from fraud. 
Husbandry leads to produce. Gold gives comforts. Cow is the source 
of happiness. Goat gives us pleasure. Horses are free in motion. 

20. Fire, wind, sun, moon, vasus, Rudras, Adityas, learned men 
of contemplative mood, all good objects, God the protector of the 
universe and the vedas, well earned riches, and water are devatas, i.e., 
highly useful things. Men and women should take advantage of these 

21. O woman, thou art excellent like the sun, thou art pure and 
firm like the lustrous sun that moves in its orbit. Thou art the rearer 
of progeny like the nourishing earth. I accept thee for longevity, for 
food, for agriculture, for peace and happiness. 

22. O wife thou art stable like a machine, full of brilliance, 
forbearing like the earth, firm like the sky, full of determination, and 
embodiment of virtue. I accept thee for the fulfilment of desires, for 
the attainment of valour, riches and prosperity. 

23. The year contains heat, cold and moderate heat, cold. 

The moon waxes and wanes for fifteen days. The year, like the 
vast atmosphere is seventeenfold. The year, the support of all sub- 
stances is twentyonefold. 

The fast fleeting year is eighteenfold. 
The year giving warmth to all like the sun, is nineteenfold. 
The year that confronts men is twentyfold. 
The powerful year is twentytwofold. 
The year, the nourisher of all is twenty three-fold. 
The year, the resort of all beings is twenty four-fold. 
The year that keeps human beings under its control is twenty five- 

23. Seventeen-fold : Twelve months and five seasons. 

Twenty-one-fold : Twelve months, five seasons three worlds and itself. 

Eighteen-fold .-Twelve months, five seasons and itself. 

Nineteen-fold -.Twelve months, six seasons and itself. 

Twenty-two-fold : Twelve months, seven seasons, day and night, and itself. 

Twenty-ihree-fold : Consisting of thirteen months (one intercalary)i seven seasons, 
day and night and itself. 

Twenty-four-fold : Twenty-four half months. 
Twenty-five-fold : 24 half months and itself. 


The vigorous year is twentyseven-fold. 

The year, the field for work is thirtyqne-fold. 

The year, the cause of the residence of all, is thirty-three-fold. 

The year, pervaded by the Almighty Father, is thirty-four-fold. 

The year, the giver of happinsss is thirty six-fold. 

The year, in which we move in various ways, is forty eight-fold. 

The year, is the retainer of all objects, and the support of praises 
in the four directions. 

O men know this to be the year. 

24. O learned person, thou art like the year. Practising celibacy, 
attain to the sovereignty of a Brahmin family. Being pure in body, 
word and mind, and worthy of praise, thou art the embodiment of supre- 
macy ; attain to the sovereignty of a royal Kshatriya family, loved by the 
All-pervading God. Being fifteen-fold praiser, thou art like the part of 
objects^described by the people ; attain to the desired birth and right of 
a sustainer. Laudable in seventeen ways, thou art the part of Pran ; 
attain to the sovereignty of waters. Served by air, thou art like the 
twenty-one-fold praiser, draw rain from the sun through Homa (sacrificial 

25. O learned parson, thou art served by the Vasu Brahmcharis, 
Control thou the ten Pranas and the soul. Twentyfour-fold praiser, thou 
art honoured by the Aditya-Brahmcharis ; rear the cattle like cows ; and 
be the mxster of men. Deserving praise in twenty-five ways, thou art 
like a part of light. 

Acquiring the serviceable power of the earth, attain to sovereignty. 
Deserving praise in twenty seven ways, thou art the creation of pleasant 

Twenty-seven-fold : 24 half months, day and night and itself. 

Thirty-one-fold : 24 half months, six seasons and itself. 

Thirty-three-fold : 24 half-months, 6 seasons, day and night and itself. 

Thirty- four-fold :-24 half months 7 seasons day and night and itself. 

Thirty-six-fold : 24 half months and 12 months. 

Forty-eight-fold : 26 half months, 13 months, seven seasons, day and night. 
24 The word Panchdash in the verse may mean vigour, lustre or vitality, vide flfo 11.6-11 

The word panchdash may aho mean the fifteen days in which the moon waxes and 

The word Saptdash in the text may also mean food-grain vide cfto 2-7-7. 

The word Ekvinsha in the text may mean, respect, honour vide ?tfo 16-13-4. The 
verse is not fully understood by me. Sustainer means preserver of the people. 

*5. The word chaturvinsha in the text may also mean beauty, dignity, and power, vide 
flto 15-10-6. 

The word Trinava, i.e., 27 may also mean strength, power vide clfo 104-15. 


God, acquire the strength granted thee by God, the protector of the vedas. 
Thou, the worshipper with vedic verses, filled with knowledge and noble 
qualities, shouldst know all the directions, fit for affection, deserving to be 
fully mastered, and knowable by good people 

26. O man thou usest the mixed substances, as is done in autumn. 
Having sovereignty over objects with different natures, with affection, 
thou shouldst nourish the people worthy of sustenance. Thou art worthy 
of praise in forty-four ways, and fit to be revered by the wise. Having 
acquired the power exercised by all the learned persons in the past, and 
being worthy of praise in thirty-three ways ; thou deservest respect 
from us. 

27. For my aged elders, the mid November to mid January months 
constitute the winter season. These two months are the life and soul of 
winter. In this season there is a slight touch of heat. In that season let 
Sky and Earth be competent to do their duty; let waters, medicinal 
plants, and bright fires be separately vigorous. 

Men of contemplative mood, regulated in life, unanimous in purpose 
should make the strong Earth and Sky perform their duty. Let the 
learned keeping in view these two glorious months, enter them. Let the 
good people full of affection for God attain to happiness by regulating their 
diet and recreation. 

28. O men, God is the creator and protector of all. Praise Him 
with your speech. He has educated humanity through the vedas. God is 
the guardian of the vedas and the Lord of all. He has revealed the vedas 
full of knowledge. Praise Him with the movement of three Pran, Udan 
and Vyan breaths. He has created all the worlds. He is their Protector, 
and Protector of the protectors. Praise Him with the help of Saman 
breath, perception, intellect, self consciousness and mind. He has created 
the seven Rishis He is the Sustamer and Lord of all. Praise Him 
with the help ot Nag, Kurma, Knkal, Deva Dutta, Dhananjaya (breaths), 
desire and effort. 

29. O men, God has created wise persons. The mother-like 

26. The word Trayastrinsha may mean body, vide fito 13-10-10. Forty-four and thirty 
three ways of praise are Dot clear to me. 

28. Three Breaths : Out-breath, upward breath, diffusive breath. 

Seven Rishis : Two eyes, two tars two nostrib and mouth. According to Swami 
Dayananda Seven Kishis are five principal breaths, Intellect and Ego. 

29. Nine: Seven vital airs of the head, and two below. 
Eleven: Ten vital airs and the soul. 

Thirteen : Ten vital airs, two feet and the soul. 

Fifteen: The fiiteen tithis lunar days as interpreted by Swami Dayananda; or ten 
fingers, two arms, two legs, and the part above the navel vide Shatapatha 8-4-3-11. 

Seventeen : Ten toes, two knees, two legs, two feet, and the part below the navel, 


nourishing Earth is our lord. Praise God with nine breaths. He has 
created the seasons. The attributes of those seasons respectively reign 
supreme in them. Praise God with ten pranas and soul. He has created 
the twelve months. The year is the master of time. Praise God with 
thirteen objects. He has created the Kshatriyas. The sun lords over 
us through his intense glory. Praise God with fifteen objects. He has 
created the village cattle, and the vaishas, who are our supporters. 
Praise God through seventeen objects. 

30. O men God has created the day and night for work, and the 
Shudia and Arya. Praise Him through nineteen objects. He has 
created water, which is dear like life. He has created one-hoofed 
animals. Praise Him through twenty-one objects. He has created this 
strong Earth, the cause of our protection, and that of small animals. 
Praise Him through twenty-three objects. He has created the forest 
animals, and the air that rears us. Praise Him through twenty five 

He has created the Heaven and Earth, the Vasus, the Rudras, and 
the Adityas'. Those forces of nature and learned persons are our protectors. 
Praise Him through twenty-seven objects. 

31. O men, God has created the trees, Soma is their head. Praise 
Him with twenty-nine objects. He has created the important plants, 
the forests, the dust-rays, the different parts of the matter with their 
attributes of Satva, Rajas and Tamas. Atoms are their over-lord. Praise 
Him with thirty one objects. Through His grace all big forces of Nature 
attain to calmness, God, the Sustainer of men, the Pervader of the universe, 
is over-lord. Praise Him through thirty-three objects. 

30. Nineteen: Ten pranas, five great elements, mind, intellect, perception and egotism; 
or ten fingers and nine pranas vide Shatapatha 8-4-3-12. 

Tweuty-one : Ten fingers, ten toes .and ?oul, vide Shatapatha 8-4-3-13. 

Twenty-three : Ten fingers, ten toes, two feet and soul. Shatapatha 8-4-3-14. 

Twenty-live : Ten fingers, ten toes, two arms, two legs and soul. Shatapatha 8-4-3-15, 

Twenty-seven: Ten fingers, ten toes, two arms, two legs, two feet and soul. Shatapatha 

Vasus, Rudras and Adityas have already been explained, they arc respectively 8, 11 
and 12. They may also mean the Vasus, Kudra and Aditya Brahmcharis who observe a vow 
of celibacy for 24, 36 and 48 years. 

31. Twenty-nine: Ten fingers, ten toes and nine vital airs. Shatapatha 8-4-3-17. 
Thirty-one; Ten fingers, ten toes, ten vital airs and soul. Shatapatha 8-4-3-15. 
Thirty-three Ten fingers, ten toes, ten vital airs, two feet nd soul. Shatapatha 


Swami Dayananda interprets these figures of 29, 31, and 33 as the forces of nature 
and the qualities of trees, medicines, and other created objects, 


1. O King drive away our known enemies. O powerful king, put 
our unknown foes aright. Graciously- minded, showing no disrespect, give 
us good instructions ; wherewith we may live happily in a thrice -guarded 
house, well-provided by thee with all necessary things. 

2. O learned King, drive away with might our known foes. Keep 
off those who oppose us secretly. Benevolent in thought and spirit, teach 
us the art of victory. May we be thy supporters. Drive away our foes. 

3. She, the master of sixteen arts, worthy of praise, grants strength 
and wealth, laudable celibacy of forty-four years, learning and power. She 
has acquired the completion of sacrificial fire. She is free from covetous- 
ness for the wealth of others. All learned people should praise her. 
Enriched with songs of praise and butter, stay thou in this domestic 'life, 
and give us wealth with store of children. 

4 Knowledge gives pleasure. The practice of truth gives ease, 
Experience of comfort gives delight. Action brings light of truth, 
Avoidance of sins gives life. The mental conceptions and aversions give 

The cultivation of noble traits gives peace of mind. 

The free movement like a river gives independence. 

The depth of mind, like the ocean, solves all problems. 

The sweetness of speech like water gives calmness. 

Our fame wide like directions adds to our greatness. 

The deed that is the bringer of three kinds of comforts gives us 

The works of far-sighted poets give knowledge. 

Meandering water brings usefulness. 

Life after death gives solace. 

This world is a place of happiness. 

All directions are the source of delight. 

Sun gives us knowledge. 

Light of knowledge brings happiness. 

1. Thrice guarded : A house in which one finds spiritual, physical happiness, and 
protection against the forces of nature* i. e., Adhi-Atmika, Adhi-Bhautika and Adhi-Daivik 

3- She means womankind. 

4, Three kinds : They are mentioned in verse l 


5. The action that removes sins, gives light. 

The action that with exertion removes evil propensity, lends 

Concentration of mind gives strength. 

Perseverance leads to various efforts. 

Increase in prosperity leads to independence. 

Emancipator from this world is worthy of adoration. 

Air is useful. 

Space in which reside different objects is full of light. 

Food worth enjoying is acceptable. 

Brilliant fire is acceptable. 

Speech gives enjoyment. 

The mental attitude, that after hearing, makes us understand the 
religious books serves as our mentor. 

Acquisition is the result of exertion. 

Service of the learned is worthy of resort. 

Life is synonymous with independence. 

Means for prolonging life are exercisable. 

Emulation is laudable. 

Enterprise is praiseworthy. 

Removal of obstacles is the bringer of happiness. 

Conquest of affliction demands strength. 

Independence is splendour. 

Arithmetic is a useful science. 

6. O learned person with lustre, perform virtuous deed for happiness 
and control over material objects. Know religion, with the observance of 
enlightened noble justice. 

For investigation, get the light of truth, with the light of religion. 
Know mid-air as uniting the Earth with Heaven. 
Know Earth through geology. 

Know rain through the science of rain that nourishes the body. 
Know day with the beautiful science of light. 
Know night by the science of night that follows light. 
Know the eight Vasus through their desirable science. 
Know the Adityas (twelve months) intelligently with their 

7. O man gain the strength of wealth, through the extended 
application of wealth. 

6. Eight Vasus, the forces of nature have already been explained, 


Learn to listen to religious lore, for acquiring it properly. 

Acquire medicines through the sciences of medicine, and agri- 

Attain to physical strength, through pure bodies, well regulated 
according to religious instructions. 

Acquire knowledge through study, that gives life. 

Learn perseverance for conquering the opposing foes, with a firm 

8. O wife thou art an embodiment of wealth, for wealth do I 
accept thee. Thou art obedient, obtainable after the completion of 
studies. I accept thee. 

Thou art riches, for riches do I accept thee. Thou art brilliance, 
for brilliance do I accept thee. 

9. O husband, thou knowest the primordial matter with three 
qualities. For knowing that matter, do I accept thee. 

Thou knowest this world the effect of matter. For knowing this 
world do I accept thee. Thou art the manifold benefactor of the world. 
I accept thee for doing good to humanity. Thou knowest all objects 
similar in nature. For knowing them do I accept thee. 

Thou possessest the knowledge of atmosphere, for knowing the 
atmosphere, do I accept thee. Thou accurately knowest all the objects. 
For knowing them do I accept thee. 

Thou knowest the movements of clouds on high. For knowing 
them do I accept thee. O wife, thou knowest the science wherewith we 
cross the accessible and inaccessible regions. For knowing the art of 
flying, do I accept thee. Living with thy husband, with thy energy 
attain to strength. 

10. O Woman thou art queen brilliant like the East. Eight Vasus 
are thy protectors. Thou possessest the fire that resides in arms and 
weapons, that pervades the sun, lightning and Earth, and is full of praise. 
Get butter on the Earth for enjoyment. For thy prosperity, possess the 
military force of aeroplanes. May the aged vedic seers, with great 
power, and brilliance of knowledge, fill thee with good qualities and 
wisdom. This husband of thine is thy protector in diverse ways. May 
all the learned persons, unanimously settle thee and thy husband in a 
happy place on this comfortable Earth. 

9. Three qualities : The matter has got three qualities of Satva, Rajas, Tamas. 
10. Vasus : The eight forces of nature mentioned before, 


11. O woman thou art like the bright South. Eleven Rudras 
(airs) are thy protectors. Thy husband, the wielder of arms and 
weapons, the knower of the meanings of vedic verses in fifteen ways, 
and the sun serve thee on earth. He, being fearless of man, preaches 
unto thee firmly the narrable and instructible words. 

For stability he recites the significant verses of the Sama Veda. 
The aged, learned persons, the significant plenteous airs in beautiful 
objects in the atmosphere, and the particles of blazing fire make thee 
renowned. The sustainer and nourisher of the Earth through attraction, 
the sun, the foremost amongst the brilliant objects, strengthens thee. 
May all the learned persons, unanimously establish thee and thy 
husband in a happy place in the space, where there is plenty of 

12. O woman, thou art brilliant like the West. The learned 
persons are thy overlords. Thy husband, possessing seventeen vital 
parts of the body, worthy of praise, the subduer of foes, master of fiery 
spirits, may serve thee on earth. 

May he, unfaltering in nature, full of instructions from many 
learned persons, and vedic lore, full of various teachings of great men, 
learn the Sama Veda for greatness. 

There are in the atmosphere many lustrous objects, created from 
the limitless material cause, and serviceable moving airs spread in all 
parts. The learned should instruct thee so. The master of riches, the 
king, keeps the people contented, so should all learned persons unani- 
mously establish thee and thy husband in a happy abode, in a part of the 
earth, free from affliction. 

13. O woman, Just as North is self luminous, so is thy husband. 
The beautiful airs are the presiding forces of the North. 

May thy husband worthy of praise like the moon that preserves 
rays in twenty one ways, live with thee on this earth. 

Being free from the sway of passions, may he, for thee, learn that 
part of the veda which deals with the unity of God. For stability, may 
he study that portion of the Sama Veda, that deals with the universal 

11. Fifteen : Five organs of knowledge (Gyan Indriya) and five of action (Karma Indriyas) 
and five airs, Fran, Apan, Vyan, Udan and Saman. 

12. Seventeen. Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, in his commentary describes seventeen to 
be 17 parts of the body, i.e , 10 fingers, two arms, two legs, head, belly and soul. Seventeen 
may also mean food vide clto 2-7-7. 

13 Twenty-one : The real significance of this number is not clear- In Tandya Brahman 
Granth it is written $rft*33>f$3T: I 16-3-4. According to this Brahman, Twentyone means great- 
ness, superiority. 


aspect of God. In thy body there are many chief strong vital airs, in 
the organs, coupled with perception. He is the sustainer and lord of 
those airs. 

May all the learned persons, with one mind make thee renowned, 
and establish thee and thy husband in a happy place on a comfortable 
part of the earth. 

14. O woman, thou art the lady paramount like the lofty region. 
All the shining bodies like the sun, are thy protectors. May thy husband, 
like the sun, the guardian of the world, and the sustainer of big planets, 
adore thee. For freedom from pain on this earth, through twenty-seven 
and thirty-three means of praise, let all the learned persons, knowing the 
sciences of fire and air, resort to two parts of the veda. For progress let 
them have knowledge of the two parts of the Sama Veda, with verses in 
Shakvari and Raivati metres. 

Just as in the atmosphere, the first-born minute and bulky airs like 
Dhananjaya etc. residing in divine objects, make thee renowned, so should 
people make them known. This sun, the lord, and sustainer of all in 
diverse ways, and the learned persons with one mind establish thee and 
thy husband in a happy house on a comfortable part of the earth. 

15. In the East there are golden-tressed sunbeams. There are 
other beams also, which work like a wise driver and horses of a convey- 
ance, and like the head of an army and a village chieftain. 

Their chief direction and sub-direction, both are called Apsaras 
that move in the Pranas. Let injurious animals like lions and others that 
eat flesh and grass be destroyed. Let murderous crowds of men that destroy 
others like a powerful weapon, be killed. Let virtuous rulers protect us 
from those animals, and make us comfortable. In the jaws of these 
animals we place the ferocious man whom we hate and who hates us. 

16. O men, this vishvakarma breeze blows in the south. These 
two kinds of air, that give sound like the sound of a chariot, and 
are the doers of wonderous acts like a chariot, are like the head 
of an army and the chieftain of a village, which help meditation, and 

14. The word (ViqsKjfra'sft meaning twenty-seven and thirty-three has not been 
understood. No commentator has thrown light on it. Tandva Brahman Granth describes 
twenty-seven to mean strength and thirty-three to mean rain, vide crfo 10-1-15, 16-10-10. 

15. Just as the driver and horses work in unison, and the militajy and civil powers work 
together, so do the different airs. 

Ap?aras : Two airs that course through our veins. 
Their '.sunbeams. 

16. Apsaras, Two kinds of air which blow in the atmosphere. 
Vishvakarma. Air with which all actions are performed. 


arc born together, are called Apsaras which live in the atmosphere. 
Those who tease the people should be destroyed. Those who commit 
unrighteous deeds should be subdued through arms. Use weapons against 
those who torment mankind. Let just rulers protect us and make us 
comfortable. In the lion-like jaws of these airs we place the depraved 
man whom we hate and who hates us. 

17. O men, there is all pervading lightning in the West. Like the 
head of the army and the village chieftain, are its Rathprota, and 
Asamaratha, Both these Apsaras, active beams in the atmosphere, dry all 
the medicinal plants, and shed lustre. 

Those who like tigers and serpents torture mankind, should be 
subdued through arms. Let the rulers protect us from these animals and 
make us comfortable. In the jaws of these animals we place the degraded 
man whom we hate and who hates us. 

18. In the North, the autumn is associated with the yajna. Its 
Aswin and Kartik are like the head of the army and the village chieftain. 
The fire that pervades the universe and the fire that receives ghee 
(butter) are its Apsaras, i.e., the motion of the Pranas. In this season 
water is in abundance, and air highly pleasant, Those who enjoy this air 
properly deserve honour. May they protect us and make us comfortable, 
In the jaws of destructive power of water and air, we place the man whom 
we hate and who hates us. 

19. This one direction above, is the source of wealth after rains. 
Its army conqueror and well-armed lords are both Margshirsh and Paush 
months of winter, like the head of an army and the village chieftain. The 
internal fire that is the cause of eating much, and intellect the recipient of 
eternal knowledge are two forces that reside in the Pranas. Thundering 
is its weapon and lightning its missile-weapon. We offer food to persons 
who are our guardians like them. May they protect us and make us com- 
fortable. We place in the jaws of thunder and lightning the man whom 
we hate and who hates us. 

17. Rathaprota : Beautiful, lustrous air. 

A?amaratha : Peerless air. 

Both the haters deserve punishment. 

According to Jai Chand Vidya Alankar. Rathaprota and Asamaratha are two military 
Commanders. Rathprota is he who fights always sitting in the chariot. Asamaratha is he 
whose chariot is unparalleled. 

i. K- K HatC iD the Sense o enmit y- with a view to d barm or injury 

is prohibited by the vedas, which preach love for all. Both the haters deserve punishment. 


iO. This Agni, resides between the Earth and Heaven, like head in 
the shape of the Sun. Being the protector of all directions, it satisfies the 
forces of our breaths. 

21. This fire in winter, present in thousands of nice objects, and 
possessing hundreds of characteristics, is the lord of foodgrains and riches, 
and beautiful like the head. 

22. O learned person, I instruct thee that a harmless, wise scholar, 
dispels ignorance with instructive speech, creates fire from the atmosphere, 
or by churning, and is mighty like the head. 

23. O learned person, this visible fire, with its properties of 
alliance and division, full of blissful flames, helps in the performance of 
yajna, and worldly deeds. It imbibes in its lustrous nature the lofty 

It stimulates the pleasant speech worthy of acceptance and giver 
of enjoyments. 

Like fire, the learned person, full of noble qualities should 
preach all sciences. 

24. With fuel the fire is kindled. Just as calf is pleased seeing 
the cow coming, so are people delighted by seeing the Dawn. Just as 
highly religious people fairly well resort to permanent devices of happi- 
ness, so do the rays wholly attain to heaven. 

25. Let us use respectful language for a person, who is pure, in- 
telligent, wise, strong, and virtuous. Let him who expounds the vedic 
lore, humbly divulge the praises of the Effulgent God, as the sun seated 
in its rays, sheds in heaven the lustre that spreads to various places. 

26. In this world, this visible fire, serviceable in works of protection, 
worthy of investigation, the paramount accomplisher of sacrifice (yajna), 
the recipient of ghee, and ubiquitous, is acknowledged by the learned. The 
beautiful persons, adequately advanced in knowledge expound for all people 
this fire pervading the beams wondrously. 

27. Fire, the guardian of the created world, ever active, full of 
strength, developing with ghee, and pure, is born for fresh prosperity. 
Illumined by the suns, it glitters with the intense touch of light. 

28. O learned person, dear like life, thou shinest with knowledge, 
like fire with attrition, 

22, I; Acharya. 

23. See Yajur 13-15. 

27. Suns. --There 'are various sUns in the solar system. The one We see is tot th6 plane"* 
Earth, but there are other planets also. 


Fire, highly serviceable, residing in the inmost recesses of out 
heart, present in all rays and objects, is called the son of highly strong and 
powerful air. The learned master it. I preach unto thee its significance. 

29. O men, just as the learned, your associates, offer seemly 
oblations and praises to fire, supreme, and highly powerful, behaving as 
your grandson, so should you proceed with it. 

30. O mighty, enlightened vaishya, having adequate trade relations 
with others, and worthy of adoration, thou lookest graceful, seated in a 
desirable position of vantage ; bring us all riches. 

31. O noble learned person, loved of many, people invoke thee, 
powerful like the scorching rays of the sun for acquiring necessary nice 
foodstuffs for the subjects. 

32. Omen, just as I acknowledge for ye, through desirable food- 
grains, Agni, steadfast in nature, lovely, giver of life, devoid of conscious- 
ness, united with harmless usages, eternal in nature, world's messenger, 
and your enterprises, so should ye do for me. 

33. I acknowledge the immortal sun, the warmer of the universe. 
I acknowledge the immortal fire present in water, the scorcher of all 
objects of the world, 

The protector of the universe, this beautiful fire is present in all 
things, It acts as a uniting force. Well-comprehended, it courses through 
the body. The learned should realise it. 

34. Agni moves like an invited friend. It goes like an invited 
scholar. Use properly the fire, that is the desired treasure of persons and 

29. Grandson : Just as a grandson is helpful and serviceable to the parents, so is fire 
useful and serviceable to the learned. 

30. Vaishya : A trader, businessman, merchant, representing the third division of men, 
the first two being Brahmana and Kshatriya.* 

32. World's messenger : Agni movei in the whole world, and puts life in it. 

Foodgrains : Agni through yajna brings rain, which produces foodgrains. Agni is thus 
the source of ripening the harvest. 

Eternal in nature : It is eternal in its cau^e the Matter, not in itself. 
Agni : Fire, Electricity. 
I: Acharya. 

33. There are two kind? of fire the rough and the subtle, 

The repetition of the words in the first line of the verse, denotes the double nature 
of fire. 

34. Just as a scholar of the vedas, who is calm and affable is liked by all, so fire is liked 
by all persons. JuU as an invited friend and an invited le&rned person go hastily so does fire 
move quickly. 


material objects, like the master of the four vedas, companionable and 
calm in nature. 

35. O son of a strong man, possessing knowledge of the objects 
created, dignified and well-read, thou like fire, with land and laudable 
cow, art the master of foodgrains. Vouchsafe great wealth unto us. 

36. O ruler equipped with a good army, worthy of praise with words, 
provider of dwelling to his subjects, affluent, brilliant, and resembling 
fire, grant us laudable riches. 

37. O resplendent learned person, with powerful limbs, just as the 
sharp fire creates the night, day, morning and evening, so shouldst thou 
spread good instruction. Like fire burn the wicked with the force of 
thy soul. 

38. O man of power and supremacy, just as lovely Agni through 
oblations brings us bliss, just as gift brings bliss, just as harmless dealing 
brings bliss, just as our praises bring us bliss, so shouldst thou be blissful 
unto us. 

39. O man of power and supremacy behave in manner, where- 
with we may get in battles, optimistic mind, praiseworthy followers, and 
calm, determined soldiers. 

40. O man of power and supremacy, with thy strength, grant us 
daring courage in battles, add to the resources of our resolute army, 
exerting to its utmost for victory. Acting in obedience to thy desires, 
let us utilise the resources of the army. 

41. O learned person, I value the omnipresent fire, led by which 
the kine go to their home. The fleet-foot, steady and active steeds seek 
the indestructible fire, as their home. I bring food to the learned who 
sing thy glory. So shouldst thou realise that fire. 

42. O learned person, I laud fire, that provides shelter ; whom the 
speeches attain to. Just as the praiseworthy scholars walk slowly, and the 
learned, famous for their knowledge, thoroughly imbibe learning for the 
pupils who sing their praise, and just as the teacher explains the merits 
of God and other objects, so shouldst thou acquire the knowledge of all 
these things. 

43. O beautiful, pleasurable teacher, just as two ladels of ghee 
cook food, so fill in thy mouth both the practices of reading and teaching. 

38-40. Man of power may mean the head of the army. 

41. In the evening, in the light of the sun the kine go home, 

43. The word ^nw in the text may also mean knowledge and action. 


O lord of strepgth, teach us the vedic lore, and give food to us and the 

44. O teacher, we derive today from thee like a disciplined horse, 
the pleasant knowledge of the vedas. May we always make progress, hav- 
ing received the knowledge which touches our soul, and is blissful like 

45. O learned person, just as thou art in the possession of convey- 
ances for journey, having the intellectual wisdom of a truthful person, 
following the noble path of virtue, filled with pleasurable physical and 
spiritual strength, so shouldst we blissfully and certainly be. 

46. O learned person, be thou well-disposed towards us, like a 
king with his armies. With these worshipful learned persons be thou 
for us the expositor of knowledge ; and the uplifter of the down-trodden, 
granting us pleasure. 

47. He, who with his superior knowledge, deserves harmlessness, 
is fit to be honoured by the learned, is powerful in deeds, is imbued with 
noble qualities, and displays diverse kinds of lustre, with extreme loveli- 
ness, by performing Havan, using ghee and water, him do I honour. He 
is the giver of happiness, the knower of all created objects, charitably 
disposed like the son of a great man, giver of gifts, foremost amongst the 
wise, and a trustworthy, highly learned person, brilliant like fire. 

48. O learned person, be thou our nearest friend, our protector, 
most prosperous, and blissful unto us, like fire that gives us riches, food- 
grains, and wealth. O learned person, actuated by noble aspirations, just 
as we pray unto thee with our friends for happiness, so may all pray. Just 
as I goodly meet thee full of desirable intentions, so shouldst thou meet us. 

49. With whatever penance, the sages, well-read in vedic lore, 
securing illuminating pleasure, and full of true knowledge, explore fire ; 
with similar devotion, for the acquisition of happiness, do I grasp the fire, 
described by the thoughtful learned persons as pervader of the 

50. O learned persons, just as ye, mastering that fire, engaged in the 
performance of virtuous vedic deeds, residing in a beautiful knowable, 

44. Just as a well fed disciplined horse takes us fast to our destination, so a student 
properly looked after and well taught soon becomes learned. 

46. These : mentioned in the previous verses. 

47. A leader should possess these qualities. 

48. See Yajur 3-25, 26. Interpretation given there is different from that given here. 
Fire: -Electricity. 


pleasant place, built scientifically, attain to happiness with your wives, 
sons, brothers, other relatives, and with gold, so may we also be happy in 
all these respects. 

51. O learned person, full of knowledge, protector of the virtuous, 
having understood the essence of vedic speech, cast under foot those who 
would fight against him, who is well read, firmly established on the earth, 
benefits all with his advice, and sticks to religion. 

52. May this commander of the army, most manly, supporter of 
the lives of all, powerful like thousand soldiers, shining with knowledge 
and justice like sun in the midst of heaven, free from carelessness, shine, 
and attain to nice birth, deeds and position. 

53. O people, learn well all sciences, follow the path of the 
virtuous, be religious-minded. O learned grandfather, in thy lifetime, 
let thy sons, leading a life of Brahmcharya, in the bloom of their youth, 
marry according to their own selection, and produce afterwards children, 
according to the rules of eugenics. 

54. O highly learned man or woman acquire knowledge thoroughly, 
avoid ignorance, and be full of learning. Thou wife and this husband 
both, in this present place and in future, should acquire desired happiness, 
honour the learned, pray to God, keep good company, give true knowledge 
as a free gift, possess full strength, cultivate Brahmcharya, acquire the 
glory of knowledge, attain to puberty, and try for the attainment of final 
beatitude through helpful means. 

Let all the learned and the sacrificers be seated in this place. 

55. O learned man or woman, just as thou, for the happiness of the 
wise, with a resolute vow, solvest the thousand problems of domestic 
life, and with knowledge observe st the injunction of the vedas, so help us 
in discharging our domestic duties. 

56. O learned man or woman, this is thy house comfortable in all 
seasons. Stick fast to religion keeping in mind the education received, 
whereby thou hast attained to name and fame. Cause then our riches to 

57. O God, for my prosperity, the Magh (January-February) and 
Phagan (February-March) these two months constituting the dewy-winter, 

53. Rules of conception are given in the Sanskar Vidbi by Swami Dayananda, while 
dealing with Garbhadan Sanskar. 

54. In this present place : domestic life, Grihastha Ashrama. 
In this place : In Yajnasbala for performing the yajna. 
Puberty .full youth. 


add to my pleasure. Thou pervadest them and fire. In those months let 
sky and earth, and water be pleasure-giving. Let medicinal plants grow 
in them. Let lightning-fires, following the same laws, be separately useful 
to us. These lightning-fires residing in between the Sky and Earth, 
unanimously the cause of Dewy-winter, create the Magh and Phagan 
months. The learned should use these mighty fires. Just as the Sky and 
Earth, through the dispensation of God work together like breath, so 
should you wife and husband live constantly together. 

58. O woman, may God seat thee, full of admirable knowledge, on 
the back of learning, for strengthening the Pran, Apan and Vyan breaths 
of all thy family members. Diffuse the full light of knowledge to all 

Remain tenaciously firm like the sun, with thy husband, endowed 
with noble traits, and lustrous like the sun. 

59. O woman, make this life and the next comfortable, Remove 
thy weaknesses ; and stay at home with firmness of purpose. May the 
glorious, learned teachers establish thee in this domestic life. 

60. The subjects endowed with knowledge and good training, enquir- 
ing about the birth of the learned, equipped with cooks and servants 
expert in the performance of their duties, devoted to vedic action, worship 
and knowledge, living in the presence of the Effulgent God, provide 
everywhere, for their ruler edible foods mixed with the juices of medicinal 

61. May all sacred songs coupled with knowledge and learning, 
magnify the king, full of wealth, protector of the doings of the learned, 
and master of the people, most valiant among the valorous, extensive in 
fame like the sky. 

62. O King, just as thou makest the horse strong with fodder, 
so shouldst thou make thy subjects strong, so that they may be well 
established, shielded and protected by thee. When thou marchest forth 
with thy attractive splendour; thy followers march in thy wake. 

63. O woman, thou illuminest the Sky, the Earth, and air's broad 
realm between them. Thou art full of grace, and the light of pure know- 
ledge, I set thee in the house of thy husband, who will live long, I place 
thee under his care, thy protector. I set thee in his heart, deep like the 

59-60-61. See Yajur 12-54.55-56 with different meanings. 


64. O woman, God places thee worthy of praise and well-read in 
charge of the house, for the full enjoyment of life, for the eradication of 
misery, for the acquisition of knowledge, for amassing strength, for elicit- 
ing universal respect, and for the improvement of character. 

Spread thou the light of justice, strengthen the lustre of learning. 
Violate not the truths of religion. 

God guards thee on all sides, bestowing due respect and extreme 
delight; and distinguishing truth from untruth. 

May thou and thy husband live constantly together, holding 
God dear as life. 

65. O learned man or woman, thou knowest the world full of count- 
less objects; thou measurest the intrinsic worth of countless precious 
objects, thou servest as balance for judging the nature of countless material 
objects. Thou art the master of innumerable sciences. God sets thee in 
life for numberless achievements. 

64. See Yajur 14-12, 14-14, 15-58 with different meaning^ 


1. O King, the chastiser of the wicked, may thy indignant soldiers 
get arms. May thou the destroyer of foes get food. May the enemies 
be attacked with weapons by thy arms. 

2. O learned person, the comforter of people with thy noble 
teachings, the administrator of fear for the miscreants and happiness for 
the good, educate us again and again, with thy system of teaching, which 
is highly delightful, conducive to progress, expository of true principles, 
and free from violence. 

3 O commander of the army, the giver of comforts like a cloud, 
whatever shaft thou takest in hand to shoot, make that auspicious. O 
protector of the preachers of knowledge, destroy not this world full 
of enterprising men. 

4. O physician, dweller on the mountains, and analyser of waters, 
we praise thee with propitious speech. Full of happiness, let all our 
living beings be free from tuberculosis and well satisfied. 

5. O physician, the dispeller of ailments, chief amongst the learned, 
the teacher of the first class science of medicine, the remover of 
diseases by diagnosing them, the sure banisher of diseases deadly like 
serpents, with efficacious medicines, preach unto us the laws of health, 
cast away all drugs, that aggravate the disease, and lower our vitality. 

6. O people, your king is most auspicious, with limbs strong like 
copper, brilliant like fire, slightly red and brown. Thousands of brave 
soldiers remain under his shelter in all directions. With these soldiers 
at our back, we never entertain any evil designs. 

7. The commander of the army, with a necklace of precious gems 
round the neck, full of good qualities, actions and disposition, goes against 
the vicious. The faithful servants and the girls who carry water behold 
him. May he when seen be kind to us. 

8. The commander-in-chief, with a clear throat and voice, who 
watches the actions of thousands of soldiers, and is full of valour, receives 
food from me. I offer food to the well-behaved and brave soldiers as well, 
who work under him* 

4. A physician has often to visit mountains in search after medicinal herbs, hence he is 
spoken of as a dweller on the mountains He has to test and analyse waters, and find out their 
efficacy. The word ftffa may also mean God, whose characteristics are mentioned in the vedas, 
of whose true nature can be known from the vedas or figuratively, who dwells in the vedas. 

8. I and me: -The minister in charge of food. 


9. O powerful commander of the army, loosen both the extremities 
of the bow, put the arrows in thy hand, in the bowstring, throw them on 
the enemy, and ward off the arrows the enemy throws on thee. 

10. O masters of the science of archery, let not the bow of this 
commander with coiled and braided hair, be ever unstrung, let him never 
be devoid of arrows, and warlike instruments, who always keeps himself 
well-armed, be ever empty. May he possess many arrows. Equip him 
anew with arrows whenever they are destroyed. 

11. O virile commander, protect us well on all sides with thy 
army, the remover of the pain of defeat, with thy weapon, and the bow 
in thy hand. 

12. O commander of the army, protect us in all directions from the 
attack of thy bow. Lay thou the quiver that thou hast in a place away 
from us. 

13. O commander of the army, the seer of countless scenes on the 
battlefield filled with the lustre of innumerable weapons and missiles, 
extend thy bow ; sharpan the front edges of thy arms, kill thy foes, and 
be kind and gracious unto us. 

14. O King, skilled in fighting, keeper of thy designs in secret, 
full of eloquence, may thou get foodscuff. I offer food for thee to eat. 
I offer food to thy warriors acting as thy arms with their strength 
and valour. 

15. O commander of the army, kill not our revered elders, nor 
our children. Harm not our full grown youths, harm not our progeny 
in embryo. Slay not our rearing father, slay not our loving mother. 
Harm not the dear bodies of our women. 

16. O commander of the army, harm not our newly born child, 
nor him over five years in age. Make no attack on our life, our cows, 
sheep and goats and harm not our horses, elephants and camels. Kill 
not our heroes full of wrath. We with oblations ever call on thee, 
firm in justice. 

17. O commander of the army, may thou with strong sparkling 
arms, and leader of hosts, get arms. May thou lord of the regions get 
food. Take thou in hand the axe to cut the mango trees exposed to the 
rays of the sun. Homage to thee, the protector of cattle like cows. 
Homage to thee free from the bondage of passions, full of the light of 
justice. Homage to thee the guardian of the way-farers. Food to thee, 

14. I means the spokesman of the subjects. 

170 YAJUR VfiDA 

the golden-haired wearer of the yajnopavit (sacrificial cord). Homage 
to thee the protector of the healthy. 

18. Let the state-officials give food to the patient who lives in 
their midst. Let them pay homage to the growers of corn. Let them 
grant grain for the progress of the world. Let them offer homage to 
the lord of human beings. Let them give food to the tormentor of the 
foes, and the fighter from all directions against vast armed foes. Let them 
give food to the brave warrior, and the queen who injures none. Let 
them give food to the Lord of forest. 

19. Let the officials and the people give food to the commander 
of the army, the enhancer of delights. Let them give food to the lord of 
trees. Let them give food to servants of good character. Let them give food 
to the physician, the guardian of medicinal herbs. Let them pay homage 
to the thoughtful minister, and the expert in trade. Let them give 
food to the protector of the householders. Homage to the shouting lord 
of justice who makes the wicked weep. Homage to the guardian of 
different parts of the army. 

20. Food for the person who is active for obtaining full conquest. 
Homage to the protector of the substances secured- Food for the power- 
ful and chastiser of the foes. Homage to the general who subdues the 
armies of the enemies with his own army. Food for the master of arrow, 
sword, gun and cannon. Homage to the self-contented, enterprising 
person who serves religion, knowledge, mother, master and friends. 
Arms for him who keeps the thieves under control. Food for the 

21. Thunderbolt to the cheat, to the arch-deceiver ; and the lord 
of stealers. Food to the sword-bearer for the protection of the State. 
Thunderbolt to the lord of robbers ; to the bolt-armed homicides. 
Homage to the chastiser of the pilferers. Thunderbolt to the roamers 
at night with arms. Homage to the killer of pickpockets. 

22. Homage to the turban-wearing villager, the haunter of 
mountains, the suppressor of the evil-minded dacoits. Food to you who 
bear arrows and to you who carry bows. Homage to you who add to our 
happiness, and take up arms against foes. Food to you who dissuade 
the wicked from evil deeds, and homage to you who use arms against 

23. Food to you who use arms against the enemies, and you who 

18. $cT means the brave son of a Kshatriya from a Brahman woman. Griffith translates 
as Bhava, whereas Rishi Dayananda translates it as the world. 


kill them. Punishment to you who sleep on the battle field, and food to 
you who keep awake. Food to you who lie, and to you who sit. Food to 
you who stand and to you who run. 

24. Homage to you ladies endowed with the display of justice, 
and to you Kings lords of Assemblies. Food to horses and to you masters 
of horses. Food to our armies that kill the armies of the foes. Homage 
to you ladies, who kill the heroes of the enemies. Homage to you 
ladies, masters of the science of logic, and the ladies who kill foes in 
the battle. 

25. Food to the servants, and to you their masters. Homage to 
the people and to you their guardians. Homage to the learned who 
expatiate on the qualities of objects, and to you the protectors of the 
wise. Homage to those who assume various garbs, and to you who wear 
all forms. 

26. Homage to armies, and food to you the leaders of armies. 
Homage to you car-borne, and homage to you the pedestrians. Food to 
you born through intermarriage. Homage to you who collect materials 
for war. Food to the aged and the learned. Homage to you the 

27. Food to the carpenters. Homage to you the manufacturers of 
aeroplanes. Food to the potters. Homage to you the manufacturers of 
arms. Food to the denizens of forest who subdue wild creatures. Homage 
to the masters of different languages. Food to the trainers of dogs. 
Homage to you the lovers of deer. 

28. Food to the dogs, and to you the rearers of dogs. Homage to 
him well-known for noble characteristics. Homage to him who makes 
the wicked weep. Food to those who kill the depraved, and to those who 
rear the cattle. Homage to him with a beautiful neck, and to him 
with a black throat. 

29. Food to the celibate with braided hair. Homage to the 
shavenhaired recluse. Homage to the scholar who keeps an eye on 
thousand subjects, and to the Kshatriya who teaches manifold sciences 

24. This verse ordains women also to fight at times of emergency. A separate army of 
women may be trained, if needed. 

25. Buffoons, who through mimickry imitate different forms, deserve respect for their 
tact and intelligence. 

27. Carpenters and blacksmiths who manufacture arms should be well paid and respected. 
29. Celibate : Brahmchari, 
Recluse ; Sanyasi, 


of armoury. Homage to the Banprasthi who lives in mountains, to the 
Vaisha who protects the cattle, and to the Shudra. Homage to the 
gardener, and to the well-armed soldier. 

30. Food to the child and the learned. Homage to the strong and 
those advanced in knowledge. Homage to the aged, and the eminent 
amongst the associates. Homage to the foremost in djing noble deeds and 
to the well-known. 

31. Food to the horse swift like air, and to the horse that throws 
down a novice rider, Food to the hasty and to the rapid mover. Food to 
the zealous and to the silent workers. Food to him who dwells in rivers 
and on islands. 

32. Namaste (Homage) to the aged and to the children. Homage 
to the first born and to the last born. Homage to the relatives and to 
the simple-minded. Homage to the Shudra and to the charitably disposed. 

33. Food to the prosperous and the virtuous. Food to the lovers 
of justice, and to the protectors. Homage to the scholars of the Vedas, 
and to the expert in finishing projects. Homage to the great, and to the 
skilled in making collection of provisions. 

34. Food to those who live in wood, bushes and caves. Homage to 
the teacher and the taught, and to him who fulfils his vow. Food to him 
with swift conveyances. Homage to the hero, and to him who rends 
asunder the foes. 

35. Homage to him who wears a helmet, and to him who wears a 
cuirass. Food to him who wears mail and defensive armour, and to him 
who possesses a nice house. Homage to the renowned and to him whose 
army is renowned. Homage to the skilled drummer, and to the efficient 
player on military musical instruments that encourage the soldiers. 

36. Food to the bold, the prudent and the mild. Homage to him 
who carries sword and quiver. Homage to him who hath sharp weapons, 
and is equipped with brave warriors. Food to him who possesses good 
weapons and good bows. 

37. Food to him who dwells in rivulets, to him who keeps the paths 

32. This verse preaches that the elder should greet the younger with Namaste and vice- 
versa. Brahmans, Kshatriyas. VaMias and Shudra*? should greet each other with Namaste. 
No sense of superiority or inferiority should prevail amoagst the great and small, high and 

34. Food means wages, pay, remuneration. 

37. People should utilise the water of the streams, canals, wells and tanks to grow fruits, 
food arid trees. 


clean. Homage to him expert in constructing wells, and water-falls. 
Homage to him who knows how to construct canals and tanks. Homage to 
him who lives on the banks of streams and food for compassion to the 
animalcules residing in small ponds. 

38. Food to the creatures who dwell in wells, pits and forests. 
Food to him who lives in diverse lights, to him who works in heat, and 
manages his fields. Homage to him who knows the science of clouds, and 
to him who knows the science of electricity. Homage to him who lives 
in a rainy place, and to him who lives in an arid place. 

39. Food to him who knows the science of air, and to him who is 
the chief killer. Homage to the expert in the construction of houses, and 
to their protector. Food to the wealthy, and to him who makes the 
wicked weep. Homage to him who abhors sin and to him who practices 

40. Food to the giver of meal, and to the protector of cows. 
Homage to the fierce and to the awe-inspiring. Food to him who slays 
the enemy in front, and to him who slays him at a distance. Food to the 
slayer of the wicked and to the extirpator of the evil-minded. Homage 
to the killer of foes, and the green-tressed soldiers. Food to the deliverer 
from misery. 

41. Homage to God the source of happiness, and the source of 
delight. Homage to God the bestower of happiness and the bestower of 
delight. Homage to the auspicious, homage to the most auspicious God. 

42. Homage to him who is be3 r ond misery, and to him who is 
struggling for release. Homage to him who crosses over and to him who 
crosses back. Food to the teachers of the vedas, and speakers of truth, and 
to the dwellers on the banks of seas and rivers. Food to him who knows 
the science of grass, and to him who knows the science of foam. 

43. Food to the expert in extracting gold from sand, and to the 
expert in driving oxen. Food to him who knows the use of stones, and 
to him who constructs houses for dwelling. Food to him who wears 
braided hair, and to him who knows the use of instruments for lifting 
heavy objects. Homage to him who utilises properly the barren land, and 
to him who is skilled in treading the noble paths of virtue. 

44. Food to the expert in deeds, and to the manager of cow-pens. 
Food to the efficient couch-maker, and to him who lives peacefully in his 
house. Homage to him who is skilled in mental deliberations, and to 

38. In diverse lights means who lives not in dark but well ventilated places. 
41. This is the last Mantra of the Vedic Sandhya. 


him who is proficient in diving deep into intricate topics. Food to 
him who explores the mysteries of nature, and to him who dwells in 
inaccessible mountain caves. 

45. Homage to him who deals in dry fruits, and to him who deals 
in green vegetables. Respects to him who lives in a sandy place, and to 
him who lives in distant places. Homage to him who is expert in the 
knowledge of invisible things, and to him who is expert in the kuowledge 
of visible things. Homage to him who is skilled in murdering, and to him 
who gives condign punishment. 

46. Food to him who shows gratitude in return, and to him who 
shears leaves. Food to the enterprising and to him who kills the wicked 
foes in front. Homage to the poor and the pauper. Food to the arrow- 
makers, and homage to you the bow-makers. Food to the learned dear 
like soul, and to you the dischargers of arrows. Homage to the embodi- 
ments of virtues, to the destroyers of enemies and to the vanquished. 

47. O King, our saviour from degradation, lord of wealth, driver of 
foes to the abyss of poverty, robed in blue and red dress, terrify not 
these people and cattle, nor make them diseased. Let not us or any one 
else be sick. 

48. O King, we honour these wise persons, advisers of the 
commander of the army, who makes the sinful weep, is accompanied by 
heroes who destroy the wicked, leads a life of celibacy ; and is powerful, 
so that in this universe all human beings and cattle of the world be 
happy, free from misery and disease. 

49. O royal physician, thy auspicious, vast and fascinating skill, is 
like medicine the killer of disease. It gives comfort to the patient and 
removes his affliction. Make us enjoy this life with pleasure for all 

50. O King, giver of pleasure unto us, keep us away from the 
weapons of the valiant, save us from the evil-mindedness of the indignant 
sinners. Extend unto our babes and youths, the stable intellect derived 
from the rich, and make us all delightful with it. 

51. O most bounteous, most auspicious King, be auspicious, well 
inclined to us. Take up thy weapons, put on the deer-skin cloak, wear 
the armour thy protector, and come for our safety. Attack the strong 
army of the enemy worthy to be torn asunder. 

45. Skilled in murdering, refers to a commander who kills the soldiers of the opposing 
army on the battlefield. 

46. An enemy, being defeated deserves protection, honour and respect, and not annibi" 


52. O King, sound sleeper like a powerful swine, bent on 
inaugurating various projects, holy Lord, to thee be homage. May all 
the thousand darts of thine strike dead against the foe different from us. 

53. O auspicious commander of the army, thou hast got thousands 
of weapons in thy possession, Thou art their Lord. Turn back with 
them the faces of thousands of our foes. 

54. Innumerable, thousands are the creatures on the face of the 
earth. In their connection we should send weapons to places a thousand 
leagues away. 

55. In this mighty, subtle, watery space above us there are 
creatures and airs. We should make use of them ; and transport 
weapons to places a thousand leagues away. 

56. Creatures are dwelling in the sky, whose necks are blue, whose 
throats are white. We should make use of them, and send weapons to 
places a thousand leagues away. 

57. The injurious creatures, whose necks are blue and whose 
throats are white, live down below on the earth. Let us use weapons for 
their extermination in places a thousand leagues away. 

58. There are injurious serpents, living in the dens of trees, awful 
in appearance, full of poison, with blue necks and different in colours. 
We should use our arms for their extinction in places a thousand leagues 

59. The Sanyasis with no hair-tufts, and the Brahmcharis with 
braided hair, are the lords of the animate and inanimate world. For 
their safety, we roam in distant places a thousand leagues afar, and use 
the weapons of knowledge for the removal of the evil of ignorance. 

60. For them, who are the protectors of paths and pedestrians, the 
producers of corn on the earth, who fight with full force, against their 
enemies, we transport our weapons to places a thousand leagues afar. 

61. For them, who with arrows in their hand, and armed with 

52. foeftffcsf may mean free from sin according to Mahidhar's interpretation. Swami 
Dayananda translates it as, 'bent on inaugurating various projects.' 

56-57. It may mean, they are unreliable. They show different phases of character. They 
behave in one way from the front and in another from behind. They are double faced, sweet 
tongued before the authorities, and evil intentioned in the back. 

61. There are two channels or expedients rfW for man. The first is the vow of celibacy, 
study of the vedas, service of the preceptor, contemplation of God, and truthfulness, which 
ruake us overcome the miseries of life. The second is the use of ships and boats that carry us 
from one corner of the river to the other, and make as cross it. 


sword, preach the study of the vedas and the use of ships, we send out 
weapons to places a thousand leagues afar. 

62. The degraded persons, who harm the men taking food and 
drink from their cups, deseive to be uprooted by the use of our arms, 
though they be a thousand leagues afar. 

63. We use the forces of nature against the creatures, mentioned 
above and still more, lodged in different directions, though they be a 
thousand leagues afar. 

64. Homage to the heroes, who work selflessly like vital breaths, 
who like sun's light are shining in humility and knowledge, who are 
powerful like the rain. To them ten eastward, southward ten, ten to the 
west, ten to the north, ten to the region uppermost. To them we offer 
food. May they guard and delight us. Within their jaws we lay the 
man who dislikes us and whom we dislike. 

65. Homage to the heroes, who sitting in planes fly in the air, who 
work selflessly like vital breaths, who are powerful like the wind. To 
them ten eastward, southward ten, ten to the west, ten to the north, ten 
to the region uppermost. To them we offer food. May they guard and 
delight us. Within their jaws we lay the man who dislikes us and whom 
we dislike. 

66. Homage to the heroes who sitting in conveyances travel on 
the earth, who work selflessly like the vital breaths, whose arms are 
foodstuffs. To them ten eastward, southward ten, ten to the west, ten 
to the north, ten to the region uppermost. To them we offer food. May 
they guard and delight us. Within their jaws we lay the man who 
dislikes us and whom we dislike. 

64. Ten : In each direction they enjoy the delights and comforts of ten directions; or the 
ten fingers of both the hands be raised in supplication to God . for their prosperity. Just as a 
mouse in the month of a cat is put to inconvenience so we put the hater and the hated in the 
hands of heroes for punishment. 


1. O fully charitably disposed persons, ever active like the wind, 
grant us food and strength contained in lightning and clouds, formidable 
in appearance mountain-like. 

Grant us food, strength and juice gathered from the plants, trees 
and waters. O man may I possess thy cloudwise strength and thy appetite. 
Let thy pain reach the man we dislike. 

2. learned person, may the materials of my yajna, like milch 
kine, be the givers of happiness to me. 

They may be one, and ten, and ten tens, a hundred, and ten hundred, 
a thousand and ten thousand and a hundred thousand, a lac and ten lacs, 
a million, and ten millions, a crore, ten crores, hundred crores, thousand 
crores, its ten times Maha Padma, its ten times Shankh, its ten times 
Samudra, its ten times Madhya, its ten times Prardh. May these bricks 
of my altar be a source of happiness to me, like milch-kine in this world 
and the next world. 

3. O women, ye are pleasant like the spring season, full of truth 
like canals with water, enjoyers of seasons like spring, advancers of truth, 
givers of butter, givers of sweet juices, worthy of protection, full of 
various noble qualities, fulfillers of our desires like kine, make us happy. 

4. O ruler, just as we, conversant with the knowledge of self- 
protection in space, approach thee from all sides, be thou our purifier 
and auspicious to us. 

5. O ruler, we rally round thee for safety, just as fire or cloth 
removes cold. Be thou our purifier, aud auspicious to us. 

6. O noble and well-decorated woman, live on this earth in the 
midst of riches, enhancing thy resources. Just as fire is the emblem of 
the essence of life, so should'st thou approach us with sweetness and 
vigour. Make our resplendent domestic life successful. 

7. O learned person, this space in full is the decided home of 

1. Husband and wife should share the weal and woe of each other. 

2* Millions and billions of bricks are used in the construction of a big house or a grand 
altar. The house and the altar (Wt) strongly built are a source of comfort and happiness 
like the milch-kine. Daily performance of Havan is necessary to elevate our ?oul in this 
world and the world to come. God has in this verse preached the science of Arithmetical 
digits, which can be multiplied ad-infinitum. 


waters and creatures. Lead the life of a domestic person with certainty 
like the ocean of vapours in space. Doing virtuous deeds, be propitious 
unto us. Let thy shafts trouble others different from us. 

8. O excellent diffuser and preacher of knowledge, the gratifier of 
the hearts of men, with thy pleasant and truthful tongue ; and thy light 
of knowledge, preach unto the learned, and associate with them. 

9. O learned person, pure, foe-destroyer, distinguisher of truth 
from untruth ; just as fire carries afar our fragrant oblations, so dost 
thou in this world bring hither for us domestic life and learned persons. 

10. The Commander of the army, who with purifying conscious 
force shines upon the earth like dawns with sun's light, who kills speedily 
like strong horses, the foes that come in the way ; who in the heat of 
battle tolerates thirst, whom old age does not touch, is fit for rule. 

11. O ruler, our obeisance to thee, the remover of afflictions. Our 
obeisance to thee pure and worthy of respect. May thy armed forces 
trouble others than us. Be thou our purifier, and propitious unto us. 

12. O King, the leader of men, occupy the seat of justice. Administer 
justice unto sailors in ships. Thou art the chief for improving thy 
subjects. Be thou a dweller in the solitude of forests, and a lover of 
justice. Be thou the enjoyer of pleasure, full of perseverance. 

13. The hermits (Sanyasis) learned of the learned, who take their 
meals without performing Havan, lead a life of sacrifice, and contempla- 
tion amongst the performers of usual sacrifice (yajna), and worship the 
Adorable God, after a year's penance, take themselves the honey and 
butter of oblations in this yajna. 

14. The learned yogis who amongst the learned attain to Godhead, 
who first of all acquire communion with God, without whose aid no 
place of happiness is sanctified, dwell neither on heaven's heights nor on 
the face of the earth. 

15. O King, thy powers are the givers of life and strength unto 
us, the givers of resources for the removal of affliction, the givers of 
knowledge, the helpers for studying all sciences, the preachers of true 
religion and service of the learned. May thy weapons trouble others 
than us. Be thou our purifier and propitious unto us. 

13. A samnyasi kindles the inner and not the outer fire. Itis not necessary for him to 
perform Havan. 

14. The yogis attain to salvation, i.e., final beatitude (Moksha), and being obeorbed 
ta God, tkeir souls roam throughout the universe, 


16. O learned person, just as fire with its sharpened blaze, gives 
us all eatables, and just as electricity adds to our wealth, so shouldst thou 
be helpful for us. 

17. The Omniscient God, the Creator and Dissolver of all objects, 
our Father, pervading all these regions, is ever-present. He sustains 
the universe, With his blessing, He grants us riches ; and pervades the 
subtle primordial vast matter, and the world created therefrom. 

18. What is the support of this universe ? What is the material 
cause of the world in the beginning ? What was its nature ? Whence 
God, the Doer of myriad deeds, the Seer of all, producing the earth and 
the heavens, covers them with His mighty power. 

19. God keeps an eye on the whole world, preaches morality to 
humanity, is full of immense strength, is present everywhere. The 
Incomparable One Effulgent Lord, with mobile atoms, producing the 
Earth and Heaven, with His mighty force puts the universe in motion. 

20. Let the Yogis with mind under control, intelligently question 
the learned. What was the adorable cause, what the transitory result- 
ant universe ? Who created separately the heaven and Earth and how ? 
Know God the Creator of the universe, Who sustaining all regions where 
human beings dwell, reigns supreme over them. 

21. O God, the Lord of food grains, and doer of noble deeds, 
whatever high, low, and medium sized places there are in Thy universe, 
Thou Thyself providest them with food. Developing our body, give us 
Thy devoted friends, good instructions. 

22. O noble King, just as God, the embodiment of virtues, through 
His grandeur, connects the earth and the sun, so shouldst thou associate 
with all. Let the venerable rich learned person throw all our foes into 

16. Just as fire burns grass dry or wet, so we should burn all our vices and imbibe 
virtues. Just as electricity pervades all objects, so should we learn all sciences and dispel 

17. God was present in matter the cause of the universe, and is present in all heavenly 
bodies, created therefrom. 

20. Adorable cause is matter, from which results this universe, which is ephemeral 
and is dissolved into atoms by God. 

The process of creating the universe from indestructible matter by God, and dissolving 
it again into atoms is eternal. 

22. Heaven and earth are connected through mutual attraction, 


23. Let us invoke for our protection in battle, the high sooukd indi- 
vidual, wto is the preserver of the vedas, swift like mind, and expert in 

all deeds. May he the giver of comfort to all, the doer of virtuous deeds, 
for our safety, approve of our invocations. 

24. O King, the lover of noble actions, the head of all Assemblies, 
select him as thy minister for advice in state affairs, who is highly 
serviceable, dignified, unworthy of harm, protector, and wealthy. Let 
the good subjects bow unto him ; so that this minister be quick to hurt, 
and fit to be respected in various ways. 

25. Ye people, when you elect as your ruler the man, who is the 
guardian of the lovers of justice ; has a patient mind peaceful through 
austerity, grants us dainties, and makes the officials and the subjects 
respect each other, and live together like the ancient far extended 
Heaven and Earth, and make progress working unitedly like feet the 
lowest protions of the body, then alone is the government stabilised. 

26. God is the Creator of the whole universe, full of knowledge. 
Ubiquitous Sustainer, Maker, Seer, and foremost of all. He is known 
as the Incomparable One. In Him the souls controlling the seven rishis 
live in enjoyment according to their desire. He fulfils their lofty 

27. God is the Father, Who made us. Who rewards our acts, 
and creates the universe. Who knoweth all worlds and all things existing. 
He is the name-giver of all the forces of nature. He is One. Him 
do all created beings seek for informatian. 

28. Highly learned persons, tha nourishers of all, the knowers of 
the significance of the vedas, like a praiser, thoroughly educate these 
living beings, in invisible and visibly settled worlds, and amass wealth 
for carrying out the commands of God. 

29. God is higher than this Earth and Heaven, higher than 
learned living beings, and beyond the divisions of time. Through His 

23. The high-fouled individual means the ruler. He should possess the qualities 
mentioned in this verse. See 8. 45. 

24. See 8, 46. 

26. Seven Rishh .Five breaths Pran, Apan, Vyao, Udan, Saman, Dhananjaya and 

Their : -Souls. 

Seven Rishis may also mean two eyes, two ears, two nostrils and month. 

27. For information : to learn Who is the supreme God. 

28. Vedic teachings are meant for the inhabitants of earth and other invisible planets 
where dwell men. 


persuasion souls enter the numerous assuraable bodies. Him do the 
devotees of knowledge see with a spiritual eye. 

30. Know Him to be God, in Whom souls sustain the vast eternal 
matter, the source of creation ; to Whom all yogis attain. Who acts as 
Lord over eternal soul and matter. Who is Self Existent. In Whom 
abide all things existing. 

31. O people ye do not know God, Who has produced those crea- 
tures, Who is away from the irreligious and separate from soul and 
matter, and being present in al! is still distant ; as ye are sunk in the 
darkness of ignorance ; occupied with the discussion of partial truth and 
untruth, engaged in the enjoyment of carnal pleasures, and abandoning 
the practice of 3 7 oga, are busy with controversy over the meanings of 

32. Firstly was created the air, in which are performed all good 
deeds ; secondly was created the sun, which sustains the earth ; thirdly 
was created the cloud, that fosters plants, waters and souls, and helps the 
retention of life in material objects, is the guardian of many, and begetter 
of rain. 

33. He is an ideal commander of the army, who is swift, keeps his 
arms sharpened, fearless like a strong bull, a zealous killer of foes, strikes 
terror in men ; makes the enemies weep bitterly, works day and night, 
a sole hero, rends asunder the opponents, and subdues with us a hundred 

34. Ye warriors, win the opposing forces, and bear the brunt of 
their speed with the commander, who makes the enemies weep, is ever 
exerting, is fond of victory, arranges his soldiers in different divisions, 
puts the enemies to inconvenience, is steady, energetic, and strong, with 
arms in hand. 

35. The Commander of the army, with arms in hand, with well- 
trained and armed soldiers, keeper in stock of arms and weapons, the 
master of passions, the conqueror of foes, the maintainer of peace in the 
country, strong in arms, with sharp shafts fond of fight, discharges his 
weapons, kills his enemies, and with his disciplined army achieves victory 
over the opposing forces. 

36. O protector of the religious minded, the aged and the forces, 

the slayer of demons, the remover of our foes, their killer, the^ brcaker-up 

31. Distant : Though near, God is distant from those engrossed in ignorance aod lack 
of knowledge. 

182 YAJUfc VEDA 

of the enemy's forces, their destroyer in the battle with military accou- 
trements, be thou protector of our conveyances that are used on the 
earth, the sea, and in the air. 

37. O Commander of the army, well-equipped with military war- 
fare, thou knowest how to strengthen thy army, art an experienced 
statesmen, a foremost fighter, mighty, the master of the science of war, 
the endurer of pleasure and pain, the fierce slayer of the wicked, the 
possessor of nice warriors, and martial intelligent employees, famous for 
strength, conquering land, surrounded by victorious heroes, mount thy 
conquering conveyance. 

38. O friendly countrymen, encourage the commander of the army, 
and begin the battle with him, who with his physical, mental and military 
strength, cleaves the enemies' families, usurps their land, is armed with 
weapons, slay's the foes, subdues the enemy in the battle, and conquers 

39. May the commander of the army, who, with surpassing vigour 
pierces in the battles the families of the enemies, is pitiless, wild with 
anger, unconquerable by foes, conqueror of the enemy's forces, unequalled 
in fight, and victor, protect our armies, 

40. In battle, the commander, the leader of these armies of the 
learned, the conqueror and demolisher of the enemies should march behind. 
The organiser of the army should march in front. The leader of 
big bands should march on the right. The encourager of the army should 
march on the left. The warriors swift like air should march ahead. 

41. Musical instruments, to infuse valour and energy shouW be 
played upon before the commencement of the battle, by the learned 
soldiers of the powerful commander, and mighty king, who possess decent 
homes, lofty ideas, are able to conquer the enemies, have led a life of 
celibacy for forty eight years, are highly learned and strong, full of 
terrible power. 

42. O adorable commander the slayer of foes, like the sun of 
clouds, make the weapons of our soldiers flourish, excite the spirits of 
our warring heroes, increase the speed of our horses, and let the din of 
conquering cars go upward. 

43. O learned persons desirous of victory, may the commander 

37. Conveyance . refers to the conveyance used on land, on water and in the air. Cars, 
ships and aeroplanes are covered by this word. 

39. Pitiless; A commander is full of pity for the virtuous, but is devoid of pity for the 


and our forces, under different flags, the emblems of justice and truth, 
win in the battle. May our brave men enjoy after war. May ye protect 
us everywhere at the time of war. 

44. O queen the slayer of foes, organise the bands of thjr army, 
that bewilders the hearts of the forces of the enemy, remain aloof from 
sin, convey thy aim to thy soldiers, burn down the foes, whereby they 
may abide in utter darkness with hearts full of griefs. 

45. O' wife of the comraander-in-chief, expert in the art of archery, 
trained by a learned person knowing the vedas, on persuasion, go afar, 
encounter the foes, achieve victory by slaying them. Let not even one of 
those distant foes escape. 

46. Advance, O heroes, win the day. May the commander of the 
army provide ye with shelter, food and clothes, Exceeding mighty be 
your arms, that none may threaten or injure you. 

47. O learned persons, the army of our enemies, that comes against 
us in a jealous mood, with its might, meet ye and enwrap it harshly in 
the darkness of the smoke arising out of the use of cannons so that they 
may not recognise one another. 

48. There where the flights of arrows fall like boys whose locks 
are unshorn, may the Commander, the protector of the big army grant 
us shelter, may the entire Assembly adorned with members, grant us a 
happy home through all our days. 

49. O valiant warrior, thy vital parts I cover with armour. May 
this calm, considerate king protect thee with efficacious medicine. May 
the exalted King give tbee what is more than ample. May the learned 
encourage thee in thy triumph over the wicked. 

44. JrtAcc rding to Sayana, a female deity who presides over in ; according to 
Mahidhar, sickness or fear. According to Swami Dayananda, it means the queen who leads 
the army of women and kills the foes. This verse advocates the formation of the army of 

47. Darkness . the use of fiery weapons produces smoke, that envelops the enemy's 
forces, and being blinded one soldier cannot recognise the other. It may also refer to the 
use of gases which darken the eyes of the soldiers. 

48. Like boys : The arrows (all where they list, as boys before the Mundan Sanskar, 
(tonsure ceremony) play about vigorously wherever they like. 

Professor Roth separates Visikha from Kumara, and translates 'where the arrows fly, 
young and old' ; that is feathered and unfeathered. Swami Dayananda translates arrows to 
Bean weapons and arms. 

49. The armour or coat of mail, protects the shoulders, back, chest, and lower pafU 
of ths body. 

184 YAJUR VfiDA 

50. O Commander of the army, well satisfied with ghee, lead this 
conquering hero to a high position ; vouchsafe him growth of riches and 
multiply his progeny. 

51. O Commander, lead to eminence, this hero amongst the learned 
of the same age. May he have control over his passions. Vouchsafe him 
lustre of knowledge, so that he may give each his share. 

52. O learned family priest prosper the King in whose house we 
perform Homa (offer oblation). May the learned teach him, and may 
the master of the vedas teach them. 

53. O learned King, may all the intellectuals bear and lift thee 
upward. May thou endowed with convincing knowledge, shining with 
the light of mastery of various subjects, be propitious unto us. 

54. Casting aside dense ignorance and evil genius, these educated 
wives of the learned, engaged in different duties like the five regions, 
for the growth of riches, serving their husbands should yearn for domestic 
life, whereby this domestic life be made firm in the aquisition of wealth. 

55. Just as the learned, in enkindled fire, perform Agnihotra 
yajna, so should a highly revered person, the singer of vedic hymns, 
adorable, lovable sacrificer perform the well lighted yajna, accepting it 
with vigour. 

56. Just as learned persons, desirous of performing yajna, engage 
themselves in [the performance of Agni Hotra yajna for the happiness of 
the learned, and just as for the loving, benign, and virtuous priest, % the 
wealth of knowledge, and a sacrificer (Yajman) intent on acquiring 
riches, and lord of a hundred drinkable objects like milk and itsilk, are 
there, so should ye the imparters of knowledge, having acquired learning 
perform the Agni Hotra yajna. 

57. The householder, who with a tranquil mind, puts into the fire, 
for performing the yajna, the oblation which moves above and removes 

51. His share : The wealth obtained through defeating the enemy should not be 
usurped by the King, but distributed amongst the warring soldiers. 

52. The priests teach the King, and the King the Knower of the Vedas teaches them- 
Knowledge is thus preserved and expanded through deliberations. 

53. The text has occurred in 12-31, with a different interpretation. 

56. Priest means Hota. 

57. Fourth yajua .-Excellent yajna. In Shatapatha Brahmana 9-2-3-1 1 the Turiya 
(fourth) yajna is described as one in which the Adhwaryu sings verges from the Yajur veda, 
^nd then Hota recites hymns from the Rig Veda, and theu Brahma recites the Apratirath or 
irresistible Sukta (R. V. 10-103), Professor Eggeling remarks that these verses (33-44) are 
enigmatical, but his view is incorrect, as the verses are clear. 


foul smell, performs the fourth yajna. May prayers and the fulfilment 
of our desires bless us in the yajna where we get material fit for Homa. 

58. Sun gives us light from the beginning of creation. Its rays 
are green. In the created world it incessantly gives us strength. A 
learned person perceiving fully realises its science. With its light, the 
Earth, planets and stars, the protectors of the world, manifest all 

59. This sun, in the midst of heaven, like an aeroplane, sits, 
filling the earth, sky and air's mid region, with its light. It spreads its 
beams that illumine the world and give us water. It sheds its lustre 
on the day, the night and the intervening period. 

60. God has set the sun in the midst of heaven. It attracts rain- 
water and pours it down, is red, protects us thoroughly, possesses diverse 
coloured rays,rotates, keeps under check the clouds and different worlds, 
and guards them. It pervades lightning the efficient cause of light. 

61. All vedic songs glorify God expansive like the space, the most 
delightful of all pleasant objects, the Lord of the wise, the Guardian of 
eternal matter and souls. 

62. God is the Invoker of the learned, Adorable, our Instructor 
in truth and Relinqaisher from untruth, the Bestower of pleasures, 
Worshipful, the giver of comfort and remover of discomforts. May the 
Effulgent God grant and procure us noble qualities. 

63. Just as God, the Sustainer, the Producer of Knowledge, through 
devices of elevation lifts me up, so elect him as General of the army who 
with his subjugating power keeps my foemen down. 

64. May the learned increase wealth through strenuous e 
and renunciation ; and may the military and civil heads of the 
drive away my opposing foes. 

65. Ye heroes, with spiritual force in your hand, attain to happi- 
ness through the science of electricity. Having procured the desired 
happiness resulting from justice and humility, live in the company of tit 

59. Like an aeroplane : Ju*t a* aeroplanes fly high in the sky a&4^40ok wonderful, 
so does the sun appear beautiful and wonderous when it shine* in the sky. 
The night : Moon receives light from the sun, and illumines the night. 

65. Ukha i Spiritual force. 


66. O King, go forward to the eastern region. In thy state, with 
the use of fiery weapons, be a skilled leader full of passion like fire. 
Illumining all the quarters, shine with splendour ; supply food to our 
quadrupeds and bipeds. 

67. Through yoga, from physical force I rise higher to mental 
force ; from mental force I rise higher to spiritual force ; from spiritual 
force I rise higher to God, the Blissful Light. 

68. The learned yogis, who attain to Cod, the Sustainer of the 
universe, on their march to salvation, pay no attention to worldly 
pleasures, but rise to salvation, that frees them from birth and death. 

69. Foremost of those who exert, O learned person, come forward, 
thou art the eye of the literate and the illiterate. 

The sacrificers, fain to worship, friendly to all, accordant with the 
highly learned persons, attain to ordinary and extreme happiness. 

70. Just as the nurse and mother with different characteristics, 
but with one mind, working in harmony suckle the same child, so do the 
night and dawn, with different hues nourish the world. Just as the 
brilliant sun shines between the Heaven and Earth, so do the imparters 
of knowledge imbibe the glow of knowledge. 

71. O yogi, thou hast the knowledge of innumerable usages, 
immense power of meditation, hundreds of accomplishments of life, and 
thousands of modes of activity. Thou art the Lord of thousandfold 
possessions. To thee full of knowledge may we offer our obeisance in 
truthful words. 

72. O learned yogi, with thy light, thou art endowed with 
excellent noble qualities, yoked with high soul-power. Just as the 
sun shines in the midst of heaven, so do thou be seated on earth. Grant 
happiness to the people like air. As the sun fills air's mid-region with 
its glow, so shouldst thou strengthen sovereignty with thy statesmanship. 
Just as fire with its intense heat fills the quarters, so shouldst thou 
elevate the people. 

73. Thou, whose soul is enlightened with yoga, who invitest 
respect from those who contact thee, the master of good traits, the 
teacher of the science of yoga, through thy virtuous deeds, seat thyself 

67. Antrikshaloka is described in the Shatapatha Brahmana as mind, vide Shatapatha 
14/4/3/11. The verse may also mean, a yogi through yogic practices, can rise from the earth 
to the space, from the space to the sun, from the sun ri t to the height of happiness. 

69. Eye : who keeps a watch over their doings and shows them the right path. 

70. See 12-2. The text is the same, but meanings are different. 


firmly in God thy nearest home. Ye all yogis, with laudable acts, stick 
fast to truth after discussion. 

74. Just as a wise person, knows the exalted vedic speech of God, 
the Adorable, the Giver of the glory of yoga, and enhances his knowledge 
with that speech, that is wondrous, explains the creation of the universe, 
is full of knowledge, explains each topic lucidly and gives us wisdom and 
food, so do I rightly accept it. 

75. O Yogi, we adore thee with praise-songs for thy past life, and 
for thy present life, in which we live with thee. May we worship God 
through whose shelter thou hast risen. Just as the performers of Homa, 
put oblations in the well kindled fire, so do we remove our moral 
weaknesses through the fire of yoga. 

76. O most youthful yogi, first enkindled with dignity, with 
continuous supremacy, long for us. Constantly unto thee come the 

77. O learned person, just as a horse is fed with fodder, and 
intellect sharpened with prayers, so art thou beneficent and pleasing to 
our heart ; may we approach thee with praises, and advance under thy 

78. Just as an oblation is put with butter, into the fire, filled 
with fuel, so with a contemplative mind do I acquire discernment so that 
the learned, who strengthen truth, and are devoted to knowledge, may 
come here. To God, Lord of the Earth, and Master of all deeds, I 
offer-up day after day the inviolable sacrifice of knowledge. 

79. O sage, seven breaths are thy fuel, seven flames are thy flames 
of knowledge, seven organs of perception are thy sources of wisdom. 

74- It refers to vedic speech. 

76. Most youthful : most advanced in knowledge. 

77. See 15-44. The text is the same, but interpretation different. Protections means 
qualities of protection. 

79. STFft tf fTfoiZ: 5To 9-2-3-44. 

Seven breaths : Pran, Apan, Saman Vyan, Udan, Devdutt, Dhananjaya. 

Seven flames : Kali, Karali, Manojava, Sulohita, Sudhutnravarna, Sphulingini, 
Vishvarupi. These have been spoken as seven tongues in the text. 

Seven organs : Nose, tongue, eye, ear, skin, mind, intellect. These are called seven 

Seven Mansions (gm) : vSF*. WH, 1R Sjrf. Wf, VTO "ft* I 

Seven priests : the seven organs of perception. 

Sevenfold manner : Seven Rishis perform their duties in connection with the subject 
concerned, M., eye with seeing, ear with hearing, tongue with speaking tte. 


Thou hast seven beloved mansions. Seven priests in sevenfold manner 
pay thee worship. With knowledge and fine speech fill full these seven 
sources of learning. 

80. God is Purely Bright, Wonderfully Bright, Eternally Bright, 
All Luminous, Bright, Truth's Protector, and free from Sin. 

81. Persons, who are excellent like God, noble like other good 
people, equal towards all, affectionate towards all, respectable, well- 
balanced, and possessors ot worldly objects, succeed in life. 

82. God is the Knower of truth, Most Excellent amongst the 
excellent, Resolute, the Support of all, the Sustainer, the Owner of all 
owners, and efficient Administrator. 

83. He, who is the advancer of knowledge, elevator of religion, 
Conqueror of armies, lord of goodly forces, keeper of friends near at hand ; 
driver afar of foes, is worthy of estimation. 

84. O learned persons, the performers of seasonwise sacrifice 
(Yajna), well-qualified, resembling the aforesaid sacrificers, free from 
partiality, similar in nature to the highly learned, truthful and religious, 
come near unto us. 

May the knowers of reality, discriminators of truth from untruth 
like a balance, the supporters and nourishers of their companions protect 
us to-day in this sacrifice. 

85. He who exalts his men, feasts on dainty dishes, torments the 
foes, is an admirable householder, lover of games, and mighty, becomes a 
nice conqueror. 

86. O King behave so that thy learned subjects, regular performers 
of yajna, may become thy followers. Just as learned people, dear as 
breath, follow God, so should the literate and the illiterate persons follow 
this King, tfee giver of happiness through knowledge and teaching. 

87. O man resplendent like fire, drink as from a teat filled with 
milk, this invigorating juice of waters. In the midst of many welcome 
this well full of sweet water. Fast like a horse, enter thy oceanic 

88. O sailor, wish thou to master water. Ghee is the home of fire. 
It rests in ghee. Ghee is its proper province. Utilise that fire for 

88. This text has al c o a spiritual meaning as follow* : 

O learned person, drink deep from the Vedas, God's teats, full of significant, forceful 
words enjoy sweet, progressive devotion, and through contemplation, reach the spiritual home 
gt knowledge. 


producing food-stuffs. O giver of pleasures ; thou receivest the oblation 
consecrated through vedic incantations, hence gladden us. 

89. O men, know that forth from the ocean springs the watery 
wave of sweetness with rays of the fun. Being divine it is extremely 
pleasant in taste. The real cause of water is hidden. Salvation is the 
result of the teachings of the learned. 

90. He. whose knowledge of the four vedas is like four horns, who 
studies and enjoys the vedas, is perfectly well versed in them all, 
preaches them to humanity, and listens to their teachings from others, is 
the praiseworthy embodiment of knowledge. It is our duty to propagate 
it to others, and act upon it in our domestic life with words of veneration. 

91. This yajna has got four horns, three feet, two heads, and seven 
hands. This mighty, attainable yajna, the giver of happiness, bound with 
a triple bond, roars loudly and enters into mortals. 

89. The real cause : Primordial matter the real cause of water is hidden, mysterious 
and unmani fened. 

Professor Ludwig is unnecessarily furious over the explanations which Sayana gives. 
The sense of the text is not obscure as alleged by him. 

90. Professor Wilson following Sayana wrongly interprets the epithet 'four horned* as, 
applying to God, who may be called a buffalo as a type of extraordinary strength. Mahidhar's 
interpretation of four horns as four officiating priests is also wide the mark. 'Four horns' is a 
phrase u^eH figuratively to denote the knowledge of the four vedas by a learned person. 
Horns are pillars of spiritual knowledge. 

91. Four horns : The four vedas. 
Three feet : Mo-ning, noon, and evening. 

Two heads : The rising and setting times of the sun. 
Seven hands : The seven metres of the veda like Gayatri etc. 

Triple bond : The Mantra, Kalpa and Brahmana, prayer, ceremonial, and rationale of 
the veda, or the three regions, Heaven, Firmament, and Earth. 

Loud roaring is the sound of the recitation of the vedic verses. 
Different explanations have been given by Mahidhar for these words. 
Patanjali in his immortal work the Mahabhashya explains these words differently. 
The ver c e can be applied to grammar ( 3lt*$r.&) 

Four horns are 1W (Noun) 3H$41<t (verb), 3*flRif (a preposition prefixed to roots) and 

Three feet : Past, present, and future. 
Two heads . Nitya and pnf (Effect). 
Seven hands : Seven cases. 
Triple bonds :-~ Heart, Throat and Head. 


92. The learned, masters of the worldly affairs, acquire after 
research the knowledge bidden in the vedas, and laid three-wise. 
Electricity exposes a part of that knowledge, sun another part, and the 
learned the third part by their wisdom and experience. 

93. These vedic speeches which flow from the inmost reservoir of 
the heart are incontrovertible by the thievish foe. I realise these 
speeches full of knowledge and see in their midst the Resplendent, 
Beautiful God. 

94. From the inmost recesses of the heart, purified by mind, flow 
together our speeches as streams flow to the ocean. These waves of 
knowledge pour swiftly like the deer running through the fear of a tiger. 

95. Just as rushing down the rapids of a river, fall swifter than the 
wind the vigorous currents, just as the swift fleeting horse, breaking 
aside the battlefields, falls upon the enemy, watering the earth with 
perspiration arising out of his endeavour to kill the foe, so do the exalted 
speeches full of knowledge fall on the audience from the mouth of a 

96. Just as women of high character, of one mind, gently smiling, 
incline towards their husbands, so do the speeches of pure knowledge, 
glowing with apt use, meaning, and relation of words, reach a learned 
person, who enjoying them attains to brilliance. 

97. As maidens deck themselves with gay adornments and exhibit 
their beauty to join thair husbands, so, where prosperity reigns, where 
yajna is performed, there the intellectual speeches are sanctified on all 
sides, which I enjoy again and again. 

98. O married couple, welcome the laudable struggle for existence, 
procure the wisdom of speech, milk, curd and butter. May the learned 
bestow on us excellent possessions, and grant us this domestic life. The 
learned receive the instructive, sjveet words of knowledge, 

99. O God, this whole universe depends upon thy power and might 
vast like the atmosphere. May we realise Thee. 

O king may we acquire the strength that lies in thy breaths, thy 
heart, thy lively soldiers and thy battlefield, and thy wisdom full of 
admirable characteristics. 

92. Laid threewise : placed in the earth 'atmosphere and heaven, contemplation 
(Upasana) or in the form of k row ledge (Jnar) aod Action (Karma). 

96. One mind : Husband and wife should be of one agreeable mind, attached to each 

97. I : a learned person. 

CHAPTER xvifl 

1. May my food and my prosperity, my exertion and my influence, 
my thought and my mental power, my independence and my speech, my 
hearing and my vedic knowledge, the light of my learning and my 
pleasure prosper through the contemplation of Adorable God, and the 
performance of philanthropic deeds for the good of humanity. 

2. May my Pran and Apan, my Vyan and my Dhananjaya, my Nag 
breath and other breaths, my memory and my well defined knowledge, 
my voice and hearing, my mind and reflections, my eye and knowledge, 
my ear and vedic authority, my wisdom and honour, my strength and 
valour, prosper through the practice of religion. 

3. May my energy and my army, my soul and my body, my house 
and my armour, my limbs and my bones, my joints and my relatives' 
bodies, my life and my resources, my old age and youth prosper through 
the grace of God. 

4. May my preeminence and nice objects, my overlordship and 
property, my righteous indignation and tranquillity of mind, my angry 
passion and noble behaviour, my just possessions and acquirable objects, 
my coolness like water, and my milk, curd and butter, my victorious 
power and victory, my greatness and honour, my magnanimity and 
excellent conduct, my abundance and vast objects, my old age and youth, 
the continuity of my family and its smallness, my increase of riches and 
penury, my amelioration and consequent happiness prosper through 
religious practices. 

5. May my truth and love for all, my faith and things that lead 
to its accomplishment, my progeny and their possessions, my wealth and 
food stuffs, my belongings and philanthropy, my beauty and honour, my 
play and sports materials, my enjoyment and extreme delight, my 
children born before and those born anew, my future children and my 
relation with them, my nice words and reflections, my pious acts and 
their aids prosper through true religious teachings. 

6. May my knowledge and its contributory cause, my immortality 
and juice worth drinking, my freedom from consumption and acts that 

2. Pran : The breath that moves above the navel. Apan is the breath that moves 
down the navel. Vyan is the breath that move-; throughout the body, and specially resides 
in the navel. Other breaths are Devdatt, Dhananjaya, etc. 


remove sickness, my age free from disease and medicines that contribute 
to it, my life-strength and abstemiousness, my longevity and celibacy, my 
freedom from enemies and love for justice, my freedom from fear and 
valour, my happiness and its cause, my sleep and its contributory cause, 
my fair dawn its cause, my fair day and useful deeds prosper through 

7. May my leader and well-controlled possessions, my supporters 
and accepted truths, my protection and protector, my finances and 
toleration, my world and obedience to its laws, my mighty deeds and 
fair dealings, my determination and knowlede, my understanding and 
objects worth knowing, m.y impulses and thoughts, my propagation and 
eugenics, my plough and cultivators, my concentration and learning, 
prosper by following noble principles. 

8. May my welfare and its materials, my comfort and its means, 
my affection and its sources, my religious desire and its means, my purity 
of mind and its sources, my immense supremacy and its means, my strength 
and its sources, my pleasure-giving comfort and its means, my pleasure 
of salvation and its sources, my excellent residence and its materials, my 
fame and its cause prosper through the grace of God. 

9. May my well-cooked and fragrant food, my affectionate and 
truthful speech, my milk and prepared medicines, my sap and medicinal 
juices, my butter and food cooked with it, my honey and sugar, my meals 
in company and means of enjoyment, my drinking in company and objects 
to be licked, my agriculture and food grains, my rain and purification of 
air through Homa, my impulse for conquest and trained army, my flowers 
and trees, flourish through the prayer of God. 

10. May the wealth of knowledge and enterprise, my property and 
cooked food, ray prosperity and health, my mind the master of all topics 
and God's contemplation, my entire dealings and power, my accomplish- 
ment, cows, buffaloes, horses* and service of mankind, my pure food 
grains and rice, my freedom from hunger and thirst, my food and its 
spices, my satiety in food and thirst prosper through the kindness 
of God. 

11. May my well considered problems and my reflections, my 
topic worthy of consideration and thought, my past and present, my 
future and constant noble dealings, my good path and noble deeds, my 
wholesome diet and diagnosis, my prosperity and supernatural power, my 
achievement through yoga and contentment, my power and imagination, 
my ambition for strength and logic, my thought and investigation, my 
advanced intellect and steadiness prosper through the grace of God. 

CHAPTER XVltl 193 

12. May my rice and my barley, my pulses and beans, my sesamum 
and grams my kidney-beans and their cooking, my grams and their 
cooking, my millet and its cooking, my excellent rice and inferior corn, 
my rice of wild growth and their cooking, my wheat and its cooking, 
my lentils and other food grains prosper through the grace of God. 

13. May my stone and ruby, my refined and rough clay, my 
clouds and corns, my mountains and their products, my sand thick and 
pulverised, my banyan trees and mango trees, my riches and silver, my 
iron and weapons, my sapphire and brilliant gem, my gold and precious 
stone, my lead and wax, my zinc and brass, multiply through governmental 

14 May my fire and lightning, my water and gems found in it, my 
creepers and vegetables, my plants and flowers, my corns ripened in fields 
and nice food grains, my corns ripened spontaneously in the jungles and 
those which ripen in the forest, my domestic animals and my wild forest 
animals, my substance and wealth, the gain and objects worth acquiring, 
my beauty and diverse possessions, my power and its source progress 
through skill and art. 

15. May my treasure and virtuous act, my dwelling and servants, 
my religious service and its doer, my ability and love, my collection of 
wealth and its collector, my noble effort and intellect, my way of knowing, 
my dealings and reason, my gait and muscular exercise prosper through 

16. May my fiery sun and earthly fire, my lightning and air, my 
peace-affording articles and rain, my ruler the aispeller of injustice, and 
his ministers, my prosperous deed and its means, my teacher the banisherof 
ignorance, and pupil, my instructive speech and the speaker of truth, my 
preacher, the remover of stupidity, and listeners, my nourisher and 
abstemiousness, my soul and physician, my guardian of vedic lore and 
King, my lord of supremacy and general of the army, prosper through the 
advancement of knowledge. 

17. May my breath residing in the heart and breath in the navel, 

12. Wild rice : which grow spontaneously without being sown, 

13. Government can work out the mines either directly or by giving licences to the 
private individuals. 

16-17. In these two verses Griffith has not translated the twenty four words used, and 
put them as they are, which makes the sense unintelligible. The word Indra has been 
used twelve times in these two veres, which has in each case been translated differently by 
Swami Dayananda. 

Giver of glory : Sou). 


my electrical fire and lustre, my breath in the throat and breath pervading 
the entire body, my sun and power of retention and attraction, my soul 
and patience, my bestower of supreme prosperity and just enterprise, 
my fire the Consumer of substances and artisanship, my ruler the ex- 
tinguisher of foes, and carftsmanship, my airs and bodily humours, my 
ubiquitous lightning and its performances, my all belongings and riches, 
my beautiful forces of nature, my giver of glory and its use, prosper 
through the knowledge of the science of air. 

18. May my earth and its substances, my electricity and physical 
exercise, my atmosphere and objects that leside in space, my support of 
supremacy and its use, my knowledge that leads to noble deeds and its 
contributory causes, my sun and substances diffused by it, my years and 
divisions of time, my apparent cause of the knowledge of time and the 
science of Arithmetic, my everlasting worlds and their inhabitants, my 
lightning, my regions and the substances residing therein, my teacher of 
the science of regions and Dhruva star prosper through the knowledge 
of Earth and Time. 

19. May my pervading sun and its heat, my method of eating and 
dainty dishes, my firm rule and protector, my master and his residence, 
my mental contemplation and solitude, my mid-breath and strength, my 
action dealing with electricity and air, and water, my Pran and Udan, and 
Vyan, my beauty like that of the sun and moon, and of mind, my gait and 
walks, my pure nature and semen, my spirit of investigation and milk-pot 
flourish through the proper use of fire. 

20. May my yajna performed in November-December and its subs- 
tances, my discourse with the learned and its result, my iron determi- 
nation and its causes, my respect for all and respecter, my use of air and 
electricity and their sources, my spiritual enjoyment and its means, my 
lustre like the sun and its usefulness, my vows and their result, my 
performance of yajna in the conlpany of my wife and its means, my pro- 
cedure of yoking the horses in chariots and its materials prosper through 
skilful application of all substances. 

21. May my ladles and their cleansing, my yajna cups and their 
contents, my good substances in the air and its purifying acts, my Soma 
reservoir and its peculiar measurement, my pressing stones and mortar 
and pestle, my rod for pressing medicine, their pressing and grinding, my 
sauce and broom, my washing basin and telescope, my altar and its shape, 
my altar-grass and provisions for the yajna, my bath at the end of the 
yajna and smearing with fragrant sandal, my recitation of verses, and 
purifying oblations, prosper through the performance of Homa, 


22. May my fire and its use, my dignity and mentarl 1 peace, my 
materials for worship and its purification, my sun and means of livelihood, 
my air the cause of life and external air, my nation and national policy, 
my Earth and its trees, my uniform statesmanship and control of senses, 
my undecaying possessions and ephemeral body, my light of religion and 
day and night, my fingers, powers, four directions and sub-directions, be 
glorified through the grace of God. 

23. May my sacred vow and speaking and preaching of truth, my 
inter seasons and progress of the sun to the North and solstices, my control 
of breath and heat and cold, my year and Kalpa and Mahakalpa, my thighs 
and knees, my big chariot, horses and bullocks prosper through religious 

24. May my One and my Three, and my Three and my Five, and 
my Five and my Seven, and my Seven and my Nine, and my Nine and my 
Eleven, and my Eleven and my Thirteen, and my Thirteen and my Fifteen, 
and my Fifteen and my Seventeen, and my Seventeen and my Nineteen, and 
my Nineteen and my Twenty One, and my Twenty One and my Twenty 
Three, and my Twenty Three and my Twenty Five, and my Twenty Five 
and my Twenty Seven, and my Twenty Seven and my Twenty Nine, and 
my Twenty Nine and my Thirty One, and my Thirty One and my Thirty 
Three etcetera increase or decrease by addition or subtraction. 

25. May my Four and my Eight, and my Eight and my Twelve, and 
my Twelve and my Sixteen, and my Sixteen and my Twenty, and my 

22. Fingers mean the armies, that catch hold of the foe, as fingers do an article. 
Four directions : East, South, West and North- 

Sub-Directions : Ishau (North East), Vayavya (North-West), Nairitya (South- West), 
Agneya (South-East). 

23. Solstices : Uttarayan and Dak-hinayan. 

Solstices : The time (21st June) at which the sun is farthest north, and is called the 
summer solstice, or about (22nd December) at which it is farthest south, and is called the 
winter solstice. In the first case it touches the tropic of Cancer, and in the second that of 

24. The odd digits of Arithmetic have been enumerated 1+2=3, 3+2 = 5, 5+2 = 7 and 
soon. So 33 2=31, 3i-2 29, 29-2 = 27 etc. This verse teaches us addition and subtrac- 
tion of Arithmetic from which are deduced multiplication, division, square, cube, square root, 
cube root, and reduction qf fractions to a common denominator, described by Maharshi 
Dayananda in his commentary as zftTj (addition), foot*! (subtraction), IJOH (Multiplication), flin 
(Division), ^n (Square), OTJS1 (Square root), ER (cube). SRJJST (cube root) and HITvinffl i. e.. 
reduction of fractions to a common denominator. 

The vease refers to Arithmetical progression with a common difference of two. 

25. In the last verse odd numbers were enumerated, whereas in this the even numbers 
are enumerated. The verse refers to Arithmetical progression with a common difference of 


Twenty and my Twenty Four, and my Twenty Four and my Twenty Eight, 
and my Twenty E^ght and my Thirty Two, and my Thirty Two and my 
Thirty Six, and my Thrity Six and my Forty, and my Forty and my Forty 
F^ur, and my Forty Four and my Forty Eight etc. increase or decrease 
by additioi. and subtraction. 

26. May my eighteen months bull and cow, my two years bull and 
cow, my thirty months bull and cow, my three years bull and cow, my four 
years bull and cow prosper through the science of rearing cattle. 

27. May my male beasrs of burden like elephant and camel and simi- 
lar beasts, my female beasts of burden like mare and she camel, and their 
loads, my powerful bull and cow, my impotent bull and barren cow, my 
young bull and strong cow, my calf-slipping and lean cow, my ox and cart- 
driver, my milch-cow and its milk man prosper through proper training 
of cattle. 

28. A learned man, who has got passion for battl>, exertion for 
prosperity, tact for acquirement, practises yoga for knowledge, arranges 
for money for habitation, teaches the knowledge of time to the utilizer of 
days, practises non-attachment towards day and the stupid, uses truthful, 
friendly language for the confused and the master of decadent knowledge, 
renders sound advice to the vacillating and the most degraded, gives 
correct lead to the low-born and the friend of humanity, uses respectful 
language towards the leader of men, preaches the art of administration 
to the ruler, and reveals Kingly statesmanship to the guardian of his 
subjects, is an excellent politician. 

Thou the embodiment of noble qualities art a guiding controller 
for the friend. Thee for vigour, thee for raining happiness, thee for the 
sovereign lordship of creatures do we accept. 

29. May life succeed through the service of God and the sages. 
May life-breath thrive through union. May the eye thrive through the 
service of God and the sages. May the ear thrive through the service 
of God and the sages. May the voice thrive through the service of God 
and the sages. 

*8. Utilizer of days : a labourer. 
Thou : King. 

29. Through union .-Through Pr ana yam and yoga, when we are united with God. 

Eye thrive -.When we look on humanity with love, and consider all high and low as 

Ear thrive :- By listening to the vedas and the sermons of the sages, 
Voice thrive : Through the recitation of the vedas. 
Prihat-Ratbantra :- Hymns of the Sama veda. 


May the mind thrive through the service of God and the siges. 
May the soul thrive through the service of God and the sages. May the 
knower of the four vedas thrive through the service of God and the 
sages. May the light of justice thrive through the service of God and the 
sages. May happiness thrive through the service of God and the sages. 
May passion for knowledge be satisfied through study. May desirable 
deed be performed through true behaviour, May the Atharva veda, the 
Yajur veda, the Rig veda, the Sama veda, and its Brihat, Rathantra, thrive 
through the grace of God and the sages. O sages, may we, freed from the 
pangs of birth and death attain to the happiness of final beatitude. May 
we become the true sons of God. May we be yoked to noble deeds and 
truthful speech. 

30. We, engaged in producing nice grain, sing the praises of ador- 
able, immortal Mother the Earth, which envelops all these visible material 
worlds. May the Holy God, the Embodiment of glory, create on this 
Earth, in us, a desire for doing noble deeds. 

31. Let all airs, all persons, like all thoroughly kindled fires be 
ready today for our protection. May all the laarned persons come hither 
for protection. May we possess all riches and food. 

32. May our strength fill the seven regions and the four distant 
quarters. In this world may our knowledge of religious lore guard us 
with all the learned persons in the acquisition of wealth. 

33. May food urge us today for charity. May food taken according 
to season strengthen our faculties, Yea, food hath made me rich in brave 
sons. As lord of tood may I conquer all the regions. 

34. May food be before us, in the midst among us. May food eaten 
enhance our noble qualities. Yea, food hath made me rich in brave sons. 
As lord of food may I conquer all regions. 

35. O learned person, I unite myself with the juices produced from 
the Earth. I unite myself with waters and with plants. As such may I 
gain strength. 

36. O learned person store milk in plants, water in the sky and 
water in the air. Teeming with milk for me be all the regions. 

30. Immortal Earth : Matter the cause of creation is unborn, indestructible, eternal. 
Here reference is to matter the primordial cause. 

32. Seven regions : Different worlds, as Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury. Venus Uranian 
Neptune. Some interpret the words as four directions, downward, upward and mid direction. 

33-34. Food is equivalent to strength. 
36. *m :~-milk or water. 


37. O King, I besprinkle thee with the arms (forces) of the sun's 
warmth and the moon's coolness, with the hands (powers) of attraction and 
retention of breath, with vedic speech, with the discipline of an adminis- 
trator, and a ruler's sole dominion. 

38. A King is the maintainer of truth, practiser of truth, destroyer 
of foes like fire, guardian of the Earth j spreader of happiness like herbs 
born of water. May he protect this our Priesthood and Nobility. May he 
be entrusted with the responsibilities of the State, and may his subjects be 

39. The sun is conjoined to all material objects and persons, is the 
sustainer of the Earth. Its rays that roam in air are well known as uniters 
and separators. Utilise those rays, thou Knower of the Sama Veda in full. 
Thou behavest rightly towards the sun. May thou protect this our Priest- 
hood and Nobility and completion of our undertakings. 

40. Moon is pleasant, receives light from the sun and imbibes its 
rays. Its Asterisms, and the rays present in the atmosphere, are full of 
lustre. May she protect this our Priesthood and Nobility. All Hail to 
the Moon, for completion of our undertakings. To those All-Hail. 

41. Air is quick, pervades the whole universe, retains sound in the 
atmosphere. Its parts are well known as givers of vigour and movers in 
the atmospheric vapours. May it protect this our Priesthood and Nobility. 
All Hail to the air for success in our undertakings. To those All Hail. 

42. Sacrifice (yajna) is the bestower of delights, a nice nourisher, 
and the repository of vedic speech. Heartfelt famous praises are its 
guerdons. May it protect this our Priesthood and Nobility. All-Hail 
to the Sacrifice for success in our undertakings. To those All-Hail 

43. He, who is the Lord of Creatures, Omnific, has a mind that 
possesses vedic speech. The famous verses of the Rigveda and Sama veda 

37. Besprinkle thee : Enthrone thee. Bestow on thee. A king is expected to possess the 
warmth of heart like the sun, an^i coolness of brain like the moon. He should be quick in 
making judgment, and slow to deliver it. These two qualities are his arms. He should have the 
power of control and subjugation like the breath. These qualities are his hands. He should 
have the knowledge of the vedas, be an efficient administrator, and protect his kingdom. 

39 Thou : A learned person. 

40. Those: Rays. 

Asterismr Group of stars. Constellation. 

41. Those : Watery vapours. 

Parts: Pran, A pan, Vyan, Udan and Saman. 

42. Those : Guerdons, Dakshiaas, sacrificial fees, priestly honoraria, 

43. He. King. 


touch the innermost recesses of his heart, wherewith he honours the 
learnad, loves truth and imparts knowledge. May he protect for us this 
veda and the Dhanur Veda. May he acquire truthful speech and 
realise religion. For thesa objects one should serve others in a righteous 

44. O master of kingdom and protector of the subjects, in this 
world the householders and others depend upon thy support. Give great 
happiness in a nice way to the knower of God and the Veda and the 
Kshatriya trained in the art of administration. 

45. O learned person thou art the master of voluminous water, the 
bestower of calm nature, and deep like the ocean. Being the nice giver 
of happiness and blessings come unto me from all sides. O Knower of 
the science of air, thou art foremost amongst the group of the learned. 
Being the nice giver of happiness in this life and the life to come, come 
unto me from all sides. 

Thou art worthy of laudable honour and desirous of self-protection. 
Being the nice giver of happiness and blessing, come unto me from all 

46. O God, the lights in the sun, with their beams spread lustre 
all around. Unite us today with all those lights of thine. Make us 
worthy of love by every one. 

47. O God and learned persons whatever affection ye cherish for 
self and God, for kine and steeds, may lightning and fire, present in them, 
with all those affections vouchsafe us love. 

48. O God grant love to our holy priests, set love in our ruling 
chiefs. Grant love to the Vaishyas and Shudras : give out of thy un- 
bounded store of love, love unto me. 

49. O Mighty God, through the veda, singing Thy praise, I pray 
unto Thee. The sacrificer through oblations and praises hankers after 
Thee. O God worshipped by many, never disrespected, give us in this 
world your knowledge. Steal not our life. 

50. Properly utilised warmth conduces to happiness. Properly 
utilised fire conduces to happiness. Properly utilised air conduces to 
happiness. Properly utilised lustre of lightning conduces to happiness. 
Properly utilised sun conduces to happiness. 

46. The text is the same as 13-22, but the interpretation is different in each verse. 

47. The text Is the same as 13-23, but the interpretation in each verse is different. 
Learned persons cherish love for God and God cherishes love for his devotees. God gives 
us cows for milk and horses for use in the battle. Lightning and fire may mean the commanded 
of the army and a highly learned man. 

51. I yoke with fulness of life and strength-giving butter, thee, 
fire, mighty, divine, and efficient in protection. Through that yajna- 
fire may we obtaining happiness, attain to the loftiest nature of God 
free from suffering and full of effulgence. 

52. O learned person, these cause and effect are thine two exalted 
immortal objects, wherewith thou drivest evils away. 

May we with their aid fly to the regions of the pious, whither 
have gone the sages, well versed in the vedas, and masters of vedic 

53. O learned ruler, thou art cool like the moon ; full of wisdom, 
strong like a falcon, wedded to truth, fond of gold, impetuous, nourisher 
of all, great, settled in habitation, steadfast, to thee be reverence. For- 
bear to harm me. 

54. O learned person thou art the heaven's head, the Centre of 
earth, the essence of waters and plants. Thou art the enjoyer of full 
life of a hundred years, and full of glory. For right guidance be thou full 
of food and shelter. 

55. O learned person, like the sun thou standest at the head of the 
whole world. Thy heart is fixed on God. Spend thy life for the better- 
ment of the people. Preach noble deeds and knowledge. Advance 
irrigation by cutting canals out of rivers. Help us with rain sent from 
thy sky, cloud, firmament earth or any other source of water. 

56. O learned person, desire-fulfilling sacrifice (yajna) has been 
performed by highly learned persons and by Vasu Brahmcharis. With 
this well performed and beloved sacrifice accept thou our Dakshina. 

57. May fire developed through Homa with oblations and purified 
substances, enhance our happiness. May this food acquired by us be 
offered to the sages. 

58. O discriminators between truth and untruth ; hold fast the 
knowledge ye have gathered through exertion, soul-force, control of 

52 tfdt may also mean according to Pt Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar God and soul. Rishi 
Dayananda interprets the word as Cause and Effect, 

53 The verse is applicable to God as well. 

54* Heaven's head: -Just as the sun is topmost in the sky, so a learned person h 
foremost in an assembly of educated persons. 

Centre of earth : A learned person is a central figure in managing the affairs of 
the State. 

E^ence of waters : Jut as Soma Is the essence of waters and plants, so a learned 
person is the commander, the head of the people. 


breath, mind, intellect, eyes, and ears. Follow the path of the aspirants 
after salvation where have gone the fitst-born ancient sages. 

59. Ye seekers after God, and common run of mankind, I, the 
knower of the meanings of the vedas, and guardian of sacrifice, having 
realised God, the treasure of happiness, preach unto ye, the true nature 
of God pervading this highest heaven. Know Him about Whom, I, the 
follower of religion, instruct thee. 

60. O learned persons living together, know this God spread in 
the highest heaven, and realise His true nature. He who reaches Him 
through yogic paths of the sages, should reveal to Him pious acts pertain- 
ing to vedic injunctions and public utility. 

61. O learned priest, wake up, attain to light, expel the sleep of 
ignorance from your sacrificer (yajman) and bestow knowledge on him. 
Together with this sacrificer arrange for the yajna (sacrifice) and collect 
its materials. 

Let all the learned priests and the sacrificer sit together in the 
yajna on nice seats. 

62. Through teaching one acquires vast knowledge. Through 
study the teacher and the taught acquire the knowledge of the vedas. Let 
this process of study and teaching be carried unto us for the attainment 
of happiness by the learned. 

63. With a handful of Darbha-grass, with the Yajur veda, with 
spoon, with altar, with nice execution, /with the Rig Veda, O learned 
priest, conduct this sacrifice of ours with the support of the learned for 
acquiring worldly happiness. 

64. Our gifts, our receiving of charitable grants, our pious works, 
our fees to priests, may the Omnific learned householder set all this for 
our happiness in religious usages. 

65. There were all never-failing streams of honey and butter flow, 
may tiie learned knower of all actions grant us happiness for acquiring 
noble traits. 

59. I : A learned person. 

60. WJd : Acts enjoined by the vedas, say Yajna, charity, disinterested service, 
contemplation of God, and acts of public utility, say, construction of a well, tank, hospital 
and inn ; and observance of chastity. 

61-62. The verses are the same as 15-54, 55, but with different interpretations. 

63. For the success of a yajna the things mentioned in the verse are essential. The 
Darbha grass should be neat, clean, spoon, well washed, altar, well constructed, recitation of 
verses from the Yajur-Veda aad the Rig- Veda should be done correctly. 


66. I, the Revcalcr of the vedas, am Omniscient by nature. Lustre 
is my eye, everlasting happiness of salvation is my mouth. I am Adorable, I 
am the Master of triple light ; the Creator of regions, Eternal Luttrous, 
and Supplier of food at all places. 

67. O learned person I reveal the Rig-veda, the Yajur-veda, and 
the Sama-Veda. Learn from Me the vedic lore. O God, out of all the 
forces on the earth, that conduce to the welfare of humanity, Thou art 
the Foremost. Speed Thou us on to lengthened life. 

68. O Commander of the army, for the strength that slays the foes 
and conquers in the fight, and other resources, we turn thee hitherward 
to us. 

69. O Commander, much invoked, kill thou the foes with thy 
strength, as the sun slays its companion the advancing cloud, that moves 
in the atmosphere, roars, is without hands, imbibes water and is without 

70. O Commander of the army, win battles, humble the men who 
challenge us, send down to nether darkness him who seeks to enslave us. 

71. O Commander of the army, like a dreadful wild tiger roaming 
in the mountains with a crooked pace, encircle the distant foes. Crush 
thou the enemies, whetting thy sharp bolt, thou chastener of the wicked 
through punishment, and win battles. 

72. O ruler, just as the heat of the sun, being present in all crea- 
tures, reaches the distant objects, so shouldst thou, come near us for our 
protection. Just as electricity being present in all objects lives near us, 
so shouldst thou listen to our eulogies. 

73. Men should know fire in the brilliant sun, fire in the earth, air 
and water. The knowablc fire in the shape of lightning, shining in the 
universe, has entered all the plants with vigour. Just as this fire preserves 
us by day and by night, so may thou the Commander preserve us always 
from a ferocious person. 

74. O Commander of the army, may we fulfil our desires through 
thy protection. O Lord of wealth, may we get the riches which give 

66. I i God. 

Triple light Satva, Rajas and Tamas. 

Just as oblations are thrown into the blazing mouth of fire, ao all souls having 
Secured salvation go into the mouth of God and reiido in Him. 


us valiant sons. Waging fight may we succeed in battles. O Commander 
free from old age, with thy aid, may we win undecaying wealth and glory. 

75. O learned person, approaching with raised hands and adoration, 
we have this day fulfilled for thee thy longing. 

O wise man, with undeviating fixed purpose, contemplative mood, 
and absolute restraint thou cultivatest good qualities. 

76. May the learned subduer of all places, the King, the knower of 
til the four vedas, the scholarly teacher, and the wise, guard our know- 
ledge for our welfare. 

77. O most youthful king, guard the teachers who impart know- 
ledge and listen to their sermons. 

Protect with all thy force the offspring and the ladies of those who 
have died in war. 


1. O physician, thou art glorious like Soma. I fully instruct thee 
in the science of medicine. Just as I endow the sweet medicine with 
sweetness, bitter medicine with bitterness, the age-prolonging medicine 
with healing properties, the delicious medicine with delicious Soma, so 
shouldst thou dress up this medicine for husband and wife, dress it up for 
the learned lady, and dress it up for the dignified person, the deliverer of 
all from misery. 

2. Soma is the best sacrificial food. It is useful for human body. 
It is produced in waters. Use well that Soma born of clouds. 

3. Purified by the purifying process of the fast moving air, Soma 
is decidedly soul's fit friend. Purified by the purifying process of the 
fast moving air, Soma mixed with the organs of the body, is the king's 
proper friend. 

4. O learned person, Sun's daughter (Dawn) doth with eternal 
excellent light, purify the Soma prepared by thee. 

5. O learned person, the Soma (juice of medicines) prepared 
through purifying process and sacrifice (homa) for enjoyment, and taken 
for the removal of sickness advances, the spiritual and temporal forces, 
brilliancy and physical vigour. Give food with flavour to the sacrificer, 
and please the learned. 

6. O Comrade, the agriculturists who produce food, instruct us how 
to grow more food. Protect and eat their produce in this world in a 
nice way. Just as these farmers reap in order the ripe barley and cleanse 
it by removing the chaff from it, so shouldst thou get strength by sharing 
their corn, which is the cause of thy growth. The agriculturists accept 
thee for thy knowledge of Heaven and Earth, for thy nice speech expa- 
tiating on the science of agriculture, for thy being a good guardian and 
extirpator of foes, for thy boldness, for thy bravery and for thy strength. 

7. O king and subjects, each of ye has been allotted separate duty. 
May ye avail of the friendship of the learned. The Soma creeper, full of 
force, residing in its own place, rests in an open, elevated space. May 
ye both attain to it. Shun intoxicating objects. O learned person do 
not harm me and the Soma plants. 

1. Soma is the name of a medicinal herb, possessing efficacious healing properties. 
The word Soma has been used in the vedas in different senses of soul, king* milk, man, 

I :-God, 


8. O God, Thou art achieved through yamas and Niyamas. Thou 
hast got the splendour of the sun and moon, the vigour of vedic texts, and 
the might of lightning. My heart is Thy home, We all take Thee for 
enjoyment. We all take Thee for delight, and take Thee for greatness. 

9. O God, Thou art lustre ; give me lustre. Thou art manly vigour ; 
give me manly vigour. Thou art strength, give me strength. Thou art 
vitality ; give me vitality. Thou art righteous indignation ; give me 
righteous indignation- Thou art forbearance ; give me forbearance. 

10. The queen, who is the indicator of diverse wordly affairs, guards 
the subjects by killing both the tiger, and the wolf, the fast hawk and the 
lion, should prevent the King from wrongful conduct. 

11. O learned person, the delighted son teases the mother sucking 
her breast, With that son I become free from debt towards my parents. 
May my parents be unharmed and blissful by me. 

O learned persons ye are my associates ; unite me with good fortune, 
Ye are free from sin, keep me away from sin. Give me happiness in this 
life and the life to come. 

12. O men, just as a lady doctor well versed in the science of 
medicine, with healthy organs of the body ; physicians and surgeons, 
having mastery over the Ayurveda, and learned persons, stretch out the 
healing sacrifice, for prosperity with their speech, so shouldst ye do. 

13. Grass buds are the symbols of consecration. Sprouts of corn 
are symbols of strengthening vital breaths. Fried grains are the symbols 
of equanimity of mind. Honey is the symbol of Soma-shoots. 

14. Monthly presents to guests are the sign of hospitality. Clothing 
the naked is the symbol of a great warrior. The offer of medicinal elixir is 
the sign of honouring the guests. 

15. O women, just as the juice of Soma medicine accepted by t 

" 8. Yamas : Non-violence. Truthfulness, Abstaining from theft, Celibacy, 

Niyamas:- Cleanliness, Contentment, Austerity, Study, Truth in God, 

11 I become free : To maintain the family link, it is necessary to produce a son. If 
a householder is blessed with a son, he has discharged his debt towards his parents, by main- 
taining the succession of his family. To die without a son is to die without discharging the 
parental debt. 

12. The lessons taught by the physicians in the science of healing are a kind of yajna 
performed by them, for the betterment of the people. 
Ayur Veda : The science of medicine. 

13 Consecration ; Piksha, 


learned lady is pleasant, as physicians and surgeons prepare the extracts of 
medicines, as an aspirant after prosperity masters the science of lightning, 
so should ye. 

16. O people, for the successful performance of a yajna make 
arrangement for these objects. Its nice execution, a seat for the king, a 
jar for corns in the altar, a pitcher for Soma, food that gives life placed in 
the northern altar, the priests and the physician. 

17. O people, just as the learned persons decorate the altar with 
materials for the yajna, obtain mighty riches through ceaseless effort, reap 
through the process of union and separation, the result of their effort at 
unity, produce well ordered light out of electricity, so should ye procure 
all kinds of happiness by properly using all resources. 

18. O householders, just as a learned man and woman collect 
materials for the yajna ; a learned lady takes shelter with the priest, and 
the learned construct a house for the majestic husband to dwell in and 
impart happiness ; this all is a householder's duty ; which ye also should 

19. He gets happiness, who has got servants to obey orders, maid- 
servants of pleasing manners, who perform their duty gracefully, necessary 
materials for the performance of yajna, and oblations to be put into the 
fire by sacrificial practices. 

20. A householder gains cows from cows, sacrificial materials from 
ground rice-cakes, fire-kindling fuel from the knowledge of metres like 
Gayatri etc., and virtuous people from sacrificial practices. 

21. Roasted grains, gruel barley-meal, grains of roasted rice, milk, 
and curd, mingled milk, nice corns, and honey are the materials for Soma 

22. Jujube fruit is the type of parched corn. Wheat is the best 
product of agriculture. Jujube is the type of barley-meal. Barley is the 
type of gruel-groats. 

23. Barley-grains are the symbol of milk. Ripe jujube fruits are 
the symbol of curd. The essence of corn is the symbol of Soma. The 

17. For the sake of unity or peace, sometimes separation or partition is a necessity. 

20. Fuel is burnt and put in the altar with the recitation of verses in Gayatri metre. 

21. Mingled milk : a mixture of boiled milk, curd and sugar. 

22. Just as jujube fruit (It) is easily eaten by the goats, so parched corns (fffcft) *re eaten 

Barley-meal (W$). 

Up vakas: seeds of the Wrightia Aatidysenterica. 

23. Just as milk strengthens the body, so do the barley grains. 
Just is curd produces semen so do jujube fruits produce streof th. 


juices of So ma plants are like the mixture of milk and curd. 

24. The students who are seekers after knowledge, should request 
the preceptor to instruct them in all branches of knowledge. The know- 
ledge imparted to the pupils should be in consonance with their capacity, 
'Pray grant 7 is the sign of receiving and assimilating knowledge. We, the 
performers of sacrifice are fit to sing praises. 

25* A learned person gets songs of praise by verse-halves, short 
detached formulae by case-terminations. By Om exclamations he gets 
the mode of praise, prayer and contemplation. By water is got the soma 

26. They are the benefactors of humanity who perform the morn- 
ing yajna with the sun and moon, the glorious mid-day prosperity 
bringer yajna through lightning, the evening yajna, the giver of health, 
through true vedic speech, for reverence of the learned. 

27. He is wealthy, who with the attributes of air gains the objects 
residing in air, by the process of separation gains the Drona and Kalash, 
vessels for Soma, by two jars of corn and water gains two cleansing vessels, 
and by the cooking pot gains the pots for cooking. 

28. The recitation of the Yajur Veda gives us the knowledge of 
ceremonies (Sanskaras). The knowledge of ceremonies (Karma-Kanda) 
teaches us the attributes of objects and different praise-songs. Through 
Gayatri metres, and learned singers of the praise of fine traits are obtain- 
ed the vedic verses worthy of recitation and weapons. The recitation of 
Sama veda gives us purification. 

29. A learned person obtains eatable foodstuffs from parts of the 
earth, and fulfils desires by the utterance of true noble words. From a 
peaceful deed is derived good relation between husband and wife. 
Consummation is obtained by performing the ceremonies (Karma-kanda) 
of the Yajur Veda. 

30. By the vow of celibacy one gains consecration, by consecration 
one gains wealth and position. By wealth and position one gains faith, 
by*faith comes the knowledge of truth. 

23. By water 'Water is mixed with the Soma plant to extract its juice. Milk can also 
be used for the same purpose. 

26. Lightning means the heat of the sun at midday. 

27. Two cleansing vessels : itfFjs and anET^Fffel. In the latter the Soma is shaken, and 
the former receives the purified juice. 

One who understands the science of air knows the science of measurement, and there- 
by the science of cooking, which purifies food stuffs. 

28. Avbrith The expiatory bath of purification* 
30. Consecration ; Devotion to a tacred use. 


31. He commences his second birth, who wearing the yajnopavit, 
joins a well arranged yajna, the nature of which has been explained by the 
learned, the vedas and God. 

32. The exalted adorable sacrifices, equipped with food-stuffs, 
make prosperous with oblations the yajna, great like the sun in the sky, 
full of Soma juice, giver of heroes, the masters of physical and spiritual 
forces. May we be happy, doing noble deeds, befriending the dignified 
and learned persons, and gaining power. 

33. O learned person, the strong essence of Soma, duly collected 
by a charitable lady is drawn from plants. With that glanddening 
essence impel with joy, the sacrificer, the learned lady, the scholarly 
teachers and preachers, the supreme king and Commander, and the hero 
that burns the foe like fire. 

34. In this world, for wealth and physical strength, I drink and 
feed on Soma plant, producer of activity, brilliant, giver of glory, full of 
sweetness, highly invigorating, acquired by a learned lady and the King 
and Commander from clouds that do not release water. 

35. Whatever portion of this savoury fluid is clinging here, what 
the sun drank with his powers of attraction, I drink and feed on that 
brilliant Soma juice, with a pure mind. 

36. We offer food and homage to our fathers who desire food and 
water. We offer food and homage to our grandfathers, who desire food 
and water. We offer food and homage to our great-grandfathers, who 
desire food and water. O parents eat the food we have prepared. O 
parents and teachers rejoice and make us full of joy. O preachers be 
satisfied and satisfy us. O learned persons be purified and purify us. 

37. May fathers, full of glory and mental peace, purify me with a 
pure life of a hundred years. May grandfathers, purify me with a pure 
life of a hundred years. May great grandfathers purify me with a pure 
life of a hundred years. May learned and calm grandfathers purify me 
with a happy, pure life of a hundred years. May sedate great-grandfathers 
purify me with a pure life of a hundred years. May I obtain full length 
of life. 

38. O learned parents, ye purify the age-prolonging foodgrains, 
send down upon us food and vigorous strength. Drive ye far away from 
us the company of evil persons. 

33. According to Swami Deyananda there are twenty four kinds of Soma plants. 
35 f Here means on the earth. A part has been drunk by the sun. 


39. O learned amongst the born, just as the wise purify me with 
knowledge and love, and purify our intellect, just as all material things 
purify me, so shouldst thou purify me. 

40. O refulgent learned person, imparter of knowledge, first purify 
thyself with noble spiritual force, and then purify me. Purifying 
thyself with intellect and acts purify my intellect and acts again and 

41. O God purify me with Thy pure vedic knowledge diffused by 
Thy pure lustrous nature. 

42. God, Who in our midst, by His immaculate nature, is Pure and 
Giver of different sciences, is ever our Purifier and Preacher. My He, 
the Cleanser, make me clean. 

43. O God, the Giver of happiness, Impeller for virtuous deedi, 
with true behaviour, full glory, knowledge and exertion, purify me on 
every side. 

44. Vedic speech, the benefactor of humanity and the repository 
of knowledge comes unto us and purifies us. 

Through her may we in sacrificial banquets taking our pleasure be 
the lords of riches. 

45. The officials, who in the realm of a just king, are equal in 
status and knowledge, have their dwelling place, food, reverence and 
sense of fairness approved by the learned. 

46. My folk yet living among those who live, are of one mind and 
similar attributes. On me be set their wealth through a hundred years 
in this world. 

47. I have heard mention of two pathways of birth and death, the 
ways of parents, the learned and the mortals. On these two roads each 
moving creature travels. Each soul leaves the present parents and assumes 
new ones. 

48. May my fiery husband make my progeny abundant. May this 
my married life bring me ten brave children, all good objects, physical 
strength, good progeny, cattle, spiritual force and fearlessness, for my 
welfare. O parents do ye confer on us food, milk, and manly vigour. 

49. May our parents, who do not steal, know the truth, gain strength 
of battles, through control of breath, protect us well. May the lowest, 
highest, midmost elders calm and peaceful in nature, urge us on to battle. 

50. Our elders are masters of different principles of knowledge, 
preachers of new expositions on problems of learning, devotees of non- 
violence, highly learned, and deserving of supremacy. 


May we follow the sound advice of these adorable elders, and enjoy 
their gracious loving-kindness. 

51. Our aged learned parents, tranquil in mind, highly rich, come 
again and again to our Soma banquet. 

Let just and self-controlled son, desiring for nice food, giver of 
pleasure, fulfil all his desires, with the aid of our parents desirous of our 

52. O sedate learned fellow, thou art pre-eminent for wisdom. With 
thy wisdom, thou followest the straightest path of happiness. Make me 
also follow the same path. O learned fellow happy like the moon, the wise 
parents, with thy excellent guidance, make us enjoy riches amongst the 

53. O virtuous, glorious progeny, the religious deeds which our 
aged, wise and learned persons perform with thee, so shouldst we. 

O non-violent, religious child remove our enemy from all sides with 
brave horsemen and bestow riches on us. 

54. O moon-like gladdening noble son, taking vow with thy learned 
fatherly teachers, spread pleasure, leading a religious life between the 
Earth and Heaven. 

O beautiful son, may we offer thee gifts for thy pleasure, and may we 
become the lords of riches. 

55. O justice loving fathers, who sit in an exalted assembly, come, 
help us. Accept these eatables we have prepared for ye. 

Come to us with most auspicious favour, grant us happiness and 
purity of character, and keep miseries away from us. 

56. I know the elders, who impart sound knowledge. I know the 
eternal strength of God and His creation of the universe. May those visit 
our homes, who solely devoted to God, with their soul-force, and self- 
realisation, worship the Blissful Creator. 

57. May they, the Fathers, worthy of homage, invited to their 
excellent, favourite wealth of oblations, come nigh unto us, listen to ui, 
preach unto us, and afford us protection. 

56. Prof. Ludwig and Prof. Gras-n&an have not grasped the significance of the verse. 
Prof. Ludwig says Vikramanam is an unintelligible expression. Napatam has been translated 
as fire. Mahidhara takes Vishnu to mean 'of the sacrifice', and napatam and Vikramanam at 
the two paths leading to the Gods and to the Fathers. Maharshi Dayananda interprets Vishnu 
'of Cod 1 . Napatam as Eternal, Indestructible, Vikraranam as diverse creation of the universe. 
The verse is quite intelligible. 

57. Fathers j The learned people. 


58. May they our fathers, having knowledge of the science of fire 
possessing mental peace, calmness and self-restraint come on Godward 
pathways, enjoying at this sacrifice their meals, may they teach and 
instruct us, and afford us protection. 

59. May the learned persons, who know the science of fire and 
material objects, are well-versed in politics, come now for the spread of 
knowledge, visiting house to house, and staying there, eat the meals 
prepared carefully. Hence, being engaged in the noble work of spreading 
education, may they grant us riches with brave sons. 

60. For those who know the science of fire, and are well-versed in 
sciences other than fire, and enjoy in the midst of knowledge with their 
own strength, may the Self Effulgent God. make long-lived this body 
endowed with vital breaths. 

61. We invite for the good of humanity, the sages who know the 
science of fire, drink the medicinal juice of Soma, and are true to seasons. 
May they be charitable to us, and make us lords of wealth. 

62. O ye all learned people, injure us not for any sin which w 
through human frailty have committed. 

Bowing with the bent knees and seated on the right we pay ye 
homage. Pray accept our respectful conduct. 

63. Ye fathers grant riches to the charitably disposed persons and 
your sons sitting near their fascinating mothers. 

Always give them a portion of your treasure, so that they may there- 
by gain energy. 

64. O learned person, brilliant like fire and bestower of nice 
objects on the wise, grant us the supremacy which thou through praise- 
worthy eloquence considerest fit to be granted to the learned. 

65. He, who persuades the learned to noble deeds, is resplendent 
like fire with the light of knowledge, and reveres the sages advanced in 
vedic lore, is fully fit to preach to the wise and the elders, the agreeable 
branches of knowledge. 

58. Fathers : The teachers, the preachers and learned parents. Agnishwata has been 
translated by Mahidhara and Griffith as parents consumed by fire after death ; whereas 
Rishi Dayananda interprets the word to refer to living persons who know full well the science 
of fire. The orthodox people generally quote this verse in support of Shradha certmony of tht 
dead, which is not corroborated by th* text. 

6& They : mothers and thoir children. 


66. O son, possessing the eloquence of the learned, pure like fire, 
praiseworthy, thou preparest fragrant meals. Offer them to the elders. 
Let them take them as food. O learned donor, eat thou the food prepared 
with effort. 

67. O sharp witted scholar, thou knowest well the number of 
fathers who are here and who are absent, whom we know and whom we 
know not. Thou knowest a large number of them and they know thee. 
Serve them with food and meritorious reverence. 

68. Now let us offer food to the fathers who are more advanced than 
us in age and knowledge, who have taken to Banprastha and Sanyas 
Ashramas, who are engrossed in worldly affairs, and who work amongst the 
people of high character. 

69. O learned person, just as our noble, ancient elders, givers of 
sound instructions, pure, devotees of truth, spreading knowledge, acquire 
well-behaved wives and ground to dwell upon, remove ignorance, and 
cast away the coverings of darkness, so shouldst thou serve them. 

70. Right gladly do we make thee the store-house of knowledge. 
Right gladly do we educate thee. Gladly bring yearning fathers nigh to 
eat food. 

71. O Commander of the army, just as the sun wrenches off the 
head of the cloud full of water but unwilling to release it, so do thou 
advance thy armies, and subdue all contending hosts. 

72. A renowned sage, through yoga, and religious practices, over- 
comes death and attains to salvation. Just as with food one gets strength, 
so he reaches the final beatitude on the strength of truth, realises his 
soul-force, manifests the supreme nature of his supreme soul, pure like 
milk, immortal like the Supreme Spirit, and sweet like honey. 

73. Just as swan -separates milk from water and drinks it, so a 
learned person, the embodiment of action, through yogic practices, 
strengthening his soul with pure food, acquires divine hearing, sweetness, 
healing medicine, pure love, and immaculate divine speech mingled with 
the eternal connection between word and its significance in all worldly 

67. Here : In the yajna. 

Fathers : Elderly relatives, and aged learned person*. 

70. Thee: disciple or son. 
We : Teachers or fathers. 

71. The word Namuchi is explained by Prof. Lamnan as a waterspout in a lake. 
Risbi Dayanada has rightly interpreted it as a cloud that does not release water. 


74. He 1vho enjoys the company of pure learned persons, is a dis- 
criminator, willingly drinks Soma juice out of waters, purifies food with 
vedic knowledge, is a cleanser of soul, equipped with the power of protec- 
tion, knows God, is procurer of supremacy through the knowledge of yoga, 
acquires happiness of soul sweet like honey, salvation, and the apparent 
essence of knowledge. 

75. A king, who along with one knowing all the four vedas, enjoys 
his birth in a royal family and the milkwise invigorating essence of a 
well-cooked food, and with justice coupled with learning and decorum, 
administers his rule, the giver of glory, a gift from God, pre-eminent in all 
dealings, the remover of the darkness of injustice, the bestower of valour, 
and the source of diverse kinds of protection, always derives happiness 
from this his administration fit for er joyment, inbued with justice, sweet- 
ness, and delightfulness. 

76. The generative organ releases urine, but when it enters the 
womb, it releases semen. The caul-invested embryo leaves by its birth 
the covering folds. The child, by the removal of covering folds, in their 
contact with external air, acquires the wealth of soul, pure, excellent 
and enjoyable ; and is endowed with these eyes, sweet like juice, and 
source of everlasting knowledge. 

77. God through His pure knowledge, viewing both forms hai 
explained truth and falsehood. He has assigned the lack of faith to false- 
hood, and faith to truth. He alone is worthy of worship by all, who is 
the Abolisher of irreligiousness, Purifier, Sustainer, Truth personified. 
Path-indicator of mind, Revealer of manly vedic truth, Giver of salvation, 
Adorable, and source of knowledge. 

78. The soul, full of real knowledge, with the help of all the four 
vedas, realises the essence of Truth and Untruth. It acquires for itself 
foodstuffs as meals, riches, the givers of valour and righteous character, 
water, milk, imperishable, knowledge, sweet delicious articles, and the 
knowledge bestowed by God. 

79. The king, who is easily accessible to all, and in a just manner, 
having carefully examined the juice of efficacious medicines, with pure 
intention, drinks the delight-giving, drinkable juice of medicines and 
enjoys the pleasure of knowledge, acquires God-given wealth, the procurer 
of pure food, and the giver of good drinks, the strength of a hero, and the 
sweet, disease-healing nectar of a glorious person. 

80. Just as wise sages understand problems with mental force, 
prepare bullets with lead, and cloths with woollen thread, so do the learned, 

2M YAjua VEDA 

an educated wife, teachers and preachers perform sacrifice (yajnaX and a 
skilled physician arranges for the elegance of affluence. 

81. Teacher, pupil and examiner, these three divine forces, impart 
and receive education. 

With wisdom and deed, they with long hair, perform the sacrifice in 
diverse ways. We should understand the eternal nature of this sacrifice. 
Illiterate youths are not entitled to perform sacrifice (yajna). Hide, meat, 
parched grain should not be used in the yajna for oblation, 

82. Whomsoever child, a good, intelligent mother gives birth to, 
that handsome baby with its internal organs, bones and marrow, should be 
protected on this earth with medicinal juices, like a well, by a physician 
and his wife, the infusers of life like vital airs. 

83. The learned wife, with her knowledge, like birth, adorns her 
beautiful, well built body, and prepares meals, the removers of physical 
discomforts, available from all sides, ready at hand, the givers of delight 
like nectar. Her thoughtful husband receives pure ideas from his father 
and mother free from untruth. 

84. Those learned persons get progeny, who chase afar folly and ill 
intention, generate near at hand, by milk and medicinal juices, through 
generative organ, pure, disease-destroying, children-producing semen, that 
it present in all substances, and causes harm through excessive discharge. 

85. A learned doctor, guarding the body against disease, giving us 
medical directions, removing sickness, realises through his soul the exact 
nature of disease, and with prescribed food, does not allow our lungs, 
liver, throat-artery, kidney and bile to be affected. 

86. Entrails in the body are the cauldron for cooking food in which 
honey is mixed, bowels are the pans. This earth the bestower of glory is 
like a well-milking cow. A hawk's wing is the spleen. Navel, the centre 
of all strength is like the king's cushion. Belly is like a mother. 

82. Like a well : As well is taken care of, and protected so that its water is not 
contaminated, so should a child be kept healthy and free from disease by the me of medicines 
when necessary. 

83. Like birth : Just as a woman keeps the newly born child neat and clean, so does 
0h ketp her body clean. 

80. Jmt as belly digests what we eat, turns out the useless part of the meals, aad 
utilises their essence, so does the mother teach a child to shun vice and imbibe virtue Jtwt 
as navel is the centre of the body, from which proceed arteries, so the king sitting on his 
cushion, i e., gaddi is the centre of hi* government. Just a* a hawk atfacks the enemy and 
kills him, so doe* the spleen remove all diseases aad discomforts of th body* 


67. A husband full of semen like a pitcher, enjoyer, progenitor of 
children, taker of good meals, full of nourishments, doer of noble deeds, 
master of hundreds of speeches, deep like a large pitcher, is like one who 
is engaged in the execution of his duty. A wife is a small jar of water. It 
is incumbent upon both to give food to their parents and protect the 
embryo in the womb. 

88. Just as a wife, the recipient of semen, at the time of cohabita- 
tion keeps her head opposite to the head of the husband, and her face 
opposite to that of his, so should both husband and wife perform together 
their domestic duties. A husband is a protector like a physician. He 
lives happily like a child, and with tranquillity produces progeny with 
penis keen with ardour. 

89. The immortal eyes are like the planets of the sun and moon. 
The goat's milk and cooked food give them keenness. Eyelashes are like 
wheat, and eyebrows are jujube. The white and black parts of the eye 
spread its beauty. 

90. Just as a learned lady with her husband, through mutual cloie 
relations, gives birth to a child, charming like jujubes, so for vigour in 
the nostril is made the immortal path of breath. The vyan breath goes 
through the body, guarding it and vying with other breaths, adds to the 
forces of the nostril 

01. A learned person acquires yoga, through acts of comprehension, 
like barley, hears with both ears, uses pure water, exercises organs of action, 
like sweet honey, performs acts of advancement, controls breath in Su- 
shurana and concentrates thought in the midst of eyebrows, utters from his 
mouth God's knowledge All this is the manifestation of His divine 

92- When a yogi visualises God in his soul at the time of Samadhi 
(concentration) his hair grow long like those of the wolf. His beard and 
moustache grow like the hair of a tiger. The hair of his head and tonsure 

87. A husband possessing more force t> compared to a Kumbh, a large pitcher and 
wife, with less strength to a Kumbhi, a small water jar. 

90. Control of breath : Praoayam protects a yogi from all afflictions, and being well 
practised advances his spiritual force, so does an educated mother with good instructions 
develop her children physically and spiritually. 

9}, Sushumna :-A particular artery of the human body, said to lie between Ida and 
Pingala, two of the vessels of the body. The comparison of barley and honey is not clear. 

92- A yogi generally lives in solitude of forests, where reside wolves, tigers and lions. 
Due to prolonged and deep concentration his hair grow like those, of these animals who AM 
his companion*. 


grow like those of a lion. His organs are endowed with lustre, glory and 
royal power. 

93. Just as a woman devoted to yoga, engrossed in deep meditation, 
practising the limbs of yoga puts her soul in contemplation, so should 
husband and wife free from disease like a good physician, practise the parts 
of yoga and attain to the beauty of supremacy. As men practising yoga 
live for a hundred years, so should we, full of happiness, realise the immor- 
tal nature of the soul. 

94. O yogi, just as an educated wife bears in her womb the nobly- 
fashioned infant, and an excellent king with the help of the teacher and 
preacher and the spiritual force of the self-abnegating learned persons 
(Aptas) controlling the breaths manifests his sovereignty for wealth so 
shouldst thou do. 

95. The ghee of animals is eatable and giver of physical strength. 
The juice of medicines and delicious sugar mixed with milk also add to 
physical strength. The water yielded by two efficacious agencies, the sun 
and moon and lightning is also invigorating. The pressed and unpressed 
medicinal Soma juice acts like nectar. 

94. Just AS mother safeguards the Infant in her womb, and a king adds to royal 
power, so should a yogi attain to yoga siddhis. There are eight limbs of yoga : Yam, Nijam, 
Atan Pranayam, Prat yah ar, Dharana, Dbyana, Samadbi. 


1. O King thou art the birth place of princely power, and centre of 
royal family. Let none harm thee, do not harm me. 

2. O King, endowed with wisdom and enterprise, imbiber of 
truth, good natured, sit thou in the midst of thy subjects in Legislatures 
for universal rule. Save us from death. Save us from fiery weapons. 

3. O King, in this world created by God, the Embodiment of glory, 
with the strength and valour of teachers and preachers, with the presever- 
ance and enterprise of a heroic person, with the healing powers of a 
physician, for eloquence and study of the vedas, do I enthrone thee. 

With the wealth of a magnate, for strength of body, riches and fame, 
do I enthrone thee. 

4. O famous and truthful king, doer of noble deeds, and dispenser 
of justice, thou art happy, thou art extremely happy, hence for God the 
Embodiment of happiness, for the advancement of Vedic knowledge, do I 
enthrone thee. 

5. May my head be full of grace, my mouth of fame, my hair and 
beard, of brilliant sheen, my breath, of light and deathlessness, my eye, of 
even-handed love, my ear, of religious lore. 

6. May my tongue taste invigorating food, my voice be full of 
adorable vedic lore, my mind be full of righteous indignation on the 
morally degraded, my intellect be self-illumined. Full of joy be my 
fingers, delightful my bodily organs, and conquering-strength my friend. 

7. Power and wealth are my arms, deed and heroism are my hands. 
Soul and heart are my shield against danger. 

8. My government is my back, my belly, shoulders, neck, hips, 
thighs, elbows, knees, and all other members of the body are my subjects. 

9. May my memory, navel, knowledge, anus, my wife's productive 
womb, my testicles the givers of pleasure through cohabitation, my 
sovereignty and penis flourish. Standing on my legs and feet, in the 

2. Us : Soldiers, military generals. 

3. I : Adhvaryu, the master of the vedas, the representative of the King and tht 
subjects who presides over the coronation ceremony. 

3. My : the enthroned King. 

9. A king should exercise control over all the organs of his body, and try to keep them 
healthy and efficient. 


midst of my subjects, free from favouritism, with even-handed justice, 
I rule as a king, with full fame. 

10. I take my stand on princely power and kingship, on horses am 
I dependent, and on cows, on agencies of administration I depend, on my 
soul do I depend. On vital breaths am I dependent, and on invigorating 
cereals do I depend. I depend on justice like the sun and moon. I depend 
on the company of the learned, and on the spread of knowledge. 

11. There are three times eleven, i.e., thirty three fine objects 
imbued with attributes, duties and inherent properties, in this world 
created by God ; of whom the sun is the most prominent, and which are 
serviceable to mankind. 

May the learned persons, with the help of these objects protect me. 

12. May the first Vasus with the second Rudras, the Rudras with 
the third Adityas (twelve months), the third Adityas with Truth, Truth 
with Sacrifice, Sacrifice with scrificial texts of the Yajur veda, Yajur 
vedic texts with the knowledge of the Sanaa veda, Samans with praise- 
verses of the Rigveda, praise-verses with the texts of the Atharva veda, 
Atharva vedic texts with inviting texts pertaining to sacrifice (yajna), 
sacrificial texts with noble deeds, noble deeds with oblations, and 
oblations with truthful practices, fulfil my desires on this earth. 

13. O teachers and preachers exert so that my hair be effort and 
attempt, my skin be reverence, my flesh be approach, wealth my inclina- 
tion, my bone and marrow reverence. 

14. O learned persons, whatever disrespect we and other scholars 
show to the learned, may God set me free from all that iniquity and 

15. If in the day-time or at night, we have committed any act of sin, 
may God set me free from all that iniquity and fault. 

10. I King. 

11. There are eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, and twelve Adityas, the twelve months, 
electricity and Yajna. These constitute thirty three devatas, fine objects, of whom the eleven 
Rudras form a part. 

12. All the 33 devatas, the farces of nature and the knowledge of all the four vedaf, 
fulfil man's desires. 

13. Comparison is made between the parts of the body, and qualities of administration 
in a state The joint effort of all in a state is like hair. The power of subduing the enemy 
is like my skin. Just as skin protects me so the spirit of reverence protects a state. 

14. We ; Teachers and preachers. 

Agni may also mean a learned person illumined like fire with the light of different 
branches of knowledge. 

15. Vayu may also mean, a learned Apta. 


16. If when awake or in our sleep we have committed acts of sin, 
May God set me free from all that iniquity and fault. 

17. Each fault in village or in forest, society or mind, each sinful 
act that we have done to Sudra or Vaishya, or in preventing any body 
from religious performances, even of that sin , O God, Thou art the 

18. O adorable God, giver of divine wisdom, supreme of all, save 
me from the sin of taunting the vital breaths and inviolable cows, 

O lord of celibacy and knowledge, thou art a slow-walker, giver of 
happiness, and full of delight, save us from distressing violence. Thou 
avertest the offence committed by the learned towards the learned and 
the ordinary mortals towards mortals. 

19. O King, let thy heart be deep like the ocean. May thou 
obtain food, fruits and drinkable juices. May water and medicinal herbs 
be pleasant for us like a friend. May these be inimical for those who 
dislike us and whom we dislike. 

20. O learned persons pure like water and breath, purify me from 
sin, just as a ripe fruit is released from the tree, or as an exhausted person 
full of sweat is freed from dirt by bathing, or as ghee is purified by a 

21. May we realising God from all sides, excellently attain to Him, 
far from darkness, full of Light, God among the gods, Embodiment of 
happiness, the subtlest of all, and the Supreme Self Effulgent. 

22. O learned teacher, I, possessing the knowledege of the science 
of water, come unto thee. May I today heartily drink waters. Bestow 
on me the knowledge of the vedas, progeny and wealth, whereby I may 
get happiness. 

23. O God, Thou conducest to our prosperity. Just as fuel illumi- 
nes fire, so dost Thou illumine our souls. Thou art wisdom personified. 
Grant me the light of knowledge. Thou art omnipresent. Thou hast 
nicely created the Earth, Dawn, Sun, and this entire world. May we 
always prosper, having realized the Effulgent Lord, the Guide of the 
universe. May I achieve various big ambitions. May I realise God and 
Matter through truthful speech, and noble deeds. 

16. Surya may also mean a learned person. 

17. Expiation . Means of atonement. 

18. See Yajur 6-22, 3-48. 

19. See Yajur 8-25, 6-22. 


24. O God, the Fulfiller of vows, concentrating myself on Thee, 
I plunge in divine meditation like fuel in fire, whereby I acquire the 
vow of truth and faith. 

Being initiated in celibacy and gaining knowledge, I kindle Thee. 

25. I consider that society or country to be ideal, where the civil 
and military forces work together harmoniously, where the learned civil 
administrators cooperate with the commanders of the army. 

26. Fain would I know that holy God, where birth and death un- 
known, where in complete accordance reside soul and God side by side. 

27. Let thy soul be united with God. Let each joint of thine be 
full of vigour. Let thy noble nature guard thy wealth. Let the imperish- 
able sap of God's devotion be for thy joy. 

28. Those who aspire after power, for delight pour in the stomach 
the sap of medicines, drink it, receive it excellently, and purify themselves, 
strengthen their body and soul. He who says 'What is this, 1 'What is 
that, 1 gains nothing. 

29. O learned person desirous of happiness, at morn accept our cake 
accompanied with grain and groats, with wheaten bread and hymns of 

30. O learned persons, advancers of truth, whereby ye create 
pleasant highly known spiritual power, for the attainment of Holy God, 
like sun the dispeller of cloud, chant the great Sama hymns in praise of 

31. O Adhvaryu, bring into the sacred yajna, Soma, born of clouds. 
Purify it for king's drink. 

32. He is the Lord of living beings, upon whom the worlds depend. 
God is mighty. He is greater than space. Hence I realise Him, I realise 
Him in my heart. 

33. O learned person, thou art trained in nice rules of conduct, by 
the teacher and the preacher. Thou art educationally connected with 
them. I accept thee for didactic speech, for lofty supremacy, for effective 
guardianship, for thy possessing a noble, learned wife, for noble behaviour, 
and for full protection. 

26. In the state of emancipation soul and God live together. There soul is free from 
the pangs of hunger and thirst, where the distress of birth and death is not felt. 

28. He who reviles the efficacy of medicines does not improve his body and foul. 

31. Adhvaryu:- one of the four priests, Hota, Udgata, Adhvaryu and Brahma, who 
minister the yajna. 


34. O God, Thou art the guardian of my inner breath and outward 
breath, the guardian of my eye and ear. All-healer of my voice, Thou 
art the mollifier of my mind. 

35. O learned person, invited, do I feed upon the food brought 
near, prepared by the experts and learned ladies, under instructions from 
the protecting king. 

36. O learned person, just as the sun kindled in forefront of 
Mornings, with forward light, long-active, waxing mighty, with thirty three 
supernatural powers of nature, the Thunder-wielder, smites dead the cloud, 
and throws light on the portals, so do thou with the help of warriors kill 
the foes, and open the doors of knowledge and religion. 

37. He, who is praised by the public, is the discoverer of different 
objects, is the master of just behaviour, is fearless, maintains the vitality 
of his body, is engaged in agriculture with oxen, is full of knowledge, is 
wealthy with gold, is extremely wise, and performs yajna, is fit for us to 
seek shelter under. 

38. O Commander of the army may thou approach our sacrifice 
(yajna) rejoicing. Thou art lauded by the learned, lord of bay steeds, the 
performer of sacrifice, invited by the wise, advancest with giving and 
receiving knowledge. Fort-render, enjoyer of thy soldiers as the 
sun enjoys after rending asunder the cloud, and Thunder-wielder 
art thou. 

39. O learned person, just as the sun, residing in space, full of rays, 
vast in extent, accompanied by months and worlds like the Earth, stationed 
in an intermediate quarter from the E&rth, full of expanse, famous and 
ancient, is occupying its pleasant orbit, so shouldst thou be amongst us. 

40. O people, just as glib-tongued, child-bearing ladies moving fast, 
reach the gates of lustrous, majestic and heroic husbands, and just as 
reputed, valiant, well-mannered, vigilant husbands, seek from all sides the. 
asylum of wives, advanced in knowledge, so shouldst ye do. 

41. O people, just as Dawn and Night fair in appearance, coupled 
with the darkness of night, richly-yielding, with growing light, accompany 
the sun, long-extended, illuminator of worlds like the Earth, lofty, so 
should ye keep contact with an expressive heroic person. 

42. Teacher and Preacher, companions of the learned, good orga- 
nisers, charitable, pleasant-voiced, first to officiate on a yajna, leaders of 
multitude of people, who with sweet oblation increase the ancient light 
and glory, are fit to be adored by all 


43. Vidya Sabha, Dharma Sabha and Rajya Sabha, all three bent 
on speedily solving problems, well-qualified and duly constituted, thriving 
through knowledge and authority, like wedded dames, taking charge of 
State's administration, with prowess, skill and affluence, preserve the 
government like the unbroken thread of progeny. 

44. O learned person, just as an active scholar, full of vigour, 
gathers strength for a strong glorious Commander, being most famous, and 
adored throughout the land, masters various objects for glory, full of 
vitality, showering happiress like the cloud, acquires full might, and 
wishes for the sages in a well known place on the earth, so shouldst 
thou do. 

45. He, who rears the trees by erecting strong barriers round them, 
creating contact with the soul, like one under orders, conduces to our 
happiness, fills the treasure of fame, as one fills the belly with sacrifice, 
performs sacrifice with edible objects like honey and butter, and tastes 
them well, remains immune from disease. 

46. Just as a strong, exalted, heroic person, overpowers the 
violent foe, but is pleased with an upright, straight-forward man with 
little merit, so with brilliant knowledge, and truthful deeds, let the 
immortal sages, full of joy and contentment contribute to our happiness. 

47. May the mighty ruler, applauded at present, being fearless and 
heroic, augmenting bis forces, well trained by past commanders, whose 
sovereignty, competent to subdue the foes shines like the sun, strengthen 
us, and come to us for our protection, and may he occupy a dignified 

48. May the foe-subduing Commander, acquiring desired happiness 
with arms, nourisher of men, accompanied by valiant warriors, full of 
righteous indignation on the wicked, and swift killer of foes, come to us 
from far or near for our protection in battles, and guard and honour 
our men. 

49. May the Commander of the army, mighty, facing the enemy 
with the force of his knowledge, well-trained in the use of arms, with dis- 
ciplined cavalry, stand in combat to guard and enrich us. May he nicely 
share our this administrative business based on truth and justice. 

43. Vidya Sabha: Assembly of the learned. 

Dharma Sabha: Assembly of the religious. 

Rajya Sabha: Assembly of the Administrators. 

These are three Assemblies which should run efficiently the administration of a country. 

CHAPTER xx 223 

50. O Commander, in each battle I invite thee, the rescuer, the 
destroyer of the ignoble, affable, the giver of glory, deserving of invoca- 
tion, the Subduer of the foes, the preserver of administration, quick in 
action, adored by the multitude, and the castigator of the enemy's army. 
O Bounteous Lord, may thou give us happiness. 

51. The ruler, a good protector, accompanied by his excellent 
assistants, full of wealth, diffuser of happiness, should protect his subjects 
by administering justice, remove the opponents, render all free from fear, 
and himself be fearless, whereby we may be the lords of vigour. 

52. May the ruler, our good preserver, with his noble family 
members, a father unto us, drive from us away, even from far and near, 
our foe men. 

May we dwell in the auspicious favour of and obey the orders of the 
ruler, who is fit to perform acts of sacrifice. 

53. O Mighty Commander, go forth, with excellent steeds having 
tails like peacock plumes, to conquer thy foes. Let none check thy course, 
as fowlers capture the bird. Come unto us like a skilful archer. 

54. O wealthy citizens, just as learned persons laud the slayer of 
foes, who is powerful, whose arms wield weapons, so should ye. Thus 
praised may he guard our wealth in men and cattle. Ye heroes, preserve 
us evermore with blessings. 

55. Just as in this world, vedic text, like the milch-cow, multiplies 
our pure glory and wealth, so should I perfect it. O men and women just 
as heated, radiant, impelled, burning, unified fire protects the world, so 
should I protect it. 

56. O people, just as both husband and wife, conversant with 
medical science, guardians of the body, accomplished with noble nature 
and good dealings, possessing vedic knowledge and sweetness in speech in 
this world, preserve by different devices wealth and the people for the 
king, so ye should contact them. 

57. Both kinds of physicians, well versed in the science of medicine, 
for the removal of ailment, in this world, prescribe medicine skilfully and 
with a sweet voice. May speech full of commendable learning, coupled 
with words of praise from men, lead to affluence, conducive to happiness. 

57. There are two kinds of physicians : one who treats the physical ailments, and the 
other who deals with mental maladies. The word Nagnahu (HH$) in the ver?e has been trans* 
lated by Griffith as the drug used for fermenting the sura (^T), Rishi Dayananda translates it 
AS 'conducive to happiness. 1 


58. An educated wife, praised on all side*, for her prosperous 
husband, acquires told, strong organs, and butter that builds the body. 

Physicians with their medical knowledge resplendent like the Pun 
and moon, with efficacious medicines, acquire foodstuffs, good might and 
nice religious wealth. 

59. Laudable man and woman, who moving freely, imbued with 
noble qualities, deeds, and characteristics, with acts conducive to happi- 
ness, for the attainment of supreme power, delivery from an incurable 
disease, and for safety, use the juice of well-prepared, strength-infusing 
medicines, always remain happy. 

60. Just as highly applauded lightning pervading the sun and moon, 
illumines directions and gates, and engulfs the Earth and Heaven, so do I 
an educated woman accomplish my desires. 

61. O learned persons, just as the sun and moon, of fair hue, at 
dawn and night, by day and in the evening, are adorned by manifesting 
lightning, so should ye adorn yourselves with the noble qualities of soul 
and well disciplined speech. 

62. O virtuous teachers and preachers, guard us in day and night. 
O highly educated mother guard us. O health-giving physician, according 
well, protect the juice of medicines. 

63. Well-disciplined speech, protecting mother, laudable preach- 
ress, these three, and two good physicians, should produce differently the 
strong, gladdening, well-begotten juice of medicines. 

64. May the teacher and preacher, imparters of knowledge, a highly 
educated mother, a skilled workman, give us glory, fame, and diverse 
beautiful objects for the consummation of our affluence. 

65. Just as didactic speech through free use fulfils our desires like 
a milch-cow, and just as a mighty tree growing with the passage of seasons, 
with its sweet juice and edible products fulfils our desires under the 
advice of physicians, so may I fulfil my desires. 

66. O physicians, just as we attain to supremacy, with measured 
rice diet, with speech full of instruction, knowledge and sweetness, with 
cows' milk and its products, so should ye use the juice of medicines, highly 
efficacious and well prepared. 

6$. Disciplined speech t the instructions of a physician. 

Differently : In three ways, each working independently. 

Two physicians : Healers of physical and mental ills. 
'66. Physicians means two physicians as stated in verse 63. 


67. Good physicians and an educated lady, with their wisdom, 
through the use of material objects resulting from indestructible matter, 
should cultivate an acceptable mind, and acquire from cloud strength, 
brilliant: treasure, and ample wealth. 

68. Teacher and preacher united together, and an educated woman, 
with oblations made of material provisions, whose home is in clouds born 
of indestruccible matter, strengthen their might, which shatters to pieces 
even the splendid force of the enemy. 

69. O people, use nicely Soma, imbued with strength-giving quality, 
in yajna's oblations, just as two learned teacher and preacher, experts in 
the science of medicine utilise it, or just as an educated lady avails of it, or 
just as cattle use it. 

70. They who acquire wealth for supremacy, attain to happiness. 
He becomes dignified, who imbued with the spirit of service, full of 
excellence, desirous of advancement, good guardian, protector of yajna's 
oblations, enjoys wealth through the sacrificer. 

71. An excellent urger, a good guardian bestowing gifts on the 
liberal offerer, should attract the force and well-trained mind of a sacri- 
ficer, who abandons not the path of virtue. 

72. O men, just as a noble soul, striving for affluence, speaker of the 
Assembly, a good guardian, full of prosperity, acquires sovereignty, a just 
mind, worldly wealth and philanthropic deeds, so should ye acquire them, 
possessing renown and strength. 

73. Teacher, preacher, and an educated lady, with disciplined 
speech, well trained horses, and enterprise, should augment wealth, 
prowess, strength, and enhance a mighty devotee of truth. 

74. May both teacher and preacher, fair of form, rolling in wealth, 
an educated wife, possessing serviceable objects, and thou a learned fellow, 
help us in all our acts. 

75. * May both the healers of the body and soul, righteous in their 
deeds, an educated woman, who imparts knowledge just as a cow yields 

67. Clouds give us timely rain, which enriches our agricultural land, and adds to our 
wealth by bumper harvests. 

69. Whose refers to oblations, which rise up and reside in clouds. 

70. He : Priest. 

A sacrificer (yajman) adds to the wealth of the priest (Purohit), just as the priest 
advances the fame and glory of the sacrificer. 

71. An excellent urger, a good guardian means the king or a noble soul. 

72. A good guardian : The speaker of the Assembly is the guardian of the rights and 
privileges of its members. 


milk, and a highly sagacious person, like the sun that tears asunder the 
cloud, possess riches for the sake of prosperity. 

76. O teacher and preacher, ye both, cooperating together, and 
learned subjects, like the uniterrupted eternal cloud, behave most beauti- 
fully in sovereign deeds, and so act as our protectors in diverse ways. 

77. O learned person, full of wealth, knowledge and affluence, 
thou wisely drinkest the juice efficacious medicines, thou art served by 
thy educated wife, may thou be protected by the teacher and preacher 
with the works of the poets, just as father and mother rear their son. 

78. He, who collects, trains and takes useful service from horses, 
bulls, oxen, barren cows and rams, is the protector of food grains, is 
imbued with an amiable disposition, and is a wise, brilliant person, 
deserves hearty respect. 

79. O learned person, within thy mouth is poured the offering, 
as Soma into cup, ghee into ladle. 

Vouchsafe us wealth, strength-winning, blest with heroes, and 
wealth lofty, praised by men, and full of splendour. 

80. Teacher and preacher, an educated lady, the leader of the 
Assembly, give to the soul, sight with lustre, manly strength with breath, 
vigorous power with voice and might. 

81. O highly educated people, wedded to truth, chastisers of the 
wicked, equipped with horses and pasture-land for cows, just as ye 
command respect from men, so should we. 

82. O head of the State and Chief of the staff administer the State 
in a way that no internal or external malicious mortal foe be able to 
harm it. 

83. O wise Head of the State and Chief of the Staff lead us on to 
wealth, glittering like gold, and highly serviceable. 

84. May vedic speech, eur purifier, powerful through the force of 
diverse forms of knowledge, with wisdom and riches acquired through 
enterprise, beautify our yajna. 

85. Vedic text, the impeller of truthful speeches, the inspirer of 
perceptions, expatiates on God. 

86. Vedic text, with its store of knowledge, illuminates the vast 
ocean of words, and brightens all pious thoughts. 

78. We should respect the persons who train animals for useful service. 
81. Educated people refers to two persons, the teacher and preacher. 
84. Yajna : Sacrifice, or an act of public service or utility. 


87. O king, marvellously bright, enjoy these fine objects, full of 
qualities, prepared and purified by fingers for thee. 

88. O learned and renowned king, well urged and taught by the 
wise, impelled by intellect, enjoy food-grains and riches prepared with 
skill and wisdom. 

89. O vital soul, expeditious in action, attain to vedic knowledge. 
For our thriving transaction produce edible corn. 

90. O people just as loving teacher and preacher, with chastened 
speech, enjoy sweet knowledge, and as a glorious king, good guardian, 
slayer of foes as the sun is of clouds, eats the sweet corn grown in the 
midst of Soma herbs, so should ye do. 

88. This verse can also be thus interpreted : 

O soul full of knowledge and supremacy, urged by intellect, served by the wise, 
the vedic truth, from a highly intellectual and wise sage. 


1. O God, hear this prayer of mine, be ever gracious unto us. 
Longing for help I yearn for Thee. 

2. O Worshipful God, with my prayer, I attain unto Thee through 
vedic knowledge. A worshipper longs to realise Thee with his oblations. 
O praiseworthy God, worthy of respect, give us Thy knowledge in this 
world, steal not our life from us. 

3. O Omniscient God, Thou art the Master of all branches of 
knowledge, put far away from us disrespect to a learned person. Extre- 
mely venerable, Effulgent and Purifier, remove Thou far from us all 
feelings of hatred. 

4. O God, be Thou the nearest unto us. Protect us with Thy power 
of protection, while now this Morn is breaking. Reconcile the learned 
to us ; be Bounteous, give us happiness and nice charity. 

5. We call to protect us, this unimpaired Earth, the mother of 
those who stick steadfastly to their vow, the rearer of truth, full of 
wealth, free from decay, the giver of various objects, equipped with 
excellent houses and pleasureable politics. 

6. May we ascend, for weal, this vessel, affording protection, vast 
in size, well renowned, flawless, highly accommodating, complete in cons- 
truction, used by the king and his subjects for political purposes, rowed 
with good rudders, comfortable, free from leakage, and built by skilled 

7. May I ascend for welfare the goodly ship, free from defect in 
construction, that leaketh not, and is equipped with manifold anchors. 

8. O intellectual and industrious pair of artisans, behaving like Pran 
and Udan, sprinkle with water our walking-path for two miles, and 
provide all places with sweet water. 

8 Just as Pran and Udan, the ingoing and out-going breaths work together, so should 
the gracious pair of artisans work. 

Roads outside the city should he sprinkled with water for walking and suppressing dust. 

Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, translates the verse, that Government should make arrange- 
ments for drinking-booths and schools for the spread of knowledge at a distance of every 
two miles. 

The Lucknow Vedic Sansthan translators interpret the verse as : O learned people, 
fill our temple of knowledge with your fii e teachings. Spread your sweet instructions to 
distant places as well. 


9. O teacher and preacher, ye, uniters and disuniters like both the 
arms, come unto me for improving my life. Arrange water to be sprinkled 
for us for two miles. Give us the nice lessons of glory, and hear our 
mutual discussions. 

10. O highly learned person, possessing arms and foodstuffs, slow 
mover, behaving like scholars, wordly wise, crushing the thief and ignoble 
souls, as sun crushes the cloud, become for us an ancient pie a sure- giver, 
and completely banish our afflictions. 

11. O immortal, truth-knowing, learned, and wise people, help 
us in each fray, and our efforts to earn wealth. Drink deep the essence 
of knowledge, be joyful, be satisfied : then follow the paths which the 
sages are wont to tread. 

12. Just as kindled fire, the Sun highly illumined with its light, 
an excellent person, the Gayatri metre please the mind, and just as a 
person protecting the body, its organs and soul, singing the praise of God 
attains to longevity, so should the learned do. 

13. Just as a religious-minded person, who lets not the body decay, 
who preserves his physical strength, vedic speech, and Ushniha metre, 
realises the significance of soul, and just as a devotee, creating love for 
worldly destructible objects expands his desires, so should the learned do. 

14. Just as a learned person, lustrous like fire, immortal by nature, 
supreme, fit for eulogy and research, divine, guarded by five vital breaths, 
laudable for his knowledge, and just as Anushtap-metre with praises, 
attain to self satisfaction and intellectual mind, so should all do, 

15. Just as a learned person, brilliant like fire, air-minded, immor- 
tal by nature, gracing the space, and Brihati-metre, realise the signifi- 
cance of soul, and just as persons docile like a cow, control their bodies, 
organs and minds, so should we all do. 

9, Unite and disunite : A teacher and preacher ask the students to unite and work in 
cooperation. They ask us to shun the company of the wicked and the evil-minded and 
remain away from them. 

13. Ushniha metre : A person who remains celibate, and increases his physical, mental 
and spiritual strength for 28 years, like the 28 syllables of the Ushniha metre. 

14. Anushtap-metre : A Brahmchari who observes celibacy and improves his body 
and soul for 32 years, like 32 syllables of the Anushtap metre. 

15. Brihati-metre : A Brahmchari who observes celibacy and strengthens his body 
and soul for 36 years, like 36 syllables of the Brihati metre. Mahidhar interprests frmr as a 
steer of 3 years age, whereas Rishi Dayananda interprets it as a learned person, who controls 
the body, organs and mind. 


16. O people, just as glittering doors, mighty regions, air in space, 
resplendent sun, Pankti-metre, and a learned person in the fourth 
Ashrama, gain power and life in this world so should ye acquire life and 

17. O people, just as in this world, the female teacher and preacher 
of lovely form, like two dawns of great brilliance, all the immortal bright 
forces of nature, the Trishtup metre and the bull that carries burden on 
its back, give us wealth and life, so should ye all acquire them. 

18. O people, just as good physicians the correct dispensers of 
medicine with skill, with mind awakened, shrewd amongst the learned, 
bestowers of knowledge, ox and cow, and Jagati metre give us good wealth, 
so should ye all acquire the same. 

19. O people, just as the Earth, speech and intellect, all three, 
air-folk, subjects, illuminating strength of various kinds, like the milch- 
cow, in this world, give wealth and attainable objects, so should ye all 
acquire these. 

20. O people, wonderful,speedy, subtle, invigorating air and fire, 
human beings who stand on two feet like the metre having two quarters, 
and like a vigorous bull give life and physicial strength, know ye them. 

21. O people, just as the sun, the giver of tranquillity, and nouri- 
sher of trees, produces wealth and a Brahmchari observing celibacy for 
twentyeight years, like the Kakup metre of twentyeight syllables, the 
Assembly that controls the State, and the statesmanship of the ruler that 
nips in the bud the machinations of the wicked, give us life and power, 
so should ye do. 

22. O people, just as a noble, wealthy person, correctly uses an 
efficacious medicine, as a man more advanced than the others, like the 
Ati metre, and an excellent bull attain to supremacy and perform their 
personal duty, so should ye all da. 

16. Pankti-metre : A Bramhchari who observes celibacy for 40 years, like 40 syllables 
of the Pankti-metre grfsw *ft may also mean a yajna supervised by four priests, Hota, 
Adbvarya, Udgata and Brahma. 

17. Trishtup-metre . A Brahmchari who leads a life of celibacy up to fortyfour years 
like the fortyfour syllables of the Trishtup metre. 

18. Jagti metre : A Brahmchari who observes celibacy up to forty eight years like the 
forty-eight syllables of the Jagati metre. 

22. There are four metres with which Ati (arftf) is prefixed ; i. e., Ati Dhriti, Ati Ashti, 
Ati Shakwari, Ati Jagati. In each of these metres there are four syllables more than in the 
ordinary metres, 


23. people, eight vasus, full of divine qualities, extolled by 
humanity, present in past, present and future, where people move in 
conveyances, afford pleasure in the spring. The learned acquire with 
dignity, in light of the sun, longevity, through offering oblations. 

24. O people, know the highly extolled Rudra Brahmchari, who in 
Summer season, with the recitation of Panchdash stoma of fifteen verses, 
give strength and life to the soul, with fame and sacrifice. 

25. O people know ye the Aditya Brahmcharis, who endowed with 
many qualities, living in the midst of people, in the rainy season, praised 
with the recitation of Saptdasha stoma of seventeen verses, give life to the 
soul with strength and sacrifice. 

26. O people serve those wise and divine persons, who praised 
with a hymn of twentyone verses, in the Autumn season, give to the soul 
grace, life and sacrifice, with riches and the significance conveyed in virat 

27. O men, serve those learned persons, who in winter, praised 
with a hymn of twentyseven verses, give might, sacrifice and pleasure to 
the soul with cloud and cows the source of strength. 

28. O men acquire knowledge of material objects from those im- 
mortal, laudable learned persons, who in Dew-time, possessing the know- 
ledge of thirtythree gods, with the force of truth and strength of subjects 
that overcome the armies of wealthy foes, give power, sacrifice, and 
pleasure to the soul. 

23. Eight Vasus: -Sun, Moon, Earth, Space, etc. Vasu also means Brahmchari who 
observes celibacy for 24 years. 

24. Rudra Brahmcharis : Those who observe the vow of celibacy for 36 years. 
Rudras also mean ten vital breaths (Pran) and soul. 

Paachdasha : a recitation of 15 verses, known as Panchdasha Stoma occuring in the 
Atharva Veda. 

25. Aditya Brahmcharis : Those who observe the vow of celibacy and study the vedas 

for fortyeight years. 

Adityas also mean twelve months of the year, forming a part of 33 devatas along with 8 
vasus and 11 Rudras. 

Saptdasha Stoma : A hymn of 17 verses in the Atharva veda. 

26. Virat verses occur, in the Sama Veda. A hymn of 21 verses means a Sukta with this 
number of verses. 

27. Trinava : a hymn of 27 verses. 

28. Immortal : Persons of deathless fame, 

Thirtythree gods :-Eight Vasus, Eleven Rudras, Twelve months, Lightning and Yajna, 
the 33 forces of nature. 

29. Hota : one of the four guardians of a yajna. 
Jujube fruit : TO, ** 

232 YAJUR vDA 

29. Just as a Hota, on this earth in a place of oblations, with fuel, 
burns, the fire, and like the sun and moon, acquires supremacy and instruc- 
tive speech, and just as a person uses wh?at purple coloured like a he-goat, 
and jujube fruit as medicine, so, thou, sacrificer, perform Homa with 
eloquence, sweet water, precious substances, milk, corn, well pressed 
medicinal herbs, ghee and honey. 

30. Just as a Hota, the remover of physical imperfections, imbibes 
instructive speech, and like a sheep and a ram, obtains medicine from a 
watery path, and utilises the Sun, Moon, and valour for acquiring supre- 
macy, and avails of jujube fruits and didactic instructions as healing 
medicine, or just as one acquires with his sons, water, well pressed medi- 
cinal herbs, ghee, and honey, so shouldst thou sacrificer give butter 

31. Just as a Hota worships the Lord who sends to jail the wicked 
persons and is praised by the subjects, uses medicine with water, solidifies 
the force of the warriors of a general, who rends asunder the ignoble 
foes, or just as a preacher is a mental healer, or a speech full of knowledge 
acts like a physician, or just as a conveyance helps us in reaching our 
destination, so does a wealthy person help us for success in life. Just as 
the strength of a foe-killing king, manages the air flights between the 
earth and heaven, or just as an intelligent person uses well received moral 
instructions as medicine like the jujube fruit, so shouldst a sacrificer along 
with children, offer butter oblations, full of milk, well pressed juice of 
medicines, ghee and honey. 

32. Just as a laudable person, invoked with honour, and praised in 
a eulogistic language, acquires supremacy and fine speech, by dint of 
exertion, increases wealth by fast moving bull, understands the signifi- 
cance of Heaven and Earth, uses barley as medicine for acquiring might, 
eats boiled rice sweet like jujube fruit and parched grains ; so shouldst 
thou, O sacrificer offer butter oblations, with the juice of well-prepared 
medicinal herbs, milk, ghee and honey. 

33. Just as a learned person acts as a physician for removing our 
doubts, like a woollen cloth which pressed removes cold ; just as a mare 
with nice foals, runs so fast, as if it flies to heaven, just as two physicians, 
true to .their profession, proficient in the science of medicine confer 
together ; Just as a disease-killing and milk-yielding cow acts as a 
physician, or a speech full of knowledge plays the part of a physician for 
purifying the soul, so, O sacrificer, shouldst thou offer butter oblations 
with water, milk, Soma juice, ghee and honey procured by thee. 

CHAPTER xxi 233 

34. Just as a learned person, like perforated objects, provides for 
the doors of the sacrificial hall, spacious like the regions ; just as he 
protects its doors and regions from rain and fire, and fully masters the 
Earth and space like lightning ; just as he makes the knowledge-full speech 
useful for the soul like a cow ; just as the Sun and Moon, like life infus- 
ing water, mature medicinal herbs, just as he contacts the illuminating 
mind for its perfection, so shouldst thou, O sacrificer offer butter oblations 
with milk, soma juice, ghee and honey procured by thee. 

35. Just as beautiful wive?, with control over passions, serve their 
husbands, and the Sun and Moon spread light during the day and night, 
and learned persons give splendour and coolness to the soul ; as a good 
cook like a learned person with the knowledge of planets, devotedly 
prepares nice, dainty meals ; so shouldst thou, O sacrificer offer butter 
oblations with well prepared medicinal herbs and their juices, water and 
honey procured by tbee. 

36. God, the organiser of this yajna of the universe, has created 
the earthly fire, and atmospheric air, the Sun and Moon as healing 
physicians and the lightning, The animating lightning like a physician, 
with balms and lead-dust, yields strength and physical power. O sacrifi- 
cer offer butter oblations, with well prepared juice, milk, medicinal herbs, 
ghee and honey procured by thee. 

37. Just as a learned person uses the three Assemblies as a remedy 
for uprooting the ills of administration ; or as an active soul possessing 
truth, spirit, liability to err, and spoken of in the first, second and third 
persons, perceives the light of eye in the lightning. Just as the Sun and 
Moon are the instructors of all like laudable receptive intelligence ; or 
just as a highly learned woman, with her scholarly and instructive 
eloquence amasses great wealth for her famous husband, so shouldst thou 
O learned person perform Havan with well prepared juices, milk, medi- 
cinal herbs, butter and honey acquired by thee. 

38. Just as a learned person utilises a powerful bull, and a noble 
l>erson f the remover of miseries, and doer of good deeds amongst his 

34. Perforated objects :- Just as pegs are nailed in perforated objects to make them 
fixed and strong, so a learned person should arrange to make the doors of ttoe yajnashala 
strong and durable. 

37, Three Assemblies :-Raj Sabha, Vidya Sabha, Dharma Sabha. Soul possesses 
the qualities of Satva, Rajas, Tamas. 

It is spoken of as we, you aad they in the plural, or I, thou, he, she or it in the 

58. Thou : The sacrificer, yajoian. 


fellows, and avails of air and lightning as a physician, and didactit speech 
for strength, just as an intelligent person acquires vigour, mental force, 
and speed like a destructive weapon, derives wealth and corn from water, 
considers medicine a^ a valuable thing, and receives well cooked meals, 
so shouldst thou acquire with exertion, juices worth drinking, supremacy, 
butter and honey, and perform Havan with them and specially butter. 

39. Just as an intelligent physician for the acquisition of wealth 
like the Sun, the protector of its rays, welcomes a man the advocate of 
peace full of wisdom and doer of diverse deeds ; cultivates anger to inspire 
awe, respects a king for killing the tiger with a deadly weapon ; just as 
a learned lady, the Speaker of the Assembly and Chief of the staff are 
filled with anger, so shouldst thou acquire with exertion wealth, juices, 
medicinal herbs, ghee, and honey, and perform Homa with them and 
mainly butter. 

40. Just as a learned person makes the best use of ghee, takes due 
care of minor unctuous objects, uses fire in diverse nice ways, takes the 
help of state officials and cattle-breeders for the removal of suffering 
through cultured speech ; properly utilises a well built person for acquir- 
ing supremacy, avails of enterprise snd strength for helping the slayer of 
foes, amasses wealth by honest means, treats fire as a healer like medicine, 
pacifies mind with tranquillity and knowledge, cures through pathology 
the army general, a good guardian j and a wealthy person, a patron of 
physicians ; instructs with his knowledge the protectors of forests, and 
endears like corn a lovable medicine ; and just as learned devotees of 
science, brilliant like fire, serve and consult a physician, so shouldst tbou 
O sacrificer, procure juices, milk, medicinal herbs, ghee and honey, and 
perform Havan with them and chiefly butter. 

41. Just as a learned person deals in various trades, avails of oily 
oblations, rears cattle and uses goat, bull, buffalo for purposes of cultiva- 
tion, for sowing seeds, and grooving cotton for making clothes thereof, so 
shouldst thou O sacrificer do. Just as a learned person enhances the 
power of discussion of rival disputants ; puts greasy oblations in the fire, 
and cultivates scholarly speech, and rightly utilises all these things, so 
shouldst thou O sacrificer do. 

Just as a learned person resorts to a device that enhances the 
strength of the bull, puts into fire oily oblations, and elevates his soul, 
rightly uses all these substances, so shouldst thou, O sacrificer do. 

42. Just as a learned person duly respects the teacher and the 
preacher, the scholarly speech, and the king, the guardian of his subjects ; 
us t as these learned, duly elected, charitably disposed members of the 


Assembly,save us from explosive substances and beasts of prey, and grant 
us beautiful and fascinating articles } ju?*- is honourable persons respected 
by their progeny with parched grains, pure and gracious, joyfully eat the 
cooked rice with milk, and nice water ; just as aged spiritual people, full 
of sweet qualities, who travel from one place to the other, accept the 
offerings made by the people : and just as honoured persons, a learned lady 
and a famous person, affording protection like the Sun, the slayer of 
clouds, accept sweet Soma juice, drink it, derive pleasure, and master all 
branches of knowledge, so shouldst thou, O sacrificer make full use of 
all objects. 

43. Just as a learned person keeps company with the teacher and 
the preacher, who ever derive in a nice manner the useful things like milk 
and greasy butter from a goat, and surely eat them before they are snatched 
by the wicked, and asked for by chaste beggar women; just as they 
utilise rough and refined meals, chiefly of barley, delicious, chasers of 
hundreds of ailments, prepared in fire, just as good physicians remove 
ills from the sides, from the thighs, from the stomach, from each limb 
causing pain, and from vital organs of the patients, and partake of eatable 
foods, so shouldst thou, O sacrificer, use all these substances. 

44. Just as a learned person, with the good nature of an instructed 
person, having extracted out of oblation the greasy substance, ever acquires 
it, develops speech, holds it in veneration, and surely eats it before 
enemies snatch it or a respectable married woman asks for it ; just as 
persons beautiful to sit for dinner, individually or collectively, showerers 
of happiness, wearers of ungaudy clothes, having knowledge of electricity, 
conveyers of the opinion of the learned to the masses are freed by a 
skilled physician from physical ills from the sides, from the thighs, from 
the stomach, and from each limb causing pain, so shouldst an educated 
lady cherish him, so shouldst thou, o sacrificer perform yajna. 

45. Just as a learned person, attains to supremacy, and uses a 
medicine which cures ills of the sides, of the thighs, of a limb suffering 
acute pain, of excretory organ, nay of each organ, of persons, .beautiful to 
sit for dinner, cultivators of barley, showerers of happiness, digesters of 
meals, wearers of rough, ungaudy clothes, chastisers of hundreds 
of the wicked, magnanimous in spirit and which the king uses, 
and just as the king daily acquires well protected nice greasy substance 

44. Extraction of greasy subitance refers to the yajna Shesh (remnant) which should 
be eaten by the performers of the yajna. 

41 Which means medicine. 


derived out of oblation, certainly respects and eats it before it is snatched 
by the enemies or a respectable woman asks for it, so shouldst thou, O 
sacrificer be conversant with all dealings. 

46. A learned person performs deeds with his excellent, speedy 
power of commencement. Where the cattle eat the grass nourished by 
the Sun and Moon, where oblations reach fascinating places, where there 
are streams for rams to roam about, and where oblations reach fascinating 
stations, where there are found dignified persons, and oblations reach 
fascinating places, where there are good stations of fire and electricity, 
where there grow efficacious medicines in good plaees, where abide 
excellent people, the protectors of humanity, where there arise and blow 
charming and attractive zephyrs, where tbere are the birth places of 
greatmen, where there are fruits of trees, where the planets revolve in 
their orbits and afford protection to the souls in their beautiful stations, 
where there are the abodes of learned persons who spread knowledge and 
give us comforts; there shouldst thou praise these substances at opportune 
times, and having praised them from near, mike their fullest use accord- 
ing to their merits, attributes and nature. Making their collection, thou 
shouldst use them in practical works, like undertakings begun in right 

Just as fire the fosterer of sun's rays enjoys oblations, and reaches 
the trees and protects them, so shouldst thou O sacrificer be conversant 
with all dealings. 

47. Just as a learned person acquires the desired fire, and just as 
the fire, acquires the fascinating stations of air, lightning, and healing 
oblations ; just as he praises the fascinating stations of oblations, speech, 
and persons desirous of victory ; just as he praises the fascinating positions 
of a dignified king possessing noble traits and oblations 5 just as he praises 
the fascinating powers of electricity ; just as he praises the fascinating 
powers of sovereignty ; just as he praises the charming forces of a protect- 
ing commander of the army ; just as he praises the bewildering discoveries 
of wealth producing science 5 just as he admires the places of fine water and 
men, and acquires the fruits of charming trees ; just as he praises the 
habitations of the learned who drink fruit juices and protect knowable 
objects ; just as he praises the majestic rays of the sun that draws water 
and emits light ; just as he realises his greatness ; just as a highly intellect- 
ual person cherishes noble aspirations ; performs deeds of mutual coopera- 
tion, and uninterrupted yajnas, and enjoys all useful substances so shouldst 
thou, O sarificer be conversant with all dealings. 


48. O learned person )ust as a highly intellectual wife praises her 
noble, educated husband, the space and the teacher and preacher, like 
brilliance of the eyes and just as educated persons, for the acquisition of 
wealth, use devices to accumulate riches, acquire and possess wealth tes- 
ting it with the sight of their eyes, so shouldst thou acquire and possess it. 

49. O learned person, just as Air and the Sun, an educated wife, 
and physicians, for gain of wealth having secured the bright gates meant 
for going in and coming out, like breath in the nostril, gain strength, and 
master nine gates of the body, and for enjoying wealth, the wise gain the 
treasure of riches, so shouldst thou be conversant with all dealings. 

50. O learned person, just as lustrous morning and evening, protec- 
tion-affording sun, moon and an educated wife, for one aspiring after the 
acquisition of wealth, for his acquiring the treasure of riches, like speech 
in the mouth, grant him strength and wealth morning and evening, and 
behave likewise unto all, so shouldst thou be conversant with all dealings. 

51. O learned person, just as lustrous, adorable morning and 
evening, the bestowers of knowledge, air and lightning magnify the Sun, 
and men acquire fame, just as ears give us the power to hear, and grant 
wealth to him who aspires after riches, and wants to amass wealth, so 
shouldst thou be conversant with all dealings. 

52. O learned persons, just as beautiful and grand morning and 
evening, corn oblation, a woman-educator, healing physicians, teacher and 
preacher guard light pure like water, so should ye strengthen the body as 
breasts strengthen themselves with milk, and in this world full of riche?, 
give money to him who yearns for it, so that all persons may become rich. 
O seeker after virtue, so shouldst thou be conversant with all dealings. 

53. O learned persons, just as amongst the educated persons, good 
physicians, the givers of easa to the body, well advanced in the science of 
medicine, with noble deeds, attain to supreme glory, and a woman with 
her admirable learning and didactic speech, plants wisdom like light in her 

48 It -wealth. 

Thou :-Sacrificer-Performer of the yajna. 

49. Gates :-The gates of a well-ventilated house, in which air and sun's rays enter, and 
people go in and come out like breath in the nostril. 

Nine gates. Nine parts of the body which are its gates, i.e., two eyes, two ears, two 
nostrils, mouth, the penis and the anus. 

50. Thou : Learned person. 

51. Thou : Learned person- 
53. They : Physicians. 


heart, and they, along with the charitably disposed, cultivate a pure mind 
for the distributor of the treasure's wealth, and accumulate riches, so 
should ye be conversant with all dealings. 

54. O student, just as mother, mistress, preachress, these three 
ladies full of glow with knowledge, in this world full of wealth, for the 
soul aspiring after wealth, accept as their pupils, the three girls, superior, 
medium and low in intellect; and just as teacher and preacher, laudable 
and learned ladies like energy and power in the middle of navel, cultivate 
the mind; and just as all these procure these things, so shouldst thou be 
conversant with all transactions. 

55. O learned person, just as a highly intellectual, educated man ; 
who has his abode underneath the ground, on the earth and in the space, 
with his instructive speech, leads the instructors of humanity on the path 
of virtue, just as a conveyance propelled by fire and steam takes us to 
destination, and just as God, the Dispellerof misery, like pleasure-giving 
water and semen-virile, invests in this world the soul, aspirant after 
wealth, with physical beauty and limbs like ear, eye, etc., and just as these 
procure all these things, so shouldst thou be conversant with all 

56. O learned person, just as water and heat, the brilliant rays of 
the resplendent and lustrous sun, and advanced skill, ripen the sweet 
fruits of the fig tree for man, just as water possesses velocity, and a 
strong man controls wrath, so trees in this world, the mainstay of humani- 
ty, produce wealth for us and for him who aspires after wealth ; just as 
all these acquire these substances, so shouldst thou be conversant with 
all dealings. 

57. O soul, master of physical organs, thou hast fine speech, plea- 
sure and restful peace. Thou art soft like the wool. Skilled engineers, 
with the use of air and electricity, through their useful workmanship 
prepare conveyances that move -in water, overshadowed by the beautiful 
space. Just as learned persons amass wealth for the soul, that roams 
in space between the earth and sky, is brilliant, contemplative and eager 
for supremacy } and obtain these good things, so shouldst thou O sacrificer 
be conversant with all dealings. 

58. O learned person, just as in this world, for a person aspiring 
after wealth, beautiful fire, the giver of desired happiness rightly diffuses 

54. Thou :- Student. 

56. Thou : Learned person, 

58. Thou : Learned person. 


itself on planets like the Earth etc ; just as sacrificers with the aid of air, 
electricity, sun, speech and learned discourse derive benefit from fire 
and moon ; just as a benign ruler, giver of happiness, liked by all, a nice 
protector, the sun, the storer of water, a physician, the desired, beautiful 
banyan tree give us desired happiness ; just as handsome lovable scholars, 
drinkers of drinkable juice, worshippers, and fire the accomplisher of 
desired act, like wealth the bringer of fame, bring for the sacrificer 
physical strength, energy, honour and food ; just as these obtain these 
things, so shouldst thou be conversant with all dealings 

59. O man, just as this sacrificer, mastering the science of cooking 
and preparing sacrificial oblations resorts to fire, the giver of comforts ; 
and just as he uses goat's milk for strengthening vital breaths, sheep's milk 
for invigorating his voice, and cow's milk for supremacy, and just as sacri- 
ficers press the essence of medicinal herbs for the protecting ruler, and 
for developing instructive speech, so shouldst ye ever do. 

60. O man, just as our neighbours and a well-mannered person, 
like the fig tree affording shelter under its shade, use the goat's milk 
that kills all germs for strengthening vital breaths, sheep's milk for invigo- 
rating voice and cow's milk for supremacy, and eat the greasy digestible 
oils of those cattle, and gain vitality by eating well-prepared rice-cakes ; 
just as vital breaths, praiseworthy tongue, and the majestic ruler that 
affords us protection drink the essence of the juices of medicinal herbs, 
so should ye do. 

61. O Rishi (Seer), foremost amongst the Rishis, descendant of 
Rishis, this sacrificer hath chosen thee today, of all the learned persons 
assembled together. He knows thou shalt win for him choice-worthy 
treasure, and all good serviceable objects, amongst the sages ; hence he 
chooses thee. 

O learned person, beloved of all, preach unto this sacrificer all the 
gifts of knowledge the sages impart, and being well trained remain 

O Hota, thou hast been sent as the man, selected for good speech, 
and for preaching the vedic doctrines. Preach thou the vedic verses. 

59. Ye .Men. 

60. Ye : Men. 

Oil means clarified butter derived from the milk of these animals. 

61. Rishi : One who knows and understands the significance of vedic texts. 
Hota :--A learned person who imparts knowledge to humanity. 


1. O learned person, in this world created by the Resplendent God, 
I take thee with arms strong like air and lightning and with hands 
powerful like the rays of the Sun. Thou art immortal by nature, virile 
and bright. Thou art the protector of life. Extend thy life and protect 

2. We realise in this created world the Omnipresence of God, 
which clearly describes from the beginning to the end, the relation 
between the primordial causes, God and matter. The sages in the beginn- 
ing of creation, know through the vedas this power of God's Omni- 

3. O learned person thou art cool like water, thou art a preacher, 
thou art controller, thou being eulogised, art the upholder of all transac- 
tions. Know thou fire, wide in fame and guide of all things. 

4. O learned person, I will place this fire in the yajna, for thee, 
independent in actions, for the wise and the householder. Through that 
sacrificial fire may I, accomlished with noble traits, succeed as a house- 
holder. Use that fire in the yajna. 

Make me fit to act as a good householder, endowed with noble 

5. O learned person, he, who wishes to kill a horse, should be 
punished by a noble person. Such a person is an enemy. He, low in 
character like a dog is an enemy and must be checked by thee. I sprinkle 
thee loved by all as prospector of the people. I anoint thee loved by all, 
for the protection of soul and fire. I anoint thee loved by all for the 
protection of air. I anoint thee loved by all, for the protection of all the 
educated persons. I anoint thee loved by all, for protecting beautiful 
physical objects like the Earth. ~ 

6. Make the best use of fire. Take medicines. Derive joy by 
drinking water. Enjoy well the warmth and light of the Sun. Have 
knowledge of air and vital breaths. Perform yajna in fire. Meditate 
on God, the Guardian of all great objects. Respect and love your friends. 
Pay homage to noble souls. 

3, Just as water and fire are the source of life for all, so should a learned person be 
considered as our guide and controller. 

5. Useful animals like horse should not be destroyed. 

I means Priest or Prohit. 

prospector the supplier of future wants. 


7. Reverence for him who recites the Sama Veda. Reverence for 
him who has recited the Sama Veda. Reverence for the warrior who 
challenges the foe. Reverence for the victor who welcomes the -learned. 
Reverence for him accomplished in all actions. Reverence for the most 
accomplished. Reverence for him fond of perfume. Reverence for the 
perfumed. Reverence for him who builds a cantonment and resides 
therein. Reverence for him who sits in a yogic posture. Reverence for 
him who tears asunder the foes. Reverence for the learned guest who 
keeps moving. Reverence for the elders while sitting and sleeping. 
Reverence for the elders fast asleep, waking and warbling. Reverence 
for a man of knowledge. Reverence for the elder yawning. Reverence 
for the architect. Reverence for him who makes a collection of 
curiosities. Reverence for the neighbours. Reverence for supreme 
knowledge. Reverence for him who imparts knowledge. 

8. Reverence to the soul that exerts, and is fleeting. Reverence to 
the warrior that jumps and moves fast. Reverence to him who performs 
duty promptly and is full of agility. Reverence to him who is sitting 
peacefully, and him who is up and doing. Reverence to him who is speed- 
minded, and is physically stout. Reverence to him who behaves promin- 
ently. Reverence to him who is respected extraordinarily. Reverence 
to him who controls his mental cravings, and him who is free from sin. 
Reverence to him who longs to hear the sermons of the learned, and him 
who listens to the word of knowledge. Reverence to the seer. Rever- 
ence to him whom others want to look at, and who is closely looked at. 
Reverence to him who closes his eyes in contemplation, reverence to him 
who takes food in time, reverence to him who drinks when needed, and 
takes due care of his urine. Reverence to him in action, and reverence 
for his accomplishments. 

9. O Creator of the Universe ! O All holy and worthy of adora- 
tion ! May we contemplate Thy adorable Self. May thou guide our 

10. I invoke for aid, God, the Controller of luminous planets like 
the Sun, etc. worthy of attainment, and the Bestower of perfect glory. 

7. Yogic posture : Asana. 

Learned guest : 3Tfafa, Atithi. 

A person who respects the persons and topics mentioned in the verse will always remain 

8* Due care of urine : The learned people should take special care of their urins 10 
keep it free from sugar, albumen and phosphates, so that kidneys may work in order, 

Drinks means water, milk and curd, 

9, Tbjs is the Gayatrj Mantra, It occurs also in 3*35, 30*2, 36-3, 


He, the Embodiment of knowledge, tells us how to distinguish between 
truth and untruth. He is worthy of adoration. 

11. Having meditated on the Adorable God, the Creator of the 
universe, the Sentient, we acquire excellent, supreme intellect wherewith 
we arrive at truth. 

12. Having eulogised God the Creator of the universe, and the 
Developer of intellect, we seek His gift for the seeker after wisdom, and 
aspirant after knowledge. 

13. For the attainment of high noble qualities, in a contemplative 
mood, I eulogise the Giver, the Protector of souls devoted to truth, the 
Creator of the universe, and Effulgent in nature. 

14. In proximity to the Giver of happiness and the Creator of the 
universe, we acquire intellect and supremacy, with that intellect we pray 
for excellent glory, the benefactor of the learned. 

15. Well-kindled fire carries our offerings to divine objects like 
air etc. Burn with fuel such a fire indestructible in nature. 

16. Oblation bearer, immortal, resplendent, eager messenger, 
giver of food-grains, fire is utilised in mechanical arts and crafts. 

17. I place in front the fire, that acts like an envoy in making our 
mechanical works successful, that gives us food to eat, and brings us 
enjoyments in this world, I instruct the learned to make its full use. 

18. O purifying, pervading fire, thou hast verily manifested the sun, 
moving with the force that gives life to earth and cows, and sustains all ; 
and retains waters with its strength. 

19. O learned persons, the fulfillers of our desires, ye are mighty 
like the mother Earth, eminent like the father air, ye are the accomp- 
lishers of journey, fast movers like the horse, constant travellers, acquirers 
of happiness, friendly towards all, utilisers of material objects, speedy in 
action, bringers of rain, sharp realisers of all things with an intelligent 
mind, marchers on the foes for victory, possessors of speech that simplifies 
subtle subjects, follow the path of the wise. Protect nicely this pervad- 
ing fire, moistened with water, for the enjoyment of pleasures, for 

15. Fire is indestructible in UF atomic state. 

17. I refers to Prohit. 

18. Force refers to the sun, Rain from the sun sustains cows and earth, and retains 

19. Bringers of rain : Through the performance of yajnas. 
Here: -ia this world. 

Moistened : Water is used tq extinguish fire. 


developing intellect and chastising the wicked, Here is delight. Here 
enjoy pleasure. Here is contentment. 1- T ere is self-satisfaction. 

20. Reverence for him who brings happiness, reverence for God 
the Embodiment of joy, reverence for the king who is foremost amongst 
the many. Show respect to him who makes a collection of objects, and 
him who studies different sciences. Have respect for the deep-thinker, 
and the protector of the subjects. Show respect to him whose mind is 
contemplative, who is the master of knowledge. Have respect for the 
mother Earth, for the mighty, immortal word of God, for the mother, the 
supplier of happiness. Make full use of the streams. Revere the speech 
full of knowledge which purifies us. Respect the noble saying of the 
learned. Respect a strong man. Respect him who takes hygienic meals 
for the maintenance of his vitality. Respect the preacher who sermon ; ses 
and makes us spiritually strong. Have respect for the diffuser of li^ht, 
for the builder of boats, for him who spreads education. Worship God. 
Who creates objects of variegated forms. Pray unto the All-pervading 
Providence. Meditate on Universal God, Who Self-protected, protects 
others. Contemplate upon Him Who is present in every sentient being. 

21. May every mortal man contract the friendship of the guiding 
God. Each one solicits Him for wealth, and for strength, aspires after 
fame and riches through noble deeds. 

22. O God let there be born in our country the Brahmana, illus- 
trious for the knowledge of the vedas ; let there be born the prince, heroic, 
skilled archer, piercing the foe with shafts, mighty warrior ; the cow 
giving abundant milk, the ox good at carrying burden ; the swift courser ; 
the woman skilled in domestic affairs. May this sacrificer be blessed, 
with sons, conquering, equipped with conveyances, civilised, young, and 
heroic. May cloud send rain according to our desire ; may our fruit- 
bearing trees ripen ; may acquisition and preservation of property be 
secured to us. 

23. Control the out-going, in-going and diffusive breaths through 
yogic practices. Take care of your eyesight. Enhance your power of 
hearing. Use your speech nicely, Concentrate your mind. 

24. Have scientific knowledge and make use of the Eastern 
Region, and its hither ward Region ; the Southern Region, and its hither- 
ward Region ; the Western Region and its hitherward Region ; the 
Northern Region and its hitherward Region ; the Upward Region and its 
hitherward Region > the Downward Region and its hitherward Region, 

24. Each region has got ^qf&n which is called hitherward region, 


25. Purify, utilise, and use ordinary waters, excellent healing 
waters, waters rising above in vapours through sun's heat ; standing 
waters, fast flowing waters, slowly moving waters ; well-waters, rain- 
waters ; tank-waters, sea-waters, waters in the ocean ; and charming and 
beautiful waters. 

26. Perform yajna for the purification of air ; for the purification 
of misty air, for purifying fine cloud $ for purifying the cloud j for purify- 
ing the dense shining cloud } for purifying the thundering lightning ; for 
purifying the bursting cloud, for purifying the raining cloud, for purifying 
the pouring cloud ; for purifying the violently raining cloud ; for purifying 
the high cloud that has held water ; for purifying the sprinkling cloud, 
for purifying the drizzling cloud ; for purifying the clouds that rain 
cats and dogs ; for purifying the thundering clouds; and for purifying 
the hoar-frost. 

27. Improve your digestive faculty j make full use of efficacious 
juices. Elevate your soul. Till the soil. Enjoy the firmament, and 
light in the sky. Utilise the quarters and subquarters. Understand the 
significance of the upward region, and the downward region. 

28. Perform yajna for indestructible objects and for their assem- 
blage ; for day and night, for the half months ; for the months ; for the 
seasons and for the objects produced in them and for the year to derive 
happiness, Perform yajna for the purification of Heaven and Earth ; 
for the Moon, for the Sun, and his rays. Perform yajna for the better- 
ment of the Vasus, the Rudras and the Adityas. Perform yajna for 
purifying the airs ; for the acquisition of noble qualities, for improving 
the roots and branches of forest trees, flowers, fruits and herbs. 

29. Perform yajna for the improvement of the Earth, the Firma- 
ment, the sky, the Sun, the Moon and the Stars. 

Perform yajna for the improvement of waters, herbs and forest trees. 
Perform yajna for meteors, animate and inanimate things, and things that 
creep and crawl for our comfort. 

30. Perform yajna for the purification of vital breaths ; the soul 

28. Vasus : Eight forces of nature or Vasu Brahmcharis observing celibacy for 
24 years. 

Rudras : Ten vital breaths, and soul, or Rudra Brahmcharis observing celibacy for 36 

Adityas : Twelve months of the year, or Aditya Brahmcharis observing celibacy for 
48 years. 

Assemblage : Collectively. Ail indestructible objects taken together. 


that resides in the body, the pervading air, the Sun, the lightning, the 
air that protects multitudes of objects, for the hero who chastises the 
wicked, for the king, for acquiring strength, for the reptiles, for gold, for 
light of the Sun, Moon and stars ; for keeping the thieves under control, 
and for the Sun that nourishes the day. 

31. Perform yajna to make comfortable and pleasant the month 
Chetra (March-April), the Baisakh (April-May), the Jeshtha, (May-June), 
the Asharh (June-July), the Shravan (July-August), the Bhadra (August- 
September), the Aswin (September-Octobar), the Kartika (October- 
November), the Margshish (November-December), the Paush (December- 
January), the Magh (January-February), the Phalgun (February-March), 
the thirteenth or intercalary month. 

32. Produce good foodstuffs. Manufacture articles. Protect the 
foodstuffs produced. Develop intellect and perform noble deeds. Arrange 
for comforts. Purify your head. Don't waste your semen. Exert for 
final beatitude. Worship God, the final living entity in the universe. 
Adore God, the Protector of the world. Serve God, the Preacher of the 
Vedas to humanity. Pray to God, the Protector of all created beings. 

33. May life be devoted to the service of God, the learned and the 
spread of knowledge in a noble manner. May breath improve through 
yoga and physical practices. May downward breath, diffusive breath, 
upward breath, digestive breath, improve through necessary precautions. 
May vision, hearing, speech, mi ad, soul, the master of the four Vedas, 
light of knowledge and happiness, and questionings advance through 
sacrifice performed in a right way. 

May God be pleased with us through sacrifice performed in a spirit 
of devotion. 

34. Worship one God. Have knowledge of Cause and Effect, Please 
hundreds of souls. Practise hundred and one trades. Acquire the power 
to burn down sins. Attain to final beatitude full of happiness. 

31. Intercalary month : TOiflU Inserted in the twelve months, so called because 
during that month religious ceremonies are not performed. 

33. *?rt! & I^STft I SMO 13-3-2-1. 

Prishtha may mean season as well. Swami D&yananda has translated the word as subtle 


1. God is the Creator of the universe, its one Lord, the Sustainer of 
luminous objects like the sun. He was present before the creation of the 
world. He sustains this Earth and the Sun in past, present and future. 
Let us worship with self dedication of our soul, Him, the Embodiment of 

2. O God, Thou art realisable through yoga. I serve Thee and 
accept Thee as Protector of the King who takes care of his subjects. This 
primordial matter and the Sun testify to Thy Greatness. Thy Majesty is 
discernible in the day and year. Thy Majesty is seen in the wind and 
firmament. Thy Majesty is traceable in the luminous Sun. For all that, 
for Thy protecting greatness and for the learned persons, we always sing 

3. God by His grandeur is the sole Ruler of the moving world that 
breathes and slumbers. He is the Sovereign Lord of these men and cattle. 
Let us worship with devotion, Him, the Embodiment of happiness. 

4. O God Thou art realisable through yoga. I serve Thee and accept 
Thee as Protector of the king who takes care of his subjects. This water 
and moon testify to Thy greatness. Thy Majesty is seen in the night and 
year. Thy Majesty is found in the Earth and fire. Thy Majesty is dis- 
cernible in the immortal worlds and the moon. For all that, for Thy 
protecting greatness and for the learned persons, we always sing praises. 

5. They, who unite their souls with God, Who pervades all station- 
ary objects, and protects the vital parts of our body; shine in Him like 
beams in the Sun, 

6. Just as experts yoke to the chariot two beautiful horses, con- 
trolled with difficulty and through diverse devices; tawny, stout, our 
bearers from one place to the other, so do the yogis yoke their organs of 
sense, mind, and vital breaths to God. 

7. O laudable learned person, just as artisans control the beautiful 
diffused form of electricity, swift like the wind, and erect electrical con- 
trivances worked with water, so do ye prepare with the aid of electricity 
a fast moving machine, that takes us from one place to the other. 

2. Day and year : The regularity of time, the rising and setting of the sun in time all 
the year round, indicate the Majesty of God. 


8. O king, the protector of his subjects, the Vasus approach thee 
with Vedic verses in Gayatri Metre, Rudras approach thee with verses 
in Trishtup metre, Adityas approach thee with verses in Jagati 
metre, eat thou this food, O learned people eat ye this food pre- 
pared from barley and cow's milk and its products, and move on Earth, 
Ether, Heaven, and distinct planets moving in their orbits, 

9. Who moveth singly and alone ? Who is brought forth to life 
again ? What is the remedy of cold ? What is the vast field for 
production ? 

10. The Sun moves singly and alone. The Moon is brought to life 
again. Fire is the remedy of cold. The Earth is the vast field for 

11. What is the primary thought? What is the bird of mighty 
size ? What is the majestic beautiful thing ? What absorbs light ? 

12. Rain is the primary thought. Fire is like the mighty bird, 
Earth is the majestic, beautiful object that protects us with corn. Night 
absorbs light. 

13. O student, may air help thee with cooked viands, black-necked 
fire with powers of digestion, fig tree with clouds, Shalmali tree with its 
increase. May the stallion, that moves on the roads the chariot, bestower 
of happiness come unto thee on his four feet. May the learned scholar of 
the four Vedas, free from the darkness of ignorance fill us with virtues. 
May we offer him food. 

14. Body is strengthened through penance, warm like the sun's 
rays. Organs are also strengthened through penance. Vital breaths 
are invigorated through penance. A learned yogi advances spiritually 
through the attainment of love for God. 

15. O seeker after knowledge, thyself strengthen the body, thyself 
walk in the company of the learned, and thyself serve them. Let not thy 
greatness be marred by any one. 

16. O Soul thou art immortal and indestructible. By fair paths 

8. Vasus, Rudras and Adityas are the learned persons observing celibacy for 24, 36 and 
48 years. 

9-12. In 9th and 10th, and llth, 12th verses there are questions and answers. 

13. Shalmali The silk-cotton tree. A lofty and thorny tree with red flowers. It is 
called <WT tree. 

Black-necked : Fire with its dark smoke. 

Four feet : with full ipeed, 


thou cultivatest noble qualities. May the resplendent God place thee 
in that place t where the godly yogis dwell, and derive pleasure. 

17. O seeker after knowledge, in this world, fire is a thing of 
beauty. Just as learned persons perform yajnas with it, so shouldst thou 
do. Just as a learned person masters this beautiful place of sacrifice, so 
shouldst thou do. If thou wilt properly manage the place of yajna, fire 
will manifest itself as a thing worth seeing. Drink thou the waters puri- 
fied by the yajna. 

Air is a thing of beauty. Just as learned persons perform yajnas 
with it, so shouldst thou do. Just as a learned person masters the atmos- 
phere, the home of air, so shouldst thou do. If thou wilt master the 
atmosphere, air will look as a beautiful thing. Breathe thou the air puri- 
fied by the yajna. Sun is a thing of beauty. The learned perform yajnas 
with its aid. Just as a learned person acquires full knowledge about the 
sun, so shouldst thou do. If thou wilt do it, sun will appear as a beauti- 
ful thing unto thee. Enjoy thou the beams of the sun purified through 
the yajna, and reigning in the universe. 

18. O mother, grandmother, great-grandmother, I cannot be sub- 
dued by a man, who, though he be quick like a horse, and in full posses- 
sion of wealth, the bringer of good furtune, and sustainer of an ease- 
loving person, but lies in idle slumber. I utter truthful speech for the 
sustenance of vital breath. I use instructive speech for warding off 
misery. I speak the truth for the preservation of my soul that pervades 
the body. 

19. O God, we invoke Thee, the troop-lord of troops. We invoke 
Thee, the Lord of the beloved ones. We invoke Thee, the Lord of the 
treasure of knowledge. O God, all beings reside in Thee. Thou art my 
judge. I know Thee full well free from birth, the Sustainer of Matter 
that keeps the universe in its womb. Thou knowest Matter. 

20. The King and his subjects in unison, magnify the four stages 

18. One should never lapse into idleness, though he be the master of wealth. A 
wealthy person should be active and enterprising. 

20. Dharma : Law, custom, piety, duty, justice, merit, character, the soul. 

Artha : Worldly prosperity. 

Kama : Affection, object of desire. 

Moksha : Liberation, deliverance. 

Griffith has not translated the 10 verses 20-29 saying that these stanzas are not 
reproducible even in the semi-obscurity of a learned European language ; and stanzas 30, 31 
would be unintelligible without them. 

Ubbat and Mahidhar have translated the?e stanzas in an obscene language unfit for 
reproduction. Swami Payananda has given to the world their correct interpretation, 


of Dharma, Arth, Kama, Moksha, wherewith they reside happily in their 

country. The King, the chastiser of the wicked, full of knowledge, the 
possessor of strength and prowess, lends valour to his subjects. 

21 O powerful King, punish the immoral person residing amongst 
women, and the degraded woman living amongst men, with feet upwards, 
and head downwards 5 spread happiness amongst your people, and est- 
ablish your well established reign of justice. 

22. The King establishes his rule over his subjects, which aspiring 
after happiness, acquire it bit by bit. His subjects are weak like the tiny 
sparrow. He realises land revenue from the people to be spent on their 

23. O harmless King, don't utter untruth before us. Let not thy 
tongue utter meaningless words like a prattler. A King who has got no 
control over his tongue will be extirpated like a weak sparrow, and de- 
frauded by his subjects. 

24. O king, thy forbearing and loving mother, and thy father 
brilliant and nourishing like the sun, rule over the prosperity and riches 
of the sovereignty of this mundane universe. Thy father has beautified 
his rule for his subjects. I, as his subect, do love him dearly. 

25. O master of all the four vedas, thy mother patient like the 
Earth, and thy father shining like the Sun, enjoy with knowledge and 
grandeur the mastery of the universe. Thy mouth is eager to speak, but 
thou shouldst not talk much. 

26. O king, like the man taking a load up to the mountain, always 
lift up these excellent subjects of thine full of sovereign wealth. 

Having acquired these precious subjects attain to prosperity, just 
as an agriculturist in a cool breeze separates corn from the chaff and 
improves physically by its use. 

27. O learned persons among the subjects, elevate this king in all 
administrative designs, as a labourer takes a load up to the mountain. 
Having thus contributed to the prosperity of the State, aspire after pure 
deeds, like the corn purified in a cool breeze. 

28. The king and officials, who contribute to the grandeur of their 
subjects in part or full, and both make them energetic, tremble when they 
unjustly realise taxes from them, just as tiny fishes tremble in the 
water below the cow's hooves, 

25. A learned person should not talk much without purpose. He should follow the 
maxim 'Speech is silver, silence is gold.' Too much talking is not a sign of wisdom. 


29. Just as we distinguish between man and woman from their 
organs, so we realise truth from visible evidence. Learned persons with 
the help of truth acquire humility and their desired objects. 

30. A licentious king who squeezes money out of his subjects, like 
the deer who destroys the barley field, cannnot see his people thrive. A 
Shudra maid-servant who has got illicit connection with her master, does 
not desire the progress of her family. 

31. A King, who destroys his subjects, like the deer the barley 
field, cannot see his people thrive. 

A Shudra servant who has got illicit connection with his mistress, 
does not desire the progress of his family. 

32. I sing the praise of God, obtainable by him who deeply medi- 
tates upon Him, the Remover of miseries, and full of splendour. May He 
strengthen our vital breaths, and prolong the days we have to live. 

33. O King, may the vedic verses in Gayatri, Trishtup, Jagati, 
Anushtup, Pankti, Brihati, Ushni, Kakup and metres uttered by the 
subjects, pacify thee. 

34. O King may the two-footed, four-footed, three-footed, six-footed 
metrical divisions, with different metres or one uniform metre, uttered by 
the subjects pacify thee. 

31. A king who plunders and teases his subjects, is like the deer who eats barley in the 
field, and doesn't allow it grow. 

Similarly the King who impoverishes and destroys his subjects is like the male servant 
who violates the chastity of his mistress, and thereby nullifies her dignity, fame and wealth. 

33. Gayatri :- that protects the singer. 

Trishtup:- that protects u? from mental, material and natural afflictions. 

Jagati :- Diffused like the earth. 

Anushtup'- Whereby worldly afflictions are warded off. 

Ushnik:- Whereby we sing early in the morning. 

Brihati :- Full of deep significance. * 

Kakup'- Full with the meaning of elegant stanzas. 

ftsfli^Ri: I WTo 13-2-10-2. 

Suchi means subjects. Suchi means needle, just as a needle sews and join c together the broken 
parts of a cloth, so do there verses concentrate the mind of seeker after knowledge on God. 

34. Dvipada:- Brahmcharis, Chatushpada :- Grihasthis. 
Tripada:- Vanprasthis. 

Shatpada;- Seekers after emancipation, Moksha. 

Vichhanda :- Self sacrificing. 

Satchhanda:- Equipped with special spiritual resources. 

The verse may also mean :- May the Brahmcharis, Grihasthis, Vanprasthis, Sanyaais, the 
aspirers after Moksha, self sacrificing perrons and those equipped with special spiritual 
resources pacify thee. 


35. May the Mahanamni and Revati vcdic verses, all far spread 
Supreme Regions, the lightning in the cVuds, and the voices uttered by the 
subjects, satisfy the king. t 

36. O learned teachress, the girls, who with sharp intellect, obey 
thy order, become the wives of learned persons. O unmarried girl, the 
wives of learned persons, \Uio through careful inspection learn the art of 
cooking, pure like the regions, grant thee knowledge and peace. 

37. Affectionate, fascinating amorous wives, well trained in domestic 
economy, according to religious rites, are united for life with powerful 
husbands full of noble qualities, and placed under their protection. May 
they tranquil and peaceful, bound by the ties of affection, enjoy life. 

38. O King, just as farmers reap the barley-corn, winnow and 
protect it ; so shouldst thou arrange for food for those engaged in the 
contemplation of God. 

39. O student, who admonishes thee ? Who imparts thee sound 
instruction ? Who pacifies thy organs ? Who is thy teacher who is well 
versed in religious lore and performs the ya jnas ? 

40. May the truly learned persons, bestowersof peace, give necess- 
ary instructions for rearing the subjects. O people, may they pacify ye 
by means of King's dignity, and peaceful expedients. 

41. O King, may day and night, half months and months, affording 
felicity, adorn the different periods of thy life. May the learned remove 
thy doubt. 

42. O male and female students, may the learned teachers and 
preachers give ye special instructions ;and thereby eliminate your weak- 
nesses. May they examine each joint of your limbs. May your mother 
and other female relations bound in the ties of affection, give ye similar 

43. O female student or mistress, may Sky, Earth, Space, Air, Sun 
and Moon with the stars of heaven, appease each organ of thine, grant 
success to thy undertaking ; and prepare a nice, true, beautiful world for 

44. O student just as the Earth contributes to the walfare of vital 
and minor organs of thy body, thy bones and marrow, so thy teachers with 
their qualities, actions and noble nature add to thy pleasure. 

35. Mahanamnis :- Whose name is great : nine verses of the Samaveda in Sakvari 

Revatis J- Verses from which the Raivata Saman is formed, so named from Rig Veda 
I. 30. 13 in which the word revati, splendid, or wealthy, occurs, 


45. Who moveth singly and alone ? Who is brought forth to life 
again ? What is the remedy of cold ? What is the vast field for pro- 

46. The sun moves singly and alone. The moon is brought to life 
again. Fire is the remedy of cold. Earth is the vast field for production. 

47. What lustre is like the sun's light ? What lake is equal to 
the sea ? What is more spacious than the Earth ? What thing is that 
which is beyond measure. 

48. God is lustre like the sun. Heaven is a flood to match the sea. 
Sun is vaster than the Earth. Beyond all measure is speech. 

49. O God, Friend of the learned I ask, for information, if Thou in 
spirit hast pervaded the universe. Is this created world contained in the 
three steps in which Vishnu is worshipped ? 

50. I pervade those three steps in which resides the whole of this 
universe. This Earth and Heaven I encircle in a moment with a part of 
My might. Even beyond Heaven am I. 

51. What are the things which God hath entered in? What are the 
things which God hath contained within Him ? This riddle we propose 
to thee, O knower of the vedas 5 whereby we become great. Pray tell us 
what mystery lies in it. 

52. Within five things hath God found entrance. These things 
hath God within Him established, O questioner, this is the thought 
which I return in answer. Though thou art wise, yet thou art not my 
superior in wisdom. 

53. O learned person, I ask of thee. 

What is accumulated in time without beginning ? What is the 
great source of creation ? What is the majestic thing ? 

What absorbs the bodies. 

45-46. See 23-9, 10. The repetition of these verses is not clear, No commentator has 
explained it. 

49. Vishnu God who permeates all objects. 

There steps : Creation, sustenance, and Dissolution; or Earth, Space, and Sky, or 
name, birth and place. 

50. I :-God. 

Three steps .'Birth, name and place. 

51. Whereby : with the knowledge or solution of which riddle, 

52. Five Things : Five elements, Water, Air, Fire, Earth, and space. 

53. The verse is the same as 23-11 but the interpretation is different, 


54. O questioner, know that, lightning is accumulated in the 
beginning. Intellect is the source of creation. Matter is the majestic 
thing. Dissolution absorbs all bodies. 

55. O learned person, what appears and disappears again and 
again ? Who eats the corn-fields again and again ? What moves with 
rapid spring and bound again and again ? What glides and winds along 
the path of water ? 

56. O questioner know, that eternal matter resolves the world in 
itself at the time of dissolution, Porcupine destroys the corn-fields. 
Like hare the air moves with leaps and bounds. Cloud creeps winding 
on the path. 

57. How many supports hath this world got ? How many are the 
means of its creation ? How many things are worth bartering ? How 
many things kindle knowledge ? How many Hotas worship in due 
season ? O learned fellow, here I ask thee of the knowledge of these 

58. This world has got six seasons as its supports. Hundreds of 
things like water etc. are the means of its creation. Countless things are 
worth using and bartering. Three things kindle knowledge. Seven Hotas 
perform yajna in due season. 

O questioner I explain to thee these different topics of knowledge. 

59. Who knoweth the paramount lord of this world ? 

Who knoweth the Heaven, the Earth, and the wide space between 

Who knoweth the creator of the mighty Sun ? Who knoweth the 
Moon, and whence she was generated ? 

60. O questioner I know the paramount Lord of this world. I 
know the Heaven, the Earth, and the wide space between them. I know 

54. Intellect :~* 

Dissolution HOT 

The verse is the same as 23-12 but the interpreation is different. 

57. This world has been described as a king of yajna. 

58. Three things :- Spiritual, physical and natural objects (Dayananda) ; or child- 
hood, manhood and old age ; or fire, lightning and sun ; or summer, winter, and rainy season. 

Seven Hotas : -Five breaths, mind and soul according to Swami Dayananda's interpre- 
tation. Some consider seven rays of the sun as seven Hotas, some commentators interpret 
seven breaths in the head as seven Hotas. 

1 ; a learned person. 

60. Matter is the material and God the efficient cause of the universe. God has 
created the Sun and the Moon. 


the efficient and physical causes of the mighty Sun. I know the Moon, 
and her Creator 

61. I ask thee of Earth's extremest limit, Where is the centre of 
the world, I ask thee ? I ask thee of the strength of the powerful stout 
person. I ask of the highest space where speech abideth. 

62. This equator is the Earth's extremest limit. This Adorable 
God imbued with qualities is the controller of the world. This effica- 
cious Soma, the King of medicines is the strength of a stout person. 
This master of all the four vedasis the highest abode for vedic speech. 

63. God, Who his produced the Sun, is Excellent, and Self-Exis- 
tent, the First within the mighty world. He lays down the timely 
embryo. All should worship Him. 

64. O charitably disposed person, just as a learned recipient, with 
the grandeur of his supremacy, worships the Lord of the Universe, 
pleases Him through service, and drinks the essence of medicinal herbs, 
so shouldst thou worship Him and drink the juice of medicinal herbs. 

65. O God, none besides thee, comprehendest all these created 
forms. Give us our heart's desire when we invoke thee. May we be 
lords of rich possessions, and knowledge. 

62. Pt. Jai Chand, Vidya Alankar interprets Soma as the forces of nature like the sum 
fire, air, lightning, etc. which constitute the strength of the Mighty, Omnipresent God. Ha 
interprets qwp as Mighty, and W9 as Omnipresent God. Rishi Dayananda translates $ft: as 
equator, but Pt. Jai Chand Vidya Alankar and Griffith translate the word as alter, 


1. Horse, violent goat, forest cow possess the qualities of the sun. 
A black-necked beast, excellent amongest the beasts, has the qualities 
of fire. 

An ewe possesses the qualitities of speech and lives amongst the 
beasts, like tongue between the jaws. Two goats white-coloured in the 
lower parts of the body, resembling two arms possess the qualities of day 
and night. 

A dark-coloured beast possesses the qualities of the sun and moon, 
and is considered as a navel amongst the beasts. 

White and dark-coloured beasts, possess the qualities of the sun and 
air. They act as sides amongst the beasts. 

Beasts with abundance of hair possess the qualities of Twashta. They 
are like thighs amongst the beasts. A white beast possesses the qualities 
of air, and is like tail amongst the beasts. 

A cow that slips her calf is imbued with the qualities of Indra, the 
doer of noble deeds. 

A beast dwarfish in size belongs to Vishnu. 

2. The red goat, the smoky red, the jujube-red, these belong 
to Soma. 

The brown, the ruddy brown, the parrot-brown, these beasts belong 
to Varuna. One with white ear holes, one with partly white, one with 
wholly white, belong to Savita. Beasts with white, partly white, wholly 
white arms belong to Brihaspati Beasts speckled with spots, with small 
spots, with big spots, belong to Pran and Udan. 

3. The bright haired, the wholly bright haired, the jewel-haired 
beasts possess the qualities of the sun and moon. The white, the white- 
eyed, the reddish beasts, possess the qualities of fire, the protector of cattle. 
Beasts of burden possess the qualities of air. Beasts with heavy limbs 

Vishnu : One occupying a high position. 

1. The exact significance of these animals being attached to the forces of nnture is not 
clear to me, 

Twashta : Who kills the enemy's forces with warlike instruments. 

2. Belong to : Possess the qnalities of. * 
Brihaspati ' fatftf, lightning. 

Belong to Varuna : Are excellent. 

Savita ;- Sun. Those animals possess the qualities o! the sun. 


possess the qualities of vital breaths. Sky-coloured beasts belong to 
the cloud. 

4. Speckled, transversely speckled, upward speckled beasts belong 
to the Marutas. The beasts fond of fruits, red-haired, sharp-eyed belong 
to Saraswati. 

The beasts having ears like spleen, dry ears, golden ears belong to 
Twashta. The black-necked, the white-flanked, the bulky-thighed beasts 
belong to Indra and Agni. Beasts with faltering, feeble, fast gaits belong 
to the Dawn. 

5. The beautiful beasts useful in arts, belong to the all-gods. 
Beasts used for riding and protected by three agencies belong to vak. 
The unknown baasts belong to Aditi. Beasts of the same colour belong 
to their protector. Tender-aged goats and sheep possess the qualities of 
consorts of the gods. 

6. Black necked animals possess the qualities of fire. White 
browed animals possess the qualities of Vasus. Red coloured animals 
possess the qualities of Rudras. Bright animals who prevent others from 
going astray possess the qualities of Adityas. Water coloured animals 
possess the qualities of clouds. 

7. The tall, the sturdy, the animals with distorted organs possess 
the qualities of electricity and air. Animals possessing the strength of 
arms that cut and shear things, and delicate back, possess the qualities of 
air and sun. The parrot-coloured, fast, variegated animals possess the 
qualities of fire and air. Dark-coloured possess the qualities of a cloud. 

8. These two-coloured animals possess the qualities of air and 
lightning. Animals with distorted organs and the oxen possess the 
qualities of Soma and fire, and fire and air. Barren cows possess the quali- 
ties of Pran and Udan. Partly variegated animals possess the qualities of 
a friend. 

9. Black-necked animals possess the qualities of fire. Animals with 
brown colour like that of an ichneumon possess the qualities of Soma. 

4. Marutas : Air. 
Saraswati : Speech. 
Twashta : Sun. 

Indra, Agni : Air and lightning. 

5. Three agencies : Father, mother and instructor. 
Aditi :-The Earth. * 


6. Vasus eight in number, eleven Rudras, and Adityas, the twelve months have already 
been explained. Vasus, Rudras, and Adityas also mean Brahmcharis. 


White Animals belong to air. The undistinguished animals posssess the 
qualities of Earth. Animals of the same colour, possess the qualities of 
air. Tender-aged calves belong to the protective forces of the Sun. 

10. Black animals used for ploughing the land belong to the Earth. 
Smoke coloured animals belong to the Firmament. Animals with good 
nature, actions, and habits, tall in size, and whitish belong to the Lightn- 
ing. Animals conducive to bliss alleviate our sufferings. 

11. Man should wear smoke-coloured clothes in Spring, white in 
Summer; black in the Rains; red in Autumn; bulky in Winter; reddish- 
yellow in the Dewy Season. 

12. Animals protected in the three stages of life belong to the 
Gayatri metre. Animals well protected with five vital breaths belong 
to the Trishtup. Beasts of burden belong to Jagati. Grown up animals 
belong to the Anushtup. The aged beasts belong to Ushnih. 

13. Animals who carry burden on the back belong to the virat. 
Full grown bulls belong to the Brihati. Strong bulls belong to the Kakup. 
Bulls who carry the cart belong to the Pankti. Milch cows belong to the 

14. Black-necked animals belong to Agni. Brown animals are calm 
by nature. Mixed-coloured belong to Savita. Weaned she-kids belong 
to Saraswati. Dark-coloured belong to cloud which brings rain. Cows 
full of milk belong to the agriculturists. Many coloured animals belong 
to the learned. All glittering substances belong to the Heaven and 

15 These animals who move nicely, have been described. They 
belong to Indra and Agni. The animals who plough the land and pull 
carts belong to Varuna. The speckled animals resemble man in nature. 
The violent animals belong to Prajapati. 

16. A learned person should secure first class high souled, highly 
educated persons for the commander of the army. For persons who observe 
celibacy and are affectionate, he should secure men born in virtuous 
surrounding. For wise householders, he should secure aged persons. For 
laudable, sportive pleasure-loving persons, he should secure well-merited 

12. Three stages -childhood, youth and old age. 

Gayatri, Trishtup, Jagati, Anushtup and Ushnih are names of Metres. Their connec- 
tion with animals is not clear to me. 

13. Belong to :-are like. 

Virat, Brihati, Kakup, Pankti, Atichband are the names of metres, 

14. Saraswati ; -Goddess of Speech. 


associates. For the self-strong independent persons, he should secure 
willing followers. 

17. These paths have been mentioned in which roam the animals 
belonging to air and lightning; those with beautiful horns belonging to 
Mahendra, the many-coloured belonging to Vishvakarma. 

18. The animals of peace-loving parents are smoke-coloured and of 
brownish hue. The animals of parents who sit in the assembly for per- 
forming yajnas are brown and smoky-looking. The animals of parents 
who know the science of fire are black and brownish-looking. 

The animals of the learned who know the three forces are black 
and bulky. 

19. O men, bring into use the pre-mentioned agricultural animals, 
and white animals possessing the qualities of air, and white animals 
shining like the sun. 

20. An expert in the knowledge of animals finds Kapinjalasin 
spring ; sparrows in summer ; partridges in the Rains ; quails in Autumn ; 
Kakras in Winter ; Vikakras in the Dewy season. 

21. An expert in the knowledge of watery beings, finds porpoises in 
the sea, frogs after rains, fishes in water, ducks outside water for sunshine, 
crocodiles in deep water. 

22. An expert in the knowledge of birds finds geese revelling in 
moonshine ; female cranes near fire ; water-crows in the sun ; ruddy geese 
loving each other. 

23. An expert in the knowledge of birds finds cocks enjoying the 
warmth of fire ; owls sitting on fruitless trees ; blue jays enjoying the sun 
and Soma ; peacocks sun and moon ; pigeons fond of affection and mutual 

24. An expert in the science of birds finds quails for affluence ; 

17* Mahendra : Animals possessing the qualities of a powerful King. 

Vishvakarma : An expert engineer. 
18. Three forces : God, Soul. Matter. 
20. Kapinjalas : -Health-cocks, or francolins. 
Kakras, Vikakras : Special unidentified birds. 
Birds have connection with seasons, in which they revel and enjoy. 
22. Chakravakas : chakwa, chackwi, well-known for mutual love. 

24. Kaulikas, Kulikas, Parushnas are unidentified birds. 

Gaushadis : Birds who sit on the backs of the cows and eat the germs which destroy the 
cows, and thus protect them. 

25, Sichapus-unidentified bird. 

A bat sees more vividly and eats in the joints of Day and Night. For the rest of time it 
is rather blind. 


Kaulikas for fame $ Goshadis for the Consorts of the learned ; Kulikas 
for the sisters of learned ; Parushnas for Lord of the Homestead, behaving 
like fire. 

25. An expert in the science of time should study pigeons in the 
beginning of the day ; sichapus in the night ; bats in the morning and 
evening, gallinules for the knowledge of months, birds with beautiful 
feathers for realizing the beauty of the year, 

26. An expert in the science of Earth should study rats for under- 
standing the nature of ground ; birds who fly in groups, for firmament ; 
voles for light ; mungooses for the quarters ; brownish ichneumons for the 
intermediate spaces. 

27. An expert in the knowledge of animals should secure black- 
bucks for Vasu Brahmcharis ; stags for Rudra Brahmcharis : Nayanku 
deer for Aditya Brahmcharis ; spotted deer for all the learned ; Kulinga 
antelopes for yogis engrossed in meditation. 

28. Praswan deer should be secured for the wealthy ; Gaur deer for 
the friend ; buffaloes for the most prosperous ; forest cows for the guar- 
dian of the virtuous 5 camels for the artisans. 

29. For the service of the king valiant soldiers and elephants 
should be secured; white ants for eloquence; mosquitoes for sight, black 
bees for hearing 

30. For swiftness like a king and air Gomriga should be known; a 
wild ram for an excellent person; a black deer for the Lord of Justice; a 
monkey for the king; a red doe for the tiger; a female Goyal for a 
civilized person, a quail for the swift falcon ; a worm for the Nilangu, a 
porpoise for the sea; an elephant for the snowy mountain. 

31. A despicable person belongs to the king; the tiny worm, the 
lion, the cat belong to one given to mental abstraction: the heron 
belongs to the quarters; the female bird named Dhunksha possesses the 
qualities of fire; sparrow, red snake, and the bird residing in the tank 
belong to Twashta (sun), the curlew belongs to speech. 

27. Five different kinds of deer are mentioned in the verse. Their skins serve as seats 
(Asan) for the Brahmcharis. the learned and the yogis. 

28. Camels are beasts of burden. They carry loads in the desert where no other 
conveyance is serviceable 

30. In some cases connection between the animals and other animate and inanimate 
objects mentioned in this verse and previous verses is not clear* 

A king is compared to a monkey, as he is irascible and rash in nature like a monkey. 
Nilangu : said to be a species of worm; perhaps a tape-worm. 
Gomriga : an animal that purifies the earth. 
Goyal ; Female Nilgaya 


32. An antelope should be had for prosperity; wild goat, mungoose, 
saka (a strong animal) are meant for the powerful; an ordinary jackal is 
subservient to a superior jackal; white deer is meant for a wealthy person, 
Pidva> Nayanku, Kakkat are for Anumati; the chakravaka (ruddy goose) 
is for the Echo. 

33. The female crane belongs to the sun; Sarga, Srijaya, Sayandaka, 
these three belong to breath, the human-voiced female parrot belongs 
to the stream; the porcupine belongs to the ground; tiger, wolf, viper 
belong to anger; the human voiced parrot belongs to the sea. 

34. The eagle belongs to the cloud; the Aati, the serpent, the 
wood-pecker, these are for air ; the Paingraja is for Brihaspati; the Alaja 
belongs to the Firmament; pelican, cormorant, fish, these belong to the 
ocean ; the tortoise belongs to the Heaven and Earth. 

35. The buck that purifies men belongs to the moon; iguana, 
kaalakaa, wood pecker, these belong to the trees; the cock belongs to the 
sun; the swan belongs to air; crocodile, dolphin, and watery birds, these 
belong to the sea; the porcupine to modesty. 

36. The black-doe belongs to the day; frog, female-rat, partridge, 
these belong to the serpents; the jackal belongs to the Aswinsj the black 
buck to the night; bear, bat, sushilikaa, these helong to the other folk; the 
pole-cat belongs to vishnu. 

37. The cuckoo belongs to the Half Months ; antelope, peacock, 
swan are meant for the musicians ; the other is an aquatic being ; the 

32. Saka -.-variously explained as bird, fly, long eared beast, Fidva, Nayanku. Kakkat 
are the names of different kinds of deer. 

Anumati -Divine favour personified. 

Echo:-because the male and female chakravakas are condemned to pass the night on the 
opposite banks of a river, incessantly calling to each other. 

33. Saarga (TfT^F) the bird Cucculus melanolencous, said to subsist on rain drops. 

34. Brihaspati .-Thundering lightning. The birds and beasts whose names are left 
untranslated in this and the following verses are unidentified. Ignana means lizard, 

35. Belongs to :-possesses the qualities of, is related to. 
Kaalakaa :-A black bird. 

36. As wins ;-Agni and Soma. 

Other Folk :-Low despicable people, besides the noble and virtuous. Bear is cruel in 
nature and being a beast is without tail. Bat is neither a bird nor a beast. Sushilikaa being 
a bird lives in a den. These beasts and birds, being low are like the degraded people. 

37. Kundrinachi ; a forest femalebeast. 
Golattikaa : a special female beast. 

The voice of an antelope is Rishbha, of peacock Shataja, of Swan Panchma, Musicians 
follow the voices of these animals and learn music. 


tortoise belongs to the Months ; doe-antelope kundrirachi, Golattikaa 
belong to the beam of the sun ; the black snake belongs to death. 

38. The frog belongs to the seasons ; the rat, the kasha, the 
Manthal, these are the guardians ; the python is for strength ; Kapinjala 
is for the Vasus ; pigeon, owl, hare are the harbingers of adversity ; the 
wild ram serves as as example for the person trying to remove the foe, 

39. The diverse coloured animal belongs to the Adityas (months) 
the camel, the Ghriniwan, the big goat are for thought ; Nil-Gaya 
is for the forest ; the Ruru named deer is Rudra's ; Kvayi, cock, gallinule 
possess the qualities of horses ; the cuckoo belongs to Passion. 

40. Rhinoceros serves all warriors in preparing their shield; the 
black dog, the long-eared ass, the hyena are used for protection, against 
the demons ; the boar is for the king who wants to tear asunder the foes, 
the lion is swift like air ; the chameleon, the Pippaka the vultures are 
used for making arrows ; the spotted antelope is used for preparing 
mrigshalas (seats of the deer's skin) for all the learned people. 

38. A wild ram gives a severe fight to the opponent, so a brave man should give fight to 
the foe and extirpate him. Where owl, pigeon and hare reside, that place soon becomes 
deserted and dilapidated. 

Kapinjala : A white bird, 

39. Ghriniwan ; a strong animal of a special species, Cuckoo is the favourite bird of 
cupid, the God of love. Her voice (supposed to say Pi Kahan, Where is my darling ?) is 
chiefly heard in spring. 

40. Hippaka : A female bird. Chameleon means lizard, In this chapter mention has 
been made of beasts, birds, reptiles, forest animals, watery beings and worms. Learned persons 
should study their qualities and make the best possible use of them. 


1. Learn from teeth the act of biting; from gums the method of 
protection ;from tooth-sockets the way of pounding; sharpness from fangs. 
Use the tongue-tip for a learned utterance ; learn the act of uprooting 
from the tongue , the use of palate by crying slowly ; chew food with both 
the jaws ; drink waters with the mouth. Acquire the knowledge of oozing 
semen from testicles. Recognise the Aditya Brahmcharis from their 
beard ; know the path from eyebrows ; know the Sun and Earth from 
their motion ; lightning from the pupils of eyes. Observe celibacy for the 
protection of semen, acquire knowledge through high character. Objects 
worth acceptance are worthy of preservation. Objects after one's desire 
should not be resisted. Don't show disrespect to your own men. Friends 
and relatives should be fostered. 

2. Fill air with thy Pran ; empty the nostrils with Apan ; with upper 
and lower lips observe restraint, silence and control ; with the light of 
knowledge purify thy soul ; with the practice of cleanliness purify thy ex- 
terior body ; reflect upon God with thy head ; by constant thinking create 
your doubt to know the truth : understand with thy brain the internal 
fire ; receive full light with the pupils of thy eyes : advance hearing with 
thy ears ; strengthen thy external ears with the internal organs of hearing ; 
eat food with thy lower throat ; drink water with thirsty throat ; streng- 
then thy mind with practices of knowledge ; develop indestructible 
wisdom with thy head ; attain to mother Earth through death, with your 
ragged head ; improve your vital breaths through loud roaring ; remove 
the disease of ignorance with full might. 

3. Keep mosquitoes away with the whisk of hair. Realise soul and 

2. Pran : Ingoing breath. 
Apan : Outgoing breath. 

Ragged head -.When one's head loses vitality and consciousness, he dies, and is reduced 
to earth through cremation. 

The words (fanr *g*fr) have been interpreted as 'Kill the violent enemy with violence, 
by Pt. Jai Dev Vidya Alankar. Vedic religion generally praches non-violence or Ahinsa, 
but on certain occasions for self-preservation and protecting the chastity of womenfolk it 
sanctions the use of violence. This interpretation is in keeping with the spirit of the vedas. 

3. Just as fishermen catch tortoises with a net offering them some bait ; so the services 
of the learned should be acquired by offering them tempting remuneration. 

As with hoofs attack animals, so an enemy should be attacked with full force. 
Just as fiihermen catch with fetters small watery birds like kapinjalas, so the learned 
persons should be acquired by arranging for their livelihood. 

CrtAPf ER XXV 63 

God through noble deeds. Approach the learned preceptor in a convey- 
ance. Utilise the services of the learned with the allurement of money. 

Make an attack with full force. Finish journey with stout thighs. 
Get learned preachers by arranging for their livelihood. Develop speed 
with arms. Grow fruitful thorny jambir trees in the forest. Kindle fire 
with care and desire. Get strength through the exercise of arms, Serve 
the king and subjects with arms and shoulders. Honour a preacher by 
patient hearing of his sermons. 

4. The first rib of the right side of the chest is like fire ; the 
second like air ; the third like sun ; the fourth like moon ; the fifth like 
sky ; the sixth like the flash of lightning ; the seventh like mind ; the 
eighth like Mahat-Tatva ; the ninth like a servant who honours his 
master ; the tenth like the creator of the world ; the eleventh like a 
glorious person ; the twelfth like a noble person ; the thirteenth like a 
just ruler. 

5. On the left side of the chest, the first rib is like air and fire; 
the second like speech 5 the third like a friend ; the fourth like water , 
the fifth like earth ; the sixth like fire and water ; the seventh like 
serpents ; the eighth like the All-pervading God ; the ninth like the 
supporter ; the tenth like a luminary ; the eleventh like the soul ; the 
twelfth like a noble person ; the thirteenth like the wife of a judge. The 
right flank is like the Sun and Earth, the left like all the learned 

6. The shoulders of men are like the cantonments in a State. The 
foremost function of all learned persons is to preach. To punish the 
wicked is the second act of awe-inspiring learned persons. To do justice 
is the third act of justice loving celibate learned persons. The tail of an 
animal is an instrument of airing. Fire and water give light. Two 
learned persons of discrimination like two swans are like the buttocks of 
the state. Air and sun are like thighs. Pran and Udan are like persons 
walking at full pace. Attack should be made with full certainty. Gain 
strength from powerful objects, 

7. Beg for alms from the wealthy. Catch blind serpents from large 
intestines ; serpents from the entrails and subdue them. Overpower the 
crooked serpents from the guts. Discharge water through the bladder. 
Strengthen scrotum with the testicles. Examine the strength of a horse 
from his penis. Produce progeny with semen. Digest meals with the force 

4. The thirteen ribs of the right side of the chest are compared to thirteen objects. 
Mahat-Tatva ; Intellect. 


of bile, Strengthen your belly by free discharge of digested food through 
anus. Obtain the strength of administration through forces. 

8. People should know the working of the lightning; the best food- 
grain for the earth; the union of the quarters* the continual filling of space 
with light by the sun. Clouds are like the soul that sleeps in the heart. 
Pericardium is vast like the atmosphere. Entrails of the belly are like 
water. Both parts of the neck are like a lovely pair of male and female 
goose. Sky is like kidneys. Mountains are like the belly's ducts which 
receive the meals. Clouds are like the spleen. Paths are refreshing like 
water. The arteries on the right side of the belly are like pain, pleasure 
and sorrow. Streams are known for inundation. Both flanks are like lakes. 
The Sea is like the belly. The gastric fluid is like the ashes, 

9. Know steady abstraction of the mind from the navel; ghee from 
curd> waters from decocted juice; sunbeams from fat that strengthens the 
organs; hoar-frost from bodily heat; coagulated ghee from life that prevails 
in the body? water-fountain from tears; thunderbolt from the rheum of 
eyes; objects worth protection from blood; marvellous things from limbs ; 
stars from their beauty ; earth from skin that covers the blood and flesh. 
Use truthful language for an energetic person. 

10. God, the possessor of resplendent planets, existed before the 
creation of the world. He is the One Lord of all created beings. He 
sustains the Earth, the Sun and the created world. May we worship 
with devotion, Him, the Illuminator and Giver of pleasure. 

11. God by his grandeur is the sole Ruler of the moving world that 
breathes and slumbers. He is the Lord of men and cattle. May we 
worship with devotion, Him the Illuminator and Giver of happiness. 

12. By Whose might, are these snow-clad mountains standing, and 
men call the atmosphere filled water. His possession. Whose arms are 

8. Just as sky rains water, so kidneys discharge urine. Just as lakes are full of water, so 
flanks are full of blood. 

Just as waters rise from the sea, rain on the Earth and produce medicinal herbs and food- 
stuffs, so the essence of meals rises from the belly, reaches each and every part of the body, 
and strenghtens our skin-hair and flesh. 

Gastric fluid :-The digestive fire of the stomach. Just as this fire digests the food, and 
converts it into blood, so ordinary fire burns timber and reduces it to ashes. 

Sea is like : Just as all rivers run into sea, so all meals go into the belly. 

9. Just as the heat of the body enlivens all organs, so the medicinal herbs grow through 

10. CM3-4, 23-1, 

11. Cf23-3, 


these heavenly regions. May we worship with devotion, Him the 
Illuminator and Giver of happiness. 

13. God is the giver of spiritual force, and physical strength. His 
commandments all the learned persons acknowledge. He is the maker 
of all laws. His support is life immortal and transgression of His Law 
is death. May we worship with devotion, Him the Illuminator and Giver 
of happiness. 

14. May auspicious force of wisdom come to us from every side, 
continual, unhindered, and as remover of afflictions. May thereby the 
learned persons, our guardians, advanced in age, attend our assembly day 
by day for our gain. 

15. May the auspicious favour of the learned be ours. May the 
bounty of the righteous fill us with virtues. May we devoutly seek the 
friendship of the learned. May they extend our life that we may live. 

16. We, through vedic speech, accepted by our ancestors; long 
through mutual emulation for a teacher and a preacher, honest, guardian 
of the people, inviolable, giver of prosperity, friendly, completely wise, 
noble, and affluent. May auspicious vedic speech grant us all felicity. 

17. O teachers and preachers, firm like the Earth, ye both hear from 
us what we have read. May the wind waft to us that pleasant medicine. 
May respectable Earth and fostering Sun secure it for us. May clouds the 
producers of herb and givers of joy secure us that medicine. 

18. Him we invoke for aid who reigns supreme, the Lord of all that 
stands or moves, and inspirer of wisdom. May He the Nourisher of all, 
our Keeper and our Guard Non-violent, promote, the increase of our 
wealth for our good. 

19. May the Master of vast knowledge, may Mighty God prosper 
us. May the Nourisher of all, the Author of all the vedas prosper us. 

May He the Giver of all comforts like the horse prosper us. May 
God the Lord of all the elements of Nature vouchsafe us prosperity. 

20. Let all the learned persons, stout in body, followers of the 
mother veda, moving in glory, visitors of battle-fields, fire-tongued, con- 
templative, brilliant in knowledge like the Sun, come hither for our 

16. Students acquire knowledge from teachers through mutual competition and emulation. 

19. Just as a horse takes us from one place to the other and gives us pleasure, so does 
God give us happiness by fulfiling our wants. 

20. Hither :-In our country or yajna. 


21. O sociable learned persons, may we with our ears listen to what 
is good, and with our eyes see what is good. 

With limbs and bodies firm may we extolling God lead a life conducive 
to the good of the sages. 

22. O learned persons, may we live in your company for a hundred 
years. Let not our bodies decay before that period, in which old age our 
sons become fathers in turn. Break ye not in the midst our course of 
fleeting life. 

23. Immortal is the heaven, Immortal is the atmosphere, Matter the 
mother of all is immortal. Immortal is Father God. 

Immortal is the soul that nourishes the body. All divine objects like 
the Earth are immortal. Five vital breaths are immortal. All that is born 
and shall be born is immortal becuase of its immortal cause. 

24. May not the friendly, glorious, and just king ; nor the noble 
souls shorten our life ; so that we may display our valour in war, like a 
fleeting, efficient horse. 

25. Those who gladly accept the substances offered in charity by 
a virtuous wealthy person ; and the eternal soul, worthy of attainment, a 
nice questioner, beauty of the world, who eats the charming food prepared 
through fire and air ; derive full enjoyment. 

26. This perishable body made of earth, the home of all organs is 
created for the enjoyment of the soul. God, for the excellent enjoyment 
of this active soul, grants this enjoyable object. 

27. Thoughtful persons strengthen this excellent embodied soul, 
at times in three different stages, 

Soul enters this body, the foremost part of the Earth, for doing noble 
deeds for the sake of spiritual enjoyment. 

28. Invoker, atoner, fire-kindler, bringer of rain, sage, scholar- 
encircled, thou ministering priest, with this well ordered, well-desired 
sacrifice, fill full the channels of the rivers. 

21. Ayu may also mean full age of one hundred years. 

23. God, soul, matter are by nature eternal and immortal. 

Other created things are immortal as they are created again and again, and their cause 

is also immortal. Panch Jana may also mean Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishas, Shudras 
and Nishadas the barbarians. Panch Jana may also mean the five elements, air, water, fire, 
earth and Akash (space). 

26. Enjoyable object : Body. 

27. Three different stages : Jagr it-waking, swapan-dreaming, sushupti-profound sleep 
or repose. 

28. Through yajna, an Adhvaryu the ministering priest gets rain which fills the rivers. 


29. The hewers of the yajna's post and those who carry it, and 
those who carve the knob to deck the horse's stake ; and those who 
prepare the cooking utensils for the steed and those who strive hard, 
may their perseverance be attained to by us. 

30. He, who, competent to afford shelter to all, himself comes to 
me for my welfare, and who fulfils the desires of the learned, is the source 
of delight on sight to the learned and sages. May we produce amongst 
the learned such a strong man, having beautiful brothers. 

31. Just as the fleet courser is controlled by halter and his feet- 
ropes, the head stall, the bridle and the cords about him, and the grass is 
put within his mouth to bait him, so should the learned people control 
their organs and eat nourishing diet. 

32. O men, the fly eateth the flesh and blood of a fast-running 
horse. The vedic utterances in a yajna are like thunderbolts, part of the 
oblation adhereth to the sacrificer's hands and nails. May all this be 
with ye and the learned, 

33. Food undigested that comes out of the belly, and the bad 
odour rising from the raw half-cooked food should be removed by skilled 
cooks. Let the digestive powers of ours digest the nice well-cooked food. 

34. Whatever word of quick wisdom, comes with certainty and 
exertion out of thy mouth, seasoned with thy mental fire, waste not that 
on earth or grass, but give it as instruction to the noble, learned persons. 

35. They who crave for the meat of a horse, and declare the horse 
fit to be killed should be exterminated. 

They who keep the fast horse well trained and disciplined, deserve 
to be praised by us for the strength of their character and perseverance. 

36. Realisation of soul-force, that ripens our knowledge, the organs 
of perception which accomplish our knowledge, the Pranas (vital 
breaths) which serve as a cloak for our life; the signs of exalted 
character and the rays of knowledge jointly adorn a strong soul. 

32. The learned people should keep horses in sheds where flies may not bite them. 
They should perform yajnas with the loud recitation of vedic verse. Just as the hands and 
nails of the performer of a yajna are washed with water to clear the particles of oblation so 
should the horses be washed to remove the dirt sticking to their body. 

35, Eating the meat of a horse and other animals is prohibited in this verse. They who 
eat the meat of animals should be exterminated. They who train and make the animals useful 
deserve praise. 

36. Organs of perception :-They are five called (9ftf^39) : the skin, tongue, eye. ear and 


37. O men, just as the intelligent persons accept with favour 
the beloved, offered, persevering, and consecrated horse, so should ye 
know them in all respects. 

Let not the smoke-scented fire make the animal crackle with pain ; 
nor the glowing caldron-smell break him to pieces. 

38. The starting, sitting, rolling and fastening of the horse, his 
drinking and eating, should all be controlled by intelligent keepers. 

39. The robe they spread upon the horse to clothe him, the upper- 
covering and the golden trappings ; the halters which restrain the steed, 
and the heel-ropes, all these are pleasing to the learned. 

40. If one, when seated, with excessive urging with his heel or with 
his whip distresses a horse ; all these woes, as with oblation's ladle at 
sacrifices, with my might I banish. 

41. O people, just as a horse-breaker, whom the wise befriend, 
understands the thirty four gaits of a horse, and a veterinary assistant with 
his knowledge renders his organs free from flaw, and fully examines each 
and every part of his body , so should ye keep away all maladies powerful 
like a thunderbolt. 

42. O people, just as spring alone gives beauty to a graceful horse, 
or two seasons control him ; so do I control your organs and livelihood, and 
give you various objects in different seasons, and place all these under the 
custody of a learned person. 

43. Let not thy God-loving soul torment thee, as it departs from 
thy body. Let not the hatchet linger in thy body. Let not a greedy, 
clumsy immolator, cut unduly with sword thy vulnerable limbs. 

44. Soul diest not, nor is it injured. Performing noble acts it 
attains to godhead. May thy powerful Pran and Apan be yoked through 
Yoga. May a learned person take up the duty of preaching. 

37. Useful animals like horses should not be killed, nor their meat cooked for eating. 
They should be protected against fire. 

38. The verse may also allude to the Brahmcharis (students) whose walking, sitting, 
lying, eating and drinking should be supervised by their learned preceptors (gurus). 

39. The verse may also allude to a Brahmchari student at the time of his departure from 
the Guru, 

40. One :- A rider. 

42. Just as horse-breakers train horses according to seasons, so do the preceptors teach 
the pupils how to behave. Just as air is purified by oblations in fire, so ignorant superstitions 
are pat in the fire of knowledge, whereby our souls are purified. 


45. May this learned person bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth 
in good kine, good horses, and manly offspring. Freedom from sin may 
Earth vouchsafe us. May this noble soul, the giver of commendable 
pleasures rule over us. 

46. Just as the glorious king and all learned persons hold under 
control these worlds, so should we speedily gain happiness. 

Just as the Sun with his satellites, and twelve months manifests all 
worlds, so should a physician helped by other persons give us medicines. 
May the king with learned persons regulate our sacrifice, our bodies and 
our progeny. 

47. O teacher and preacher, with mastery over the vedas, become 
near us our protectors, welfarers, givers of knowledge and wealth in our 
homes. Give us wealth most splendidly renowned. Come nigh unto us, 
so that we may express reverence unto ye. 

48. O virtuous learned person, grant us knowledge. We pray unto 
thee for our happiness and the good of our friends. Listen to our call ; 
and protect us from evil-minded and sinful pesons. 

46. Sacrifice : Our respect and reverence for learned. 


1. Fire and Earth are favourable to me ; may they be subservient 
to me in the accomplishment of that aim of mine. 

Air and firmament are favourable to me ; may they be subservient 
to me in the accomplishment of that aim of mine. Sun and his light are 
favourable to me ; may they be subservient to me in the accomplishment 
of that aim of rain*. Waters and clouds are favourable to me, may they 
be subservient to me in the accomplishment of that aim of mine. Out of 
thes3 seven forces are the mainstay of all beings, the eighth is Earth which 
keeps every one under its sway. O God make all our paths pleasant and 

May I thus obtain true knowledge from these forces. 

2. I do hereby address this salutary speech for the benefit of 
humanity, for the Brahmanas, the Kshatriyas, the Shudras, the Vaishas, 
the kinsfolk and the men of lowest position in society. 

Dear may I be to the learned and the guerdon-giver in this world. 
Fulfilled be this desire of mine. May I achieve my aim. 

3. O God, the guardian of mighty material objects and souls, Thou 
art realised through the practice of yoga. We accept Thee as the Protector 
of the vedas, which symbolise Thy authority, and as the Nourisher of 
selfless scholars. 

O God, Truth is nobly born of Thee, O God Thou adequately kind- 
lest in men splendid refulgent mind, laudable wisdom and effectual active 

Thou existest as a highly resplendent entity through self-force. 
Grant us marvellous knowledge, riches and fame. 

1. Fire, air, firmament, sun, water, cloud and sky are seven Sansdis (forces). All 
beings exist on their support. Bhutaddhni is Earth that keeps under its arms all humao beings. 

Man should make full use of the forces of nature and fulfil the aim of his life. 

2. 1 : God. 

3. Salutary speech : All the four vedas. The vedisare meant for the good of all, high 
or low. Those who restrict their study to the high castes and deprive the Shudras and the 
untouchable from reading or hearing them read, disobey the mandate of God and thus commit 

1 in the second para refers to the kin*. 


4. O learned person, possessing vast wisdom and knowledge of the 
vedas, come here, and drink the juice of medicines ripened by clouds. Thou 
hast controlled thy senses through yamas and niyamas. We accept thee 
as the master of worldly kingship and grand supremacy. This is thy home 
of knowledge. We accept thee as protector of vedic speech, and as full of 

5. O exalted learned person, full of wisdom and deeds, slayer of foes 
like the cloud-dispeller sun, come, and drink deep the essence of knowledge 
produced by the knowers of the vedas. Thou hast controlled thy soul by 
yogic practices. We accept thee as the master of milk-yielding kine and 
grand supremacy. This is thy home of knowledge. We accept thee as the 
master of worldly possessions, and desirous of glory. 

6. We daily pray for light of knowledge, unto God, the Lord of 
learning, the Leader of humanity, and the Embodiment of Truth. Thou 
art realised through yogic practices. I accept Thee as the Leader of 
humanity. This heart is thy home. 

I accept Thee as being the Lover of all people. 

7. Just as the Sun, filled with lustre of grandeur, in the midst of 
illuminated worlds, gives'us pleasure, and therefore illumnates this world 
with his light; just as lightning exerts with the Sun, so should we continue 
in God's grace. 

O learned person thou art acceptable through beautiful 
restraints. I respect thee for thy knowledge of electricity. This is thy 
home. I respect Thee for thy accomplishing electrical projects. 

8. Just as a learned person foremost amongst the leaders comes for 
our protection from far away; so should a person brilliant like fire come in 
a commendable conveyance. 

We accept thee full of literary thought for a learned person. We 
accept thee, whose this house is meant for the leader of the learned. 

9. We pray to him, the master of five senses and lover of five castes, 
affectionate to all, pure, the knower of the significance of vedic texts, 
glowing like fire with the warmth of knowledge; the lord of wealth, off- 
spring and palatial buildings. Thou art imbued with religious laws. I 

4. Here : In this world. 

Yamas : Mental restraints. They are five. Ahinsa (Non-violence), Satya (Truth), 
Asteya (Avoidance of theft). Brahmcharya (celibacy), Aprigraha (Renunciation). 

Niyamas: sjfa (Purity of body and mind ^q (contentment), ciq (PenanceV, 
(Religious study) fSTOJf&TUR (Resignation to the will of God). 

9. Five castes -Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaisha, Shudra and Nishada. 


accept thee as a dignified literary person. This is thy home of knowledge. 
I accept thee as a dignified, literary, religious person, 

10. May the mighty, thunder-armed, perfectly virtuous king grant 
us a comfortable home, may he slay the wicked man who hates u?. 

Thou art equipped with justice and statesmanship. We accept 
thee for the extreme supremacy. This is thy kingly palace. We accept 
thee as a paramount sovereign. 

11. O people, just as cows low to their calves all the day long, so 
with our songs we glorify for ye, this king, the dispeller of affliction, the 
checker of assault, and the enjoyer of riches and foodgrains. 

12. O learned people honour the king who is great and giver of 
extreme comfort. Like the queen, riches and foodstuffs proceed from the 

13. O wise, learned person, come, here I sing verily other songs to 
thee. With these praises shalt thou grow strong. 

14. O learned person, the seasons spread thy yajna, the months 
protect thy offering. May our year strengthen thy yajna. May thou 
keep our children safe in every way. 

15. In the solitude of mountains and confluence of streams a sage 
develops his spiritual force, contemplating on God through yoga. 

16. O learned person, I admire thy house, high in altitude, full of 
foodstuffs, well ventilated and airy, grand in sight and extremely commend- 
able. May it be durable like the Earth. 

17. O amiable scholar, fully knowing the duty of service, flow the 
juice of learning for the king, respectable sacrificer and us mortals. 

18. God gives instruction for all these graceful glories of men. 
Willing to serve God, we pray for pleasures. 

19. May we be prosperous with strong, brave sons, strong kine, 
strong horses, the strength of all, strong quadrupeds and strong men about 
us. May the learned guide our sacrifice (yajna) season-wise. 

20. O teachress bring thou near thee in this domestic life, for 
drinking the juice of medicines, husbands full of attributes like thee, and 
consorts of the learned ; and may thy husband invite near him the lustrous 

10. Thou -.King. 

13. Other : Which tbou dost not know or haM not heard before and are new. 


21. O eloquent leader, make our fair dealings worthy of praise. 
Thou art the giver of wealth. Drink the juice of medicines. 

22. O men, just as the giver of wealth and fame, according to sea- 
sons, humbly desires to drink the juice, so should ye procure this juice, 
perform havan, and attain to glory. 

23. O learned person desirous of supremacy, secure well thy contact 
with power. In the performance of religious deeds, with a tranquil mind, 
protect this eternal soul of thine. Sitting steadfastly in this yajna, take 

into thy belly this efficacious medicinal juice. 

24. O majestic scholar, serving gladly thy preceptor, in gladsome 
company, with the noble qualities, and with thy mother, sister and wife, 
be happy in the acquisition of nice foodstuffs. 

Afterwards make others happy like a confortable house, O learned 
people, well invoked, establish us in fair dealings, sit near us at ease, and 
give us good instructions. 

25. O mighty learned fellow, for thee is this juice pressed, for the 
protection of riches. Purify thyself with its sweetest and most 
gladdening flow. 

26. The fiend-queller, and the friend of all, in his country attains 
to reverence and a dignified position, and lives happily in his house filled 
with gold. 

CHAPTER xxvti 

1. O learned person, may years, seasons, knowers of vedic interpre- 
tation and all the verities strengthen thee. 

Just as the sun with celestial effulgence illmines all the four effica- 
cious regions so should thou long for knowledge, and manifest justice. 

2. Shine thou, O learned person lustrous like fire, make this seeker 
after knowledge, rise up erect for great and happy fortune. Be those 
uninjured who adore thee, Let not thy priests, the knowers of all the 
four vedas, turn against thee. Don't spoil thy glory and progress. 

3. O learned person, these masters of the vedas elect thee as their 
leader. Be thou propitious unto them in this election. Remove thou 
the errors of our foes. O learned person being free from sloth and pride, 
watch in thy house, and keep us also conscious. 

4. O learned person, amass wealth in this world. Let not the old, 
exalted, learned persons, ever devoted to action, tolerate thy moral 

O ruler, famous for thy humility, let thy administration be run by 
just laws. May thy adorers, following non-violence make thee strong. 
May the State riches make thee happy. 

5. O learned person commence thy youth with wealth in this world. 

O king, flowing with the knowledge and humility, exert to maintain 
friendship with the religious, learned friends. 

O justice-loving head of the state, act as an umpire in the midst of 
your coequal virtuous kings. Be renowned as worthy of praise. 

6. O king, renouncing untruth, suppress fully the wicked persons, 
overcome spiritual ignorance, and banish miserliness. O learned person, 
drive away all sins; vouchsafe us opulence with an army of heroic 

7. O king, invincible, full of knowledge, free from misery, reful- 
gent, and an able administrator, be dear to us in this task of government. 
Illumine all regions. Chase human ills and griefs with the help of 
philanthropic persons. Guard us for prosperity. 

8. O learned fellow, the guardian of big persons, excellent preacher 
of learning, sharpening the intellect of this king, give him knowledge ; 

3. Watch in thy house : -Remain slothless doing the household duties, 


instruct him well, instruct thoroughly his subjects. Exalt him to great 
and high felicity. Let all the learned persons rejoice following his good 

9. O learned fellow, the guardian of big persons, be free from the 
fruit of sins in the next birth, Chase death far from him who follows the 
instruments of the religious and law-abiding persons. 

O skilled physician, just as the teacher and preacher achieve their 
aim by dint of deeds and wisdom, so shouldst thou skilfully prepare 
efficacious medicines, whereby thou preservest the health of the people. 

10. Looking upon the sun's light free from darkness, we fully 
realise God, the Giver of happiness, the Saviour of humanity, Omni- 
present, Excellent, the Soul of animate and inanimate objects, and Self- 

11. This fire, the accomplisher of many mighty deeds, the 
discharger of children from wombs, has splendid faggots as its fuel ; and 
uplifted, lofty and brilliant flames. 

12. O men, know air as an object of usefulness amongst the useful 
objects, devoid of lustre, all-possessing, the protector of bodies, highly 
desirable, and the sprinkler of paths with sweet water through rain. 

13. O learned person, thou art the admirer of persons, doer of noble 
deeds, worthy of praise, full of ambition, desirous of supremacy, wise in 
dealings ; and a comer to this sacrifice with sweet words. 

14. This extolling learned person, the carrier of knowledge, in 
non-violent sacrifices attainable through exertion, nicely procures ladles 
and fire accompanied by corn, water and power. 

15. That learned person, daintily fed, realises the greatness of this 
fire. He is the best wealth-giver, and wisest protector. He gets water 
and enjoyable oblations. 

16. The learned persons, lording over all, with the splendour of 
that widely expansive fire, expound the vows of truthfulness, and the 
bright sources of the knowledge of fire. 

17. May Dawn and Night, like two beautiful consorts, protect in 
our home this non-violent sacrificial worship of ours. 

12. This verse has been interpreted hy Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, as applying to 
soul as well. Soul is the preserver of the body, lover of breaths (pranas), infuser of strength, 
seer of knowledge, and lord of organs. May the soul illumine the paths of its existence with 
knowledge and light. 

14. The fire used in locomotives accompanied with water, and fuel, moves fast with 
great force. We should make use of fire in yajnas and fast-moving locomotives. 

13. The learned persons who realise the greatpess of fire become wealthy. 


18. Ye two learned persons, givers of pleasure, greet with praises 
this lofty non-violent sacrifice of ours. Conduct well the flame of fire in 
connection with our beautiful sacrifice. 

19. May Ida, Saraswati, Bharati, three mighty forms of eulogy fill 
this atmosphere. 

20- May God grant us wealth and strength, eagerly obtainable, 
possessing wondrous merits, powers and qualities ; residing in various 
objects, beautifully mighty ; and relieve us of misery. 

21. O investigator, the guardian of religious lore, just as sacrificial 
fire renders subtle the oblations and diffuses them in the air, so shouldst 
thou rejoicing thyself in the midst of the learned, explore objects worth 

22. O learned person, well-versed in knowledge, for the sake of 
supremacy, use truthful speech and perform yajna. May all the learned 
people be benefited with this yajna. 

23. Persons equally learned, increasers of wealth, exceedingly wise, 
eaters of invigorating diet, exert to develop their progeny. May they 
stand firm to acquire the knowledge of air, which being active and 
developing, full of grace, purifies the men steadfast in their religious path. 

24. Whomsoever the Firmament and Earth give birth for the 
acquisition of wealth, and whom the wife accepts eagerly as a husband 
for wealth's sake ; they, in a solitary place, unite and disunite their souls 
with and from God, and enjoy the vast air, the sustainer of the Earth and 
heavenly bodies. 

25. When the subtle and primary elements containing the 
All-prevading matter, the primordial cause of the universe, came into 
being producing the fiery Sun, there was one God present in all the forces 
of nature. Let us adore with our devotion the pleasure-giving God. 

26. God with His Might sees fully the subtle and primary elements, 
full of potency, and generators <5f the universe. He amongst all souls and 
material objects is the one supreme Lord. Let us adore with knowledge 
and yoga, Him, Who is the Embodiment and Giver of pleasure. 

27. O learned person, powerful like the air, we carefully seek thee, 
full of desirable, noble qualities. Send in our home wealth, worthy of 
enjoyment and giver of pleasure. Give us a heroic son, and gifts of kine 
and horses. 

19. Ida : praiseworthy speech. 

Saraswati : A speech full of knowledge. 
Bharati : A speech replete with vedic lore. 


28. O learned person, powerful like the air, come to our non 
violent sacrifice with thy hundreds and thousands of instructions. 
Gladden us in this world. O sages, preserve us evermore with propitious 

29. O God, the Ordainer of Law, just as this purifying, fast moving 
air, visits the sacrificer's house, so come upto me. Thou art providence, 
hence I realise Thy Nature, 

30. O learned person, powerful like the air, purifier art thou. I 
imbibe the excellent essence of thy speech in the assemblies of the learned. 
O well merited scholar, the scion of a lovely father, come thou with grand 
glory, to drink the Soma juice. 

31. O learned person, just as air, with definite propitious motions, 
comes to the sacrifice, so with noble intentions, as a leader, and nice 
performer of the yajna, come thou to the yajnashala with a concentrated 

32. O learned person, come thou to us to drink the Soma juice, with 
full force, accompanied by thousands of thy admirers in chariots. 

33. O learned person, resplendent with thy glory, just as air in this 
world, under set rules comes to the sacrifice (yajna) with one, ten, two, 
forty, three and thirty motions, so with knowledge and action, for the 
applicability of learning expound thou those laws unto us. 

34. O powerful learned person, Lord of Truth, beloved like a 
son-in-law, wonderful in deeds, renowned for learning, we welcome thy 
efforts for our protection. 

35. O fearless king, like unmilked kine, we sing thy praise, as we do 
unto God, the Lord of all animate and inanimate beings, and most 
beautiful to look at, 

36. O Bounteous Lord, none other pure like Thee, hath been or 
ever will be born on earth. Desiring enterprise and using nice speech, as 
men of might we call on Thee. 

37. O King, the protector of the people, we, the scholars and 
scientists invoke thee alone in war. Just as the Sun is seen after it dispels 
the clouds, so we see thee in the army active and swift like a horse. We 
invoke thee in all directions. 

31. Yajnashala : Place v .rship, where the yajna is performed. 

33. The Lucknow Vedic C.jisthan interprets eleven, as ten breaths and soul; twenty two 
as ten organs of sense, mind a: .1 eleven rudras ; and thirty three as 8 vasus, 11 rudras, 
12 adityas Prajapati and yajna. 

Swami Dayananda explains two as learning and activity. The different forms of air's 
motions are not clear. 

35. Unmilked kine iJust as kine, who have not been milked, bow to give milk to the 
calf, so we bow unto the king and God. 


38. O wonderful learned person, whose hand holds thunderbolt, 
praised as mighty, possessing a lofty position like the mountain, grant 
unto us and the conqueror, kine and chariot steeds and even knowledge 
of truth. 

39. O wonderful learned person, befriend the ever prospering 
person. Protect us with thy succour. Yoke us to noble deeds with thy 
powerful protection. 

40. O learned person, the giver of happiness, lover of truth, highly 
dignified, he, who pleases thee with delightful foods ; collects medicines 
for the elimination of disease, and amasses wealth, deserves our adoration. 

41. O learned person, thou art the protector of our friends and 
admirers. For affection's sake approach us with hundred aids. Thou art 
worthy of our reverence.. 

42. At every sacrifice, sing the glory of God, for the acquisition of 
strength. Let us praise the Wise and Everlasting God again and again as 
a well-beloved Friend. 

43. O learned person, bestower of beautiful habitation, and reful- 
gent like fire, protect us with sound advice. Protect us with thy teaching. 
Protect us with three instructions of action, contemplation, and knowledge. 
O Lord of power and might, protect us with four counsels of religion, 
worldly prosperity, affection and final emancipation of soul. 

44. O student, advance knowledge, the preserver of thy enterprise. 
Thou art our well-wisher, and helper in battles ; the saviour of our bodies 
for progress. We select thee as a fit recipient of precious objects. 

45. O aspirant after knowledge, thou art the follower of law like 
the year, renouncer of immorality like the relinquished year, definite like 
the year, steadfast like the year, and active like the year. Prosper thy 
Dawns ! Prosper thy Days and Nights ! Prosper thy Half-months (months, 
Seasons and Years). 

Combine them for their goinj and coming, and send them forward 
on their ordered courses. 

Thou art the collector of the sources of protection. With that 
divinity lie steady like the vital breath. 

43. This verse may also mean, O God the Lord of Power, protect us with Rig Veda, 
with Rig and Yaju, with Rig, Yaju and Sama, with Rig, Yaju, Sama and Atharva. Jai Dev, 
Vidya Alankar, Mahi Dhar, and Vedic San^than have thus translated this verse. I have 
given the interpretation of Maharshi Dayananda Saraswati. 

45. The words Samvatsar, Parivatsar, Ida v a tsar, and Vatsar are the names 
given to the years of the five-year cycle, intended with the aid of an intercalary month, to 
adjust the difference between the lunar and the solar year. 


1. O sacrificer, just as the master of noble qualities, with the 
display of knowledge, concerning the laudable art of speech, on the earth's 
centre, and on the height of heaven, in the midst of thundering clouds, 
kindles and perceives the fire and electricity, and as the mightiest of the 
lords of men, properly manifests himself and enjoys the butter, so shouldst 
thou keep company with him. 

2. O sacrificer, just as the pleasure-giving person, with due 
protections and religious paths, rich in valuable advice like sweet water, 
befriends the mighty king, the guardian of our bodies, the conqueror, 
unconquered, full of delight, adorned with knowledge and humility, and 
understands all knowable topics with his well-praised spiritual and moral 
power ; so shouldst thou cultivate friendly intercourse with him. 

3. O sacrificer, just as the pleasure-giving person, with well-trained 
modes of speech, wins the king equipped with knowledge and supremacy, 
above the ordinary run of mankind, full of rivalry against foes, praised 
and just as he, the thunder-wielder, the breaker-down of the enemies, 
cities, full of power, learned, performs with the help of the learned, the 
duties of a ruler, so shouldst thou cultivate friendly inter-course with him. 

4. O giver of charity, just as a person desirous of happiness, with 
Vasus, Rudras and Adityas for companions, in the Assembly of the learned, 
wins the favour of the king, adorned with statesmanship, near whom are 
seated noble learned advisers, full of power, who appreciates the noble 
deeds of men, and sits in the court to administer justice, and acquires 
happiness, so shouldst thou be happy. 

5. O sacrificer, just as spacious gates, like the fast flow of water, 
enhance power, lustre and dignity j so should the learned have access to 
the expedients of knowledge and humility in this sociable world, for the 
kind, heroic and mighty king. They should learn the art of administration. 
Hota should perform the yajna, so shouldst thou do. 

6. O giver of happiness, just as two cows living in the open air, 
the fulfillers of ouf noble desires, behaving mother-like, nourish the 

1. Earth's centre : the altar, A learned person kindles fire in the altar. 
Sacrificer . Yajman. 

4. Vasus, Rudras and Adityas are Brahmcbaris who respectively observe tke vow of 
celibacy for 24, 36 and 48 yeacs. 


highly developed calf, like material fire and sun's heat, the two aspects of 
lightning, and just as Hota performs the yajna with oblations, so shouldst 
thou do. 

7. O physician, regular in thy meals and recreation, just as two 
physicians, givers of happiness, expert in the diagnosis of physical ills, 
excellent amongst the learned, dispellers of disease* friendly to each 
other, wise, full of the knowledge of medical science, experienced in the art 
of medicine, adepts in medical treatment, treat the ills of the soul, amass 
wealth for worldly progress, and attain to longevity, so shouldst thou do. 

8. O aspirant after happiness, just as a teacher, the imparter and 
recipient of learning, performs the duty of reading and teaching ; just as 
a teacher, a preacher and a physician, developing the three humours, 
ie., bone, marrow and semen, engrossed in actions, imbibe Ida, Saraswati 
and Bharati, the three efficacious and highly venerable speeches, the 
illuminators of knowledge, full of instructions ana protectors of the soul, 
so shouldst thou cultivate them. 

9. O inculcator of good virtues, just as an abstemious person, 
befriends a physician, the remover of physical maladies, the possessor of 
riches, full of many qualities, physically strong, highly social, brilliant, and 
supreme, and in obedience to the soul, the urger of knowledge, controlling 
his senses, gains power, so shouldst thou do. 

10. O charitably disposed person, just as a performer of yajna, 
associates with a sacrificer, the provider of shelter like the sun, the master 
of manifold wisdom, the doer of deeds $ and with practical rules of conduct, 
enjoys the wealth of the world, displayed by him, and performs yajna with 
savoury butter, so shouldst thou do. 

11. O imparter of knowledge, just as a person who acquires learning 
and prosperity, and grants us affluence, studies the truthful sayings of 
religious lore, understands the working of oily substances, listens to the 
excellent lovely words of little children, attends the performance of Homa 
by persons who speak the truth and act upon it, acquires the active, 
mighty supremacy of wisdom that emanates from the beautiful teachings 

8. Indrapatni : Just as a wife serves and protects the husband, so do these three kinds 
of speech protect the soul. 

Ida : the speech worthy of praise. 

Saraswati : the speech full of knowledge. 

Bharati : the speech, the preserver and developer of beautiful knowledge, 

Them : the three kinds of speech. 

10. Enjoys refers to the performer of yajna. 
Him refers to the sacrificer, the priest. 


of religious books , and just as learned persons, delighted with kind words 
of truth, and drinking clarified butter attain to greatness, so shouldst 
thou perform yajna. 

12. O learned person, just as an oblation in Homa, performed in the, 
day and at night, transgressing the air and water in the atmosphere, adds 
to the wealth of the world, and protected in the altar by ghee and fuel, 
contributes to health, and increases our happiness, so shouldst thou 
associate with a heroic, dignified man of learning, who is accompanied by 
well-mannered learned persons possessing riches vast like the space. 

13. O learned person, just as excellent, brilliant doors, and a praise- 
worthy, young, heroic boy, making the horse march on a path leaving 
aside the blind well, add to our prestige, so shouldst thou acquiring wealth, 
and removing all impediments, enjoy this rich world and perform sacrifice. 

14. O learned person, just as pleasant, lovely and lustrous day and 
night, goad the sacrificer to action in a yajna, and just as they for proper 
use of wealth, approach the just and educated persons, nay the whole world, 
so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

15. O learned person, just as lustrous day and night, wealth-givers, 
engulfing all objects, heighten the radiant sun, and one of them the night 
drives away hatreds and sins ; the other, the Dawn brings boons and 
treasures ; and just as day and night in which men receive education, 
under the sky on this earth a part of the world, comprehend the active 
sacrificer, so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

16. O learned person, just as educated persons, in this world, the 
creation of God, in day and night, comprehend the soul intent upon the 
acquisition of spiritual knowledge ; and just as day and night the retainers 
of strength and breath, the givers of happiness, gladden us with water, 
impel our noble ambitions and add to our prosperity, one of which brings 
food and energy, the other feast and drinks, and just as the outgoing and 
in-coming nights blend the old energy with the new and new with the old, 
and day and night, the decreasers of life and dissipators of strength, 
preserve our existence so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

17. O learned person, just as pleasant air and fire, celebrated for 
their excellent attributes, the sustainers of the world heighten the radiant 
sun's might, exterminate the diseases that kill the sinful thieves, and acting 
as monitors to the soul, procure us riches and drinkable water in God's 
world, so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

13. Blind Well : Well which is filled with earth, and does not look like a well ; and 
is likely to deceive a rider. 

13. Boons : Fresh waters etc, 


18. O learned person, Bharati, the speech, uttered through breath, 
Saraswati, the speech full of wisdom, and Ida, the speech enriched with 
wealth, and the performer of yajna, occupy the householders. These three 
divine forms of speech, heighten the might of the lustrous and protecting 
soul. For gain of wealth they are cherished by the householders, Aspire 
after them and may thou master them. 

19. O learned person, just as the soul hankering after eminence, 
praised by men, masters of various houses comfortable in all times, the 
past, present and future, develops brilliant electricity with hundred devices, 
and seated on the back of fast-moving animals engages himself in thousand 
forms of activities ; and just as the pran and udan, the companions of the 
soul fit to earn living, electricity the guardian of great projects of the 
world, laudable sun and moon, and the man willing to perform yajna, are 
all made serviceable by the soul for helping the aspirant after riches ; so 
shouldst thou perform yajna. 

20. O learned person, just as Vanaspati,. imbued with fine qualities, 
with leaves shining like gold, sweet boughs, fair fruit, bestower of 
praiseworthy benefits, heightens the cloud, the remover of poverty, and 
full of nice attributes ; and being highly important desires light, establishes 
the Earth and space and grows for the soul, the diffuser of wealth in the 
world, so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

21. O learned person, just as the beautiful atmosphere, residing 
in the laudable universe, enjoying the imminence of God, the Mainstay 
of all, heightens the celestial lightning, is ubiquitous, and engages the 
attention of a scientist in this precious world, so shouldst thou do. 

22. O learned person, just as efficacious fire, with diverse uses, 
heightens the noble soul, and just as fire accomplishing the desired 
ambition, being highly serviceable, fulfils our cherished aim, so shouldst 
thou ever contribute to our happiness, amass wealth, and give monetary 
help to the scientist in this precious world. 

23. O learned person, the knower of the significance of vedic hymns, 
just as this sacrifices for the sake of supremacy, now cooks foods and 
special preparations for Homa, keeps a goat, for the removal of diseases, 
and honours a learned priest, expert in the performance of yajna ; and 
just as the shining Sun, protector of its rays, for grandeur's sake, becomes 

18. feitft Wt: The repetition of these words is meant to show their importance. 
20. Vanaspati : The herb that rears the rays of the sun. 

Earth and Space : The herbs suck sustenance from the Earth and fill the space 
with water drawn by the rays of the Sun out of them. 
23. I: -The Purohit, the priest. 


eminent at the time of sacrifice, by cutting into pieces and absorbing 
the oily and wet oblations, which come into contact with it, the ripener 
of all objects ; and just as the Sun accepts all substances put into the 
fire and grows thereby, so do I exert to make thee prosperous. 

24. O seeker after knowledge, just as a charitably disposed 
learned person, performs Havan, and preserves the Gayatri verse, brilliant 
like fire, splendidly graceful, venerable, highly glorious, bestower of 
beautiful life, bringer of supremacy, expounder of true significance -, and 
retains freedom, wealth, three-fold protecting vedic speech, and longevity, 
and enjoys the essence of knowledge, so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

25. O seeker after knowledge, just as the preserver of noble quali- 
ties, preserves him, like a mother preserving the embryo, the protector 
of the body, the comer-out after splitting the mother's womb, and sends 
Homa's oblations to the pure Sun, the prolonger of life, and preserving 
through the divine Ushnik verse, the powerful organs of the soul like 
ear etc., preaching practical wisdom, and rearing handsome birds, enjoys 
all these nature's gifts, so shouldst thou enjoy them. 

26. O sacrifices just as a man possessing noble qualities, 
comes in contact with the Sun, the slayer of clouds, so should 
he come with instructive words, in contact with adorable, adored 
power, laudable medicinal herbs, and the soul, the sustainer of 
beautiful breaths. He enjoys all nature's gifts, the organs like ear, 
sustainable freedom, the Earth, the protector of five breaths and 
desirable objects in this knowable world, so shouldst thou enjoy them all. 

27. O charitably disposed person, just as a virtuous person, becomes 
united with the soul immortal, vast like space, immersed in the contemp- 
lation of the Beautiful God, deathless in its purity, full of strength, 
enjoyer of space and pure water, extending over all ; and attains to 
happiness preserving celibacy for 36 years like the 36 syllables of Brihati 
metre, full of knowledge, physical organs, vedic lore, having action, 
worship and knowledge as its sons, and enjoys nice pleasure, so shouldst 
thou do, 

24. Three-f old protecting. Vedic speech protects our body, mind and tongue. The 
learned teacher should teach the people, the Gayatri Mantra, self-control, observance of 
Brahmcharya, and the art of enjoying long life. 

25. Preserves him: rears, guards, and protects the pupil. 

27. Brihati metre: It consists of 36 syllables, so a virtuous man should observe celi- 
bacy for 36 years. 

flfflcWTJ This word has been translated by Mahidhar, Ubbat and Griffith as 3 years old 
steer, whereas Maharshi Dayananda translates it as vedic lore having action, worship, and 
knowledge as its sons, i <? subjects dealt with. 


28. O sacrificcr, just as in this world, a virtuous person, possesses 
wide-opening portals, easy to pass through, Yajna strengthening, electropla- 
ted and beautiful; and just as he associates with a learned person, full of 
knowledge and wisdom, with mastery over the four vedas; and observes 
Brahmcharya for forty years like the forty syllables of the Pankti metre, 
has got wealth, strong bulls able to carry, four times the luggage, and vital 
vigour; and just as he performs Homa with these oblations mixed with 
ghee, and just as other persons resort to yajna, so shouldst thou perform 
sacrifice with these oblations. 

29. O sacrificer just as in this world, like two lofty Day and Night, 
lovely to look at, in which beautiful works of art and industry are perform- 
ed; the beautiful teacher and preacher; acquire excellent supremacy, the 
support of ambition, and celibacy of forty four years like 44 syllables of the 
Trishtup metre, vitality, longevity, strength of physical organs, and possess 
bullocks fit to carry luggage on the back, and just as a virtuous person, 
uses oblations mixed with ghee, so shouldst thou perform Havan. 

30. O charitably disposed person, just as intelligent teacher and 
pupil, highly educated amongst the learned, sociable, doers of good 
deeds, givers of knowledge, masters of great fame, and desired happiness, 
acquire grandeur, celibacy of 48 years like the 48 syllables of the Jagati 
metre, learning, wealth, and bullocks to carry the cart, and just as a virtu- 
ous person, offers oblations mixed with ghee, so shouldst thou perform 

31. O sacrificer, just as in this world, a virtuous person acquires three 
kinds of speech "precious like gold, and beautiful, namely Bharati, Brihati, 
Mahi; an aged protecting ruler, a Brahmchari observing vow of celibacy 
for 33 years, like 33 syllables of the Virat metre, the expositor of various 
subjects, desired object, and happiness enjoyed by souls and comes in con- 
tact with us like a milch cow, so shouldst thou, attaining to all these 
objects acquire the desirable fruit of knowledge. 

32. O charitably disposed person just as a virtuous person, 
protects a man full of glory and vigour, advanced in age, maintaining varied 
beautiful qualities, strengthener of growth, brilliant, and heroic, and 
sustains two-footed human beings, liberty, vigour of physical organs, and 

28. Sacrificer : One who performs yajna. 

A learned person should ^construct houses, with wide, electroplated gates, with open 
space for performiug yajnas and beautiful in appearance. 
31. Bharati : Worthy of assimilation, 
Brihati : Deep and meditative. 
Mahi; Resorted to by great men. 


maintains strength like a full-grown ox, and performs Homa with vedic 
texts, understanding their significance, so shouldst thou perform Homa. 

33. O charitably disposed person, just as in this world, a performer 
of yajna with ghee, like the Sun, the giver of tranquillity, the protector 
with its light and beams; masters the soul, full of wisdom, uttering 
commendable words with finger, worthy of control, full of grace, giver of 
the strength of life; and acquires wealth, the prop of worldly prosperity 
and giver of felicity, and performs yajna with gladness possessing desired 
object, and qualities of a barren and calf-slipping cow; so shouldst thou 
perform yajna. 

34. O sacrificer, just as a virtuous person, preserves a householder, 
brilliant like fire, in which oblations are put with vedic recitations ; and 
associates severally with a noble person, an experienced physician, a 
sagacious, aged king, and his government ; and observes prolonged 
Brahmcharya like the syllables of Atichhandas and Gayatri metres, and 
possesses the strength of a strong bull, enjoys long life ; and performs 
Homa with ghee oblations, liked by all ; so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

35. O learned person, just as well-merited space develops the 
beautiful, life-infusing Sun, and just as a yogi through Gayatri metre 
establishes in the soul, the power to perceive like an eye, and enjoy long 
life, and befriends a man, who makes the best use of the riches of this 
world, the source of all wealth, so shouldst thou perform yajna. 

36. O learned person, just as the lustrous doors of our houses, 
allow full and free entry of life-infusing, pure air, and develop the breath 
in the soul, conducive to its welfare, residence in which increases the 
treasure of one aspiring after riches, and thus they become graceful, so 
shouldst thou with vedic verses in Ushnik metre secure these lovely 
objects and perform Havan. 

37. O learned person, just as like Day and Night two ladies, the 
teachress and the taught, develop the strength-giving and virtuous soul, 
and just as a wife advances the noble husband, and bears children from one 

33. Just as a barren cow being mated with powerful bulls produces nothing and keeps 
their semen under her control, so a performer of yajna controls all those who attempt to disturb 
the yajna. Just as a calf-slipping cow, being pregnant destroys the embryo through miscarri- 
age, so a strong sacrificer destroys the enemies and intruders in his yajna. 

34. Atichhandas : Ati Dhriti, Ati Asbti, Ati Shakvari,and Ati jagatiare called Atichhan- 
das with 76, 68, 60 and 48 syllables. A learned virtuous person is ordained to remain celibate 
even upto 60, 68, 76 years like the syllables of Atichhandas. 

36. Residence in houses with wide open doors which admit air from all sides increases 
age, strength* health, wealth and mental peace. 


aspiring after treasure and riches ; so shouldst thou with vedic verses in 
Anushtap metre, acquire the strength of soul enjoyed by it throughout 

38. O learned person, just as dignified, affectionate ladies, fond of 
knowledge, advance their virtuous children, the givers of sustenance and 
preservers of life, and just as a noble wife glorifies her noble husband, 
and cultivates with vedic verses in Brihati metre, in the soul, the power 
of hearing created by God, so shouldst thou enjoying happiness, resulting 
from the due use of wealth, parform Havan. 

39. O learned person, just as oblations of purified cereals, fillers of 
objects with juice, accomplishes of aims, full of fragrance, advance 
through rain water the soul, preserving life, as a devoted, educated wife 
advances her husband of high moral character ; and with the aid of Pankti 
verses fill the soul with heroism and affluence, so shouldst thou enjoying 
happiness, resulting from the proper use of wealth, perform Havan. 

40. O charitably disposed teacher and preacher, just as lovely learned 
persons, fulfillers of our ambitions, develop the wishful and life-preserving 
soul, as parents develop their son ; so should ye associate with a person 
aspiring after wealth. O learned person, so shouldst thou, with the aid of 
Trishtup verses, developing the soul's power of hearing and enjoying 
happiness, perform noble deeds like the yajna. 

41. O learned person, just as Goddesses three, three Goddesses, 
heighten the king, the protector and possessor of vital force, and pervade 
everywhere, so shouldst thou with Jagati verses, developing in thy soul the 
strength of overpowering the enemy's force, and enhancing the vitality 
of thy physical organs, perform yajna like the sacrificer, who gives away 
his treasure and wealth in charity. 

42. O learned person, just as a person, praised by all, strengthens 
the king, advanced in age, and endowed with noble qualities, actions and 
nature, as an educated person strengthens a pupil hankering after 
knowledge, and develops in the" soul beauty and power, with verses in 
virat metre, so shouldst thou, enjoying the desired happiness, perform 
yajna for one who uses properly his treasure and wealth. 

38. Ladies .Teach ress and her girl students. 

39. According to Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, 'Pankti Chhandas' means the act of 
cooking meals. 

40. Trishtup verse : The military force, according to Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar. 

41. Three goddesses : Teacher, Preacher, Examiner, three learned ladies. These words 
have been repeated for the sake of emphasis. 

CHAPTER xxvm 287 

43. O learned person, just as the nice fig-tree, the Forest Sovereign 
enhances long-lived, excellent prosperity, like a cultured person conducing 
to the welfare of another well mannered educated man; so with Dwipada 
verses, thou shouldst establish fortune and strength in the soul, and enjoy- 
ing the desired happiness perform yajna for him who gives his treasure in 

44. O learned person, just as nice water in the atmospheric ocean, 
contributes the welfare of an aged, good ruler, and a developed soul 
develops another soul, so shouldst thou with Kakup verses, for full pros- 
perity, acquire fame and vital strength, and enjoying the wished for 
happiness, perform yajna for him who makes proper use of his riches. 

45. O learned person, just as the Omniscient God, the Fulfiller of 
our desires and aims, strengthens the long-lived, virtuous soul, as a teacher 
strengthens the pupil, so shouldst thou with the pleasant Ati Jagati verses 
perform yajna, so that thou possessing sway, vital strength, fascinating 
nature, mayest improve the king full of learning and humility, and giver of 
charity from his treasure. 

46. O learned person, the knower of the significance of vedic hymns, 
just as this sacrif icer, cooking different kinds of meals and making special 
preparations for Homa, honours today a learned priest expert in the per- 
formance of yajna, so for the sake of longevity and supremacy, shouldst 
thou keep a goat the remover of diseases. 

Just as a learned person, the protector of forests, becomes ready 
with the help of a scholar, the remover of doubts, for serving the king, the 
advancer of our life and the extirpator of foes, so should all people live 
together peacefully. Just as the sacrificer, feeds thee with the yajna 
preparations and greasy substances, and develops thee physically, so should 
you, the sacrificer and the priest eat yajna remnants. 

43. Dwipada : with the strength of the two-footed servants according to Pt Jai Dev, 
Vidya Alankar, 

44. Kakup: a metre of 3 padas 8+124-8 syllables. 

45. Atichhandas : hypermeter ; any metre of more than forty-eight syllables. 

46. This verse is the same as 23rd in this chapter, but with a different interpretation. 


1. O learned person, brilliant like fire, famous for sagacity, just as 
fire enkindled, manifesting itself, strengthens the belly of men, and enjoy- 
ing the highly efficacious butter, achieves stability through educated 
priests, as a skilled rider makes the horse move fast 5 so shouldst thou 
attain to the desired abode of pleasure. 

2. O learned person, active like the horse, just as fast electricity, 
being produced from water, illuminates the paths wherein tread the 
learned, wielding mastery over it, enjoy thou the company of the wise, 
whereby thou mayest control all quarters and directions. Bestow thou 
food on this sacrifices 

3. O active, enterprising educated artisan, as thou, full of enjoyments 
and kindness, utilisest adorable fire, by mixing it with serviceable material 
objects, which takes thee to distant places, hence thou art worthy of 
praise, veneration, swiftness, and companionship. 

4. O learned person, just as we nicely expand electricity, widely 
diffused on the earth, famous, pervading all parts of conveyances, water 
and space, enjoyed by the people, present in heavenly bodies, giver of 
comfort, indestructible, affording seat to all in electric planes, so shouldst 
thou do. 

5. May these your doors, beautiful, wearing different colours, 
lofty, sonorous, lovely, rich in adornment, offer easy passage into houses 
both right and left, like two rows of birds. 

6. Just as in the body Pran and Udan regulate all its functions, so, 
both morning and evening tell us of the time of commencement of the 
yajna. They are beautiful and full of art. I establish them in this house 
for the sake of truth. 

7. O teacher and preacher, ye both, excellent amongst all, borne 
on one car, bright coloured, beholding all creatures, be charitable, seers, 
and spreaders of light- 

I always keep ye happy and contented. Ye both, knowing the 
vedic rules and ordinances, charitable in disposition, preach the light of 
knowledge, with your supreme intellect. 

2. It: -Electricity. 


8. May Bharati, the speech of the Adityas, illuminate your yajna. 
May Saraswati, the speech of the Rudras, be our helper. May Ida, the 
speech invoked in accord by the Vasus give us happiness. May these 
three Goddesses place us amongst the immortals. 

9. Just as a learned person, produces a brave son devoted to 
scholars ; just as a horse learns through instruction how to run fast and 
remain active ; just as Self-Effulgent God brings to life this universe ; so 
shouldst thou Priest worship God, the Creator of the world. 

10. O learned person, knowing well the path of the sages, the 
benefactors of humanity ; just as fast-moving fire, coupled with water, 
itself, in different seasons, performing useful deeds, gives us food, and 
just as the Sun, the protector of rays, carries away our sweet oblations, 
so shouldst thou deal properly with thy soul. 

11. O learned person, brilliant like fire, progressing and soon 
attaining to fame, through God's grace, thou guardest the sacrifice with 
consecrated offering. Go unto those leading sages, who achieving success 
through their accomplishments, eat our oblations. 

12. O learned person, active like a horse, when thou roarest with 
full splendour, like air created in the beginning by God from the atmos- 
phere, and the arms of thy hero become strong like eagle-pinions, thou 
deservest applause for this glaring great deed. 

13. O learned persons, air creates electricity from the Earth, water 
and space, and yokes it to useful ends. In conjunction with air, diffused, 
renowned electricity, assumes sway everywhere, It receives the rays of 
the Sun, the protector of the earth ; and makes subtle with the Sun, the 
fast moving air. 

14. O man, full of force like fire, by mysterious nature; thou art 
coupled with action, contemplation and knowledge; thou art disciplined 
like a just ruler; thou art resplendent with knowledge like the Sun ; thou 
art like a learned person; thou art specially united with grandeur. They 
say there are three bonds in the spread of knowledge that hold thee. 

8. Adityas : Persons having first class knowledge, after observing celibacy for 48 years, 
Rudras : Those who observe celibacy for 36 years, and possess good knowledge. 
Vasus .Who observe celibacy for 24 years, and possess ordinary knowledge. 
Bharati : Speech full of information and vigour. 
Saraswati :- Speech full of knowledge. 
Ida : Speech full of praise. 

13. It '.Electricity, 

14. Three bonds : -Three debts one owes to the sages, the parents and the learned, 
called Rishi Wl, Pitri 3PF, and Peva *q. 

290 YAjtJR VEDA 

15. O learned person, the sages say, there are three bonds in the 
spread of knowledge that hold thee; three bonds in the control of breath, 
three bonds in the atmosphere that cause rain$ they speak of thy sublimest 
birth, and thou payest homage to those noble learned souls; may they all be 
connected with me through deliberation, 

16. O enterprising commander of the army, just as 1 look after the 
bathing procedures of these horses of yours, and the places for the protec- 
tion of their hooves; just as in this army, I see the auspicious reins of 
thy horses, which save us from misfortune, and direct their right usage, so 
shouldst thou see. 

17. O learned person 1 recognise thy soul going high up from below, 
like the Sun in heaven. Just as I see the the aeroplanes from far, and 
round like the head, soaring, striving upward by paths unsoiled by dust, and 
pleasant to travel, so shouldst thou see. 

18. O brave person, I behold thy form matchless in beauty, eager 
to win foes and the food produced here from the Earth. Whenever 
a man brings thee thy eatables, thou, then, being the most voracious eater, 
swallowest medicines. 

19. O learned person, when the learned amongst the graceful 
persons, long for thy friendship, and educated persons favourably measure 
thy vigour, the aeroplanes, ordinary run of mankind, kine and supremacy 
follow thee. 

20. O people, know that the head of the state should be sharp and 
brilliant like horns, and lustrous like lightning. Like a horse marching on 
his path, the king should be the first lord of fire and gold. His feet 
should possess the velocity of mind. The members of his Cabinet should 
receive their maintenance allowance from him. 

21. O men, possess horses fiery in spirit, with attractive places to 
sit on, thin bellied, quick conquerors of battles, well trained, fast in motion, 
putting forth their strength like swans in lengthened order, and treading on 
pure paths. 

15. Bonds of breath : food, seed and tillage. 

Bonds of atmosphere : cloud, lightning and thunder. 

16. I :- King. 
Which : -Reins. 
Their : Horses, 

17. I :KiBg. 

20. Lord of fire The king should possess planes for travelling. 

Velocity of mind : The king should generally fly in air with the velocity of mind, to 
save time. 


22. O brave person, thy body is mortal, but thy spirit is swift like 
the wind in motion. Thy soldiers are spread abroad in all directions, and 
being stout and strong move about in many wildernesses; follow the path of 

23. The beautiful, lustrous, active, fast, dexterous horse, in the 
company of the learned, merrily goes to the battle-field. The valiant 
ride on its back, and the wise singing the praise of knowledge follow it. 

24. The learned person, who being highly respected, longs for the 
eminent position of friends, educated father and mother and the sages^ 
and exceedingly acquires eatables for the donor, deserves to be loved 
by all. 

25. O wise person, respecter of friends, thou, this day, kindled 
like the illuminated fire, walkest in their company, as a reflective, literary 
person. Rich in intellect, tormentor of the wicked, highly conscious 
possessing unobstructed knowledge of all subjects, cultivate fully noble 
virtues in the house. 

26. O fair-tongued, preserver of various objects, make pleasant 
for all, the commendable paths of rectitude, with thy sweet sermon and 
excellent exposition. Develop the society and philosophical subjects 
with thy holy thoughts, and strengthen our innocuous worship through 
learned persons. 

27. To these the pure, the most wise, the thought-inspirers, learn- 
ed persons, who enjoy food conducive both to body and soul, who are 
worthy of veneration, respected by the people, and full of greatness, we 
offer admiration with deeds of devotion. 

28. O learned person, full of noble qualities, amongst scholars, thou 
art charitable and companionable. Walk in the company of these prompt 
scholars. Being lovely towards the learned, deserving praise and adora- 
tion, go near them. 

29. O men, in this world, the Immortal God, All-pervading like 
space, beyond the light of day, early in the morning before dawn, grants 
to the learned and immortal soul happiness that removes miseries and is 
most excellent. Know and realise Him following the instructions of 
the vedas. 

30 O men, learn all sciences, just as wives, highly cultured and 
virtuous, well experienced in all domestic dealings, dwellers in nice houses, 

23. Excellent horses are helpful in gaining victory in a battle. 

29. Those who say their prayer and remember God early in the morning before sunrise , 
attain to happiness and get freedom from misery. 


decorated with ornaments, tall like doors, deck their beauty for their 
noble husbands, and serve them. 

31. O learned person, acquire prosperity by properly using day 
and night, that move continuously in the wheel of time, each close to 
each, seated at their stations, assuming light and darkness, lofty, fair and 
radiant beauty like two women. 

32. O men, learn fine arts from two skilled persons, who are compe- 
tent amongst the learned, charitably disposed, well-known, sweet-voiced, 
executors of projects, inducers of men in scientific knowledge, and acts of 
sacrifice, preachers of the doctrines of the vedas, and expounders of 
mechanical knowledge 

33. May Bharati, Ida, Saraswati, in this mechanical work, come unto 
us from all sides, speedily expounding the secrets of mechanical science, 
like thoughtful person. May these three intellectual forces, guide us, 
the performers of nice enterprises, in this mighty project, the source 
of comfort. 

34. O seeker after knowledge, extremely fond of companionship, 
urged, receiving education from everywhere, thou deservest homage, as 
thou always rememberest that God, Who, in this world, creates different 
spheres, these Earth and Sun, the progenitors of various actions and brings 
about the creation and dissolution of the universe. 

35. O learned person, put into fire, at different seasons, with devo- 
tion, in the form of oblations, eatables mixed with honey and butter, 
fit to be taken by the learned. May the Sun, cloud and fire receive thy 

36. The enlightened person, who speedily attains to fame, and mana- 
ges different transactions, with truth-imbued words of a learned fellow, 
and precedes scholars, and the remnants of whose properly performed 
Homa are eaten by the learned, deserves all round veneration. 

37. O men, making the illiterate, literate, the poor, rich, shine with 
the beams of knowledge. 

32. The word $W in the verse means two persons, one of whom is skilled in teaching 
fine arts, and the other is expert in handicrafts. 

33. Bharati : The knowledge of fine arts, 
Ida: Beautiful, trained* sweet voice. 
Saraswati: Wisdom full of knowledge. 

35. Articles put into the fire in the performance of Havan, being rarefied reach the 
sun and cloud. 

36. Remnants : the $fc residue of the yajna. 

37. He is an Apta 3TTH, who makes the poor, rich, and the ignorant, wise. 


38. The warrior's look is like the thunderous rain-cloud, when, 
armed with mail, he seeks the lap of battle. Be thou victorious with 
unwounded body, and let the strength of thy armour save thee. 

39. With military weapons let us win the Earth, with them the 
battle, with cannon let us win the ease-loving army of our foes. War-like 
weapons destroy the ambitions of the foeman. Armed with the bow may 
we subdue all regions. 

40. This bow-string strained on the bow whispers like a woman, and 
preserves us in the combat, as a wife, fain to speak, offering advic6, 
embraces her affectionate, praiseworthy husband. 

41. Just as a learned wife behaves towards her husband, and a 
mother towards her child} so these two bow-strings, well procured, 
together beat the foes, and in unison scatter asunder, the foes who hate 

42. With many a son, father of many daughters, he clangs and 
clashes as he goes to battle, with the quiver slung on the back, the born 
hero, vanquishes all the scattered armies. 

43. The skilful driver, sitting in the conveyance, guides his horses 
in the front, in whichever direction he likes. Just as mind keeps the 
organs under control, so reins from behind, control the horse. See and 
admire the strength of these controlling reins, 

44. Warriors with arms in hand, conveying soldiers swiftly along 
conveyances, trample upon the foes devoid of friendship, with their 

Fast running horses neigh loudly. Soldiers not burdening their 
master economically, destroy their foes. 

45. Let us honour that aeroplane, each day that passes, with 
hearts full of joy, in which are laid necessary ingredients for propelling it, 
and gun, cannon, shield, bow, arrow, armour and military equipment of this 

46. Let our rulers, be partakers of savoury food, long-lived, patient 
in adversity, powerful, deep-minded, armed wiih wondrous army, strong 
in arrows, robust, possessors of long legs and broad chests, invincible, and 
conquerors of numerous hosts. 

47. May virtuous people, promoters of truth, protectors, knowers 
of God and the vedas, and the Heaven and Earth indestructible in nature, 

42. Quivers, arrows and bow-strings are the sons and daughters of a warrior. 


conduce to our welfare. May God, the Nourisher, save us from sinful con- 
duct, guard us, and let not the evil-wisher master us. 

48. O brave soldiers give us protection in the army, where there 
are commanders, adequate transport arrangements, where arrows and 
weapons are used swiftly like a deer, controlled with cow-leather strings, 
which pounces upon the enemy forcibly, duly persuaded, and its warriors 
run together or go hither and thither in different directions. 

49. O learned person, drive straight away diseases from our body, 
so that it may be strong like stone. Give us instructions about efficacious 
medicine and Earth, and grant us happiness. 

50. O queen, who trainest horses, just as heroes, whip sharply the 
back of these horses, and lead young soldiers, so shouldst thou drive 
sagacious chargers in the battles 

51. May the energetic learned person, discharging arrow from the 
bow-string, and extirpating the opposing foe from all sides, protect the 
virile person, in every way, and thundering like a cloud with his armies, 
acquire all sorts of worldly knowledge. 

52. O king powerful like the Sun, be our friend, conqueror of foes, 
yoked with brave, victorious heroes, firm and strong in body. 

Thou art the possessor of various parts of Earth, make us strong. 
May thy commander-in-chief win foes deserving defeat. 

53. O learned person, give us the vitality possessed by the Sun and 
Earth, the strength of trees, the vitalising juice of waters. Fill thy car 
with warlike weapons shining like the sun's rays. 

54. O beautiful, highly educated person, accepting gifts we offer, 
know the significance of the fall of lightning, realise the force of the army 
of men, the inner feelings of friends, the promptings of the soul of the 
virtuous, and enjoy our company, and all acceptable objects. 

55. O commander, thundering aloud like the drum, being full of 
supremacy, with the help of the learned, drive thou afar, yea, very far, 
our foemen. Grant life to the denizens of the Earth, and persons exalted 
like Heaven. Regard the world as pervaded with space and lightning. 
May thy rule give thee pleasure. 

56. O commander, whose army thunders like the war drum, drive 
away all dangers, fill us full of vigour, gain supremacy, expand the army, 
make those weep, who behave like depraved dogs, let thy administration 
be well knit like the fist, make efficient arrangements for electricity in 
the army, and enjoy all comforts. 


57. O commander, drive thither away the troops of the enemy, 
and bring back ours safe after victory. Let our cavalry march forth, in 
accompaniment with the beating of war-drums. Let our car-warriors be 

58. The black necked animal is ferocious like fire ; the ewe is mild 
like speech ; the brown animal is calm and pleasant like the Moon ; the 
dusky animal is strong in body ; the black-backed animal is fiery like the 
Sun ; the dappled animal possesses various qualities ; the red animal is 
full of heat like the Sun ; the black and white coloured animal is fast like 
the air ; the strong bodied animal possesses the qualities of the Sun and 
fire ; the bird that flies low is furious like the Sun ; the black coloured 
bird with one white foot is calm and peaceful like water. 

59. A red-marked ox is strong and strenuous like the learned 
commander of the army ; animals with white spots below are active like 
the Sun ; animals with silvery navel are full of force ; yellow hornless 
animals are imbued with many qualities ; black and white animal is swift 
like air ; the black-faced he-goat is ferocious like fire ; the ewe is sweet 
like speech ; the fast running animal is fast like water. 

60. To the fiery soul possessing the qualities of Satva, Rajas and 
Tamas, the crosser of ocean by means of ships, expounded in Gayatri 
metre, should be offered the food cooked in eight pot-herds. To the 
highly strong soul, well-versed in fifteen kinds of Trishtup metre, be 
offered the food cooked in eleven pot-herds. To the divine persons, 
endowed with diverse qualities, as described in all the seventeenfold Jagati 
metre, should be offered the food cooked in twelve pot-herds. To Pran 
and Udan delineated in Anushtup and twentyone fold virat metres, should 
be offered a mess of curdled milk. To the protectors of the great, sublime 
in assemblies, renowned in action, contemplation and knowledge, celebra- 
ted for strength should be offered special food. To the man acquiring 
supremacy, coupled with thirty three kinds of wealth, mentioned in 
Ushnik metre, should be offered the food cooked in twelve pot-herds. To 
father and mother should be offered the food prepared in the cooking pot ; 
the same be offered to the entire space protected by the All-pervading 
God. To the brilliant amongst all men, shining like lightning, be offered 
the food cooked in twelve pot-herds. For the follower, refined food 
should be prepared in eight pot-herds. 

60. The significance of pot-herds and the food prepared therein is not clear to me. 
According to Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar. the word ^qic5 (pot-herd) merely denotes division. 
T means a mature thought well considered by eight learned persons. Similarly 

mean an idea which is the result of the deliberations of eleven and twelve scholars. 
Food has been compared to the well thought out idea, resulting from the joint mental cooking 
of learned persons. 


1. O Divine God, create for wealth and supremacy, the king, who 
is glorious, the protector of the Earth, the purifier of knowledge, the 
cleanser of our wisdom, the master of speech, who renders our speech 
sweet, smooth, mild and lovely. Make his rule successful. 

2. Let us adore the supremacy of that divine God, the Creator of 
the universe, Self-illumined, and Sublime. We invoke Him to direct 
our understanding aright. 

3. O God, full of noble attributes, actions and nature, send far 
away all vices and calamities, and grant us virtues. 

4. We praise God, the Procurer of comforts, the Distributor of 
wondrous wealth, the Creator, and the Seer of men. 

5. O God create a Brahmana, who knows the veda and God, for 
propagating the knowledge of God and the veda ; a Kshatriya prince for 
the safety of kingdom ; a vaisha for rearing the cattle ; a Shudra for hard 
labour and service. Cast aside the thief, who steals in darkness ; the 
destroyer of heroes, who passes his days in jail, the eunuch mentally 
disposed to licentiousness, the dacoit bent on looting and harming people ; 
the harlot full of lust ; and the bard disposed to abuse. 

6. O God, create for dance a bard ; for song a public dancer ; for 
duty one who administers justice ; for sweetness a panegyrist ; for 
pleasure a wife-lover husband ; for dexterity a car-builder ; for firmness 
a carpenter. 

Cast aside, a debauchee who indulges in conversation with the 
dissolute ; a ridiculer fond of derision ; an illegitimate virgin's son, 
addicted to carelessness. 

1. Western scholars like Griffith, Colefcrooke, Weber, Wilson, Muir, Oldenberg, and 
Max Muller consider this and the next chapter meant for human sacrifice. This is an 
erroneous idea. 

Just as Ashvamedha does not mean Horse sacrifice, but the Improvement of land for 
growing more food, so Puru-hmedha does not mean human sacrifice, but the perfection of man 
for spiritual and worldly advancement. This interpretation put upon these two words by 
Rishi Dayananda is highly logical and rational. 'Tis pity the western scholars, following 
Mahidhar and Say ana, have miserably failed to understand the true purport of these words. 

2. This verse occurs in 335, and 229. It is called Savitri of Gayatri Mantra. 
4. God being present in our soul, sees all our actions, good and bad. 

6. ^cP -the son of a Kshatriya by a Brahmana woman, who generally does the 
business of dancing. 


7. O God, create for penance a potter's son ; for sharpening intellect 
an artificer ; for beauty a jeweller ; for welfare a sower ; for arrows a 
maker of shafts ; for destructive weapons a bowyer ; for victory a bow- 
string maker ; for control a ropemaker. Cast aside a hunter bent on 
murder ; and a dog-rearer the helper of the murderer. 

8. O God, cast aside the vile man who pollutes rivers ; Nishada's 
son, hankering after libidinous women ; a degraded arrogant man, friend 
of a person harmful like a tiger : an uneducated person attached to low 
dancing and singing women ; the demented, given to the application of; 
magical rites ; an untrustworthy person who befriends the serpents and 
the fools ; a gambler who acquires wealth by unlawful means ; a non- 
gambler who creates unnecessary excitement ; a woman who creates 
split amongst the Pishachas, the thorny woman who favours the 

9. O God, cast aside a lover, who cohabits with another's wife ; a 
paramour having illicit connection with a domestic woman ; an unmarried 
elder brother suffering from the pangs of passion ; younger brother who 
has married before his elder to inherit his father's property ; the husband 
of a younger sister whose elder sister has not been married, for ulterior 
motives of greed ; a licentious adorned woman who pretends for penance j 
a lustful go-between woman bent on arousing passions; a by-sitter for 
garrulity, an obstinate man who insists upon acceptance ; and him who 
offers presents in the shape of bribe, to gain strength. 

10. O God keep aside a hunch-back bent on destruction ; a dwarf 
given to carnal pleasures ; a blear-eyed man as a gate-keeper ; a blind man 

8. tftflre: the son of a Nishad by a Shudra woman, a vile person. Nishada is the name 
of one of the wild aboriginal tribes in India, such as, hunters, fishermen etc, man of a 
degraded tribe in general an outcast, a chandala, the son of a Brahmana by a Shudra woman. 

Pishachas -. those whose aims and ambitions have been destroyed through immoral 
conduct, or those who are fond of eating raw meat mixed with blood. 

9. Upapati : Second husband, a paramour who uses a woman as his wife in the presence 
of her legal husband. 

Parivittam : an elder brother who is unmarried, while his younger brother is married, 
This means that elder brother should be married first. The State should enact a law, that 
no younger brother be married before his elder brother is married. The words convey 
condemnation of the elder brother, a prey to lust, who pleads for his marriage. 

Parivividanam : younger brother who marries before bis elder. 

Edidhishu-pati : the husband of a younger sister; whose elder sister is unmarried. Such 
a marriage should ordinarily be prohibited by law. 

10. A man suffering from eye-disease should not be appointed as a gate-keeper, 

A blind man should not be appointed as a watchman, otherwise you can't have a sound- 
sleep, as he cannot protect you against thieves. 

A deaf man cannot listen to religious preachings, and hence does not know what is truth 
and Dharma. 


for sleep > and a deaf man devoid of righteousness. O God create & 
physician for purifying our body with the eradication of disease ; an 
astronomer for the advancement of knowledge ; an inquisitive man full of 
craving for knowledge ; an extra inquisitive man for desire of extra 
knowledge ; and a question-solver for establishing moral law. 

11. O God, create an elephant-keeper for deep walking; a horse- 
keeper for speed ; a cowherd for nourishment ; a shepherd for manliness j 
a goatherd for enhancing keenness , a ploughman for growing more food ; 
a preparer of Soma for obtaining essence ef medicines and food ; a house- 
guard for weal ; a possessor of wealth for well-being ; and an obedient 
attendant for supervision. 

12. O God create a wood-bringer for Light ; a fire-kindler for 
brightness ; a besprinkler for horse's path ; a high steward for highest 
happiness, a master of all sorts of knowledge, for the sight of the learned ; 
a distributor of knowledge, for the benefit of humanity ; a magnanimous 
person who contributes to the happiness of all . a washer-woman for 
cleanliness ; an affectionate wife for domestic happiness. O God, cast 
aside a wicked person bent on teasing, murdering, and offering opposition. 

13. O God cast aside, a thievish hearted man bent on violence, a 
slanderer bent on homicide. O God create, a religious-minded man for 
discrimination ; an ascetic as a wise counsellor ; a servant for strength , 
an observer of celibacy for plenty of progeny ; a sweet speaker for 
affection ; a cavalier for safety ; a collector of taxes for enjoying full 
happiness ; a talented man spreading knowledge for highest happiness, 

14. O God drive away, a mentally angry man, blazing like red hot 
iron ; an invader full of ire ; an assailant destined for grief ; an embarrassed 
barren woman bent on violence. 

O God create a yogi for the practice of yoga ; an alleviator of suffer- 
ings for welfare ; a mechanic skilled in running ships; car and aeroplanes 
for going to high and low places ; a thoughtful person for welfare of the 
body j a well-behaved wife of noble deeds for a Brahmchari ; a wealthy 
lady for acquiring land. 

15. O God, for administration create a woman who gives birth to 
rulers ; for the harmless physicians a woman who has miscarried ; for the 

13 ^flRfK :-is an ascetic who offers wise counsel to great men at the time of danger. 
This post was held by Sanjaya for Dhirtarashtra, Vidura for Duryodhan, and Sumanta for 

15. A woman suffering from miscarriage should be treated by learned, sympathetic 


Samvatsar, first year, a woman who gives birth to a male and female child 
alternately ; for the Parivatsar, second year, a celibate virgin ; for the 
Idvatsar, 3rd year, one who is fond of roaming $ for the Idvatsar, fifth 
year, one who is highly learned ; for one year, an ailing woman > for four 
years, one with grey hair, for the wise, a friend of the invincible, and for 
executive projects, men of skill and proficiency. 

16. O God. create the son of a fisherman for crossing ponds ; a paid 
servant for menial service ; the son of a Nishada for managing small tanks ; 
a dry fish clearer for reed'beds a celibate who controls passions for uneven 
impassable places ; aboatsman for crossing watery places; an engineer 
for constructing bridges over rivers. 

O God, drive away a hunter's son bent upon killing deer ; a contemp- 
tible Bhil for sounds ; a Kirata for caverns ; a destructive savage for 
living on mountain-heights j a wild man for living in mountains. 

17. O God drive away a sweeper's son bent on ferocity ; a dissatis- 
fied person given to back-biting ; a slothful person destined for poverty ; 
a shameless person bent on losing wealth ; a destroyer and splitter bent on 

O God create a goldsmith for beautifying ornaments ; a merchant for 
exact weighing ; a bringer of happiness for all human beings with his 
assistants ; a watchful man for prosperity ; an eloquent debater for 
alleviation of suffering. 

18. O God drive away a gambler, friend of the dice-king ; a person 
with evil designs for murdering cows ; a cow-killer for gallows > one who 

A woman who gives birth to a male and female child alternately should observe celibacy 
for one year, to be free from this defect. The question of the marriage of the virgin girls 
should be decided in the second year. 

A girl fond of roaming should wait for marriage for three years. 

A learned woman should not be married, but should wait for five years. 

An ailing woman shoul J observe celibacy for one year. 

A husband should wait for four years for progeny in the case of a wife grown grey-haired 
before time. 

Samvatsar, Parivatsar, Idavatsar, Anuvatsar, Idvatsar constitute a cycle of five 

16. Nishada : the son of a Brahman a by a Shudra woman, a fisherman. Bhil is a black 
man, who carries bows and arches in his hands, and shoots you in the direction from where 
he hears your sound. 

Kirata : a savage who lives by hunting and resides in pits and caves. 

A dry fish clearer * A person who clears the reed-beds of dry, dead fish in summer, 
and thus earns his living by labour, but does not eat them, or sell them for his livelihood' 


for hunger goes begging to a man who is cutting up a cow ; a leader of 
meat eaters bent on misdeed ; the son of a depraved person, befriending 
a sinner, 

O God create a wise person who soon realizes the shortcomings in 
the acts performed ; a person who is fit in childhood, youth and old age ; 
one endowed with capability for this world and the next ; a leader of the 
Assembly for drying up the resources of the enemy. 

19. O God, create a man of iron determination for the implemen- 
tation of vow ; a loud-voiced man for proclamation ; a comprehensive 
speaker for establishing propriety of conduct ; a mute for unending 
lawless discussion ; a Iute-pla3 r er for great festivals ; a conch-blower, for 
calling neighbouring and distant people ; a forest-guard, for the protec- 
tion of forest ; and drive away a creator of uproar bent on uttering 
frightening sounds ; a flute-blower intending singing songs of lamenta- 
tion ; a forest burner contemplating the destruction of jungles. 

20. O God, drive away a harlot fond of pastime ; a strange mad 
man inclined to laughter ; the daughter of a man with spotty skin bent 
on killing aquatic creatures ; create for reverence, the following, a 
headman, a mathematician, a watchman. Create a lute-player, a player on 
musical instruments with hands, a flutist, for dance ; and a hand clapper 
for pleasure. 

21. O God, create bulky substances for fire ; serpents to crawl on 
earth 5 a pole-dancer for mid-air ; a monkey-like green-eyed man for the 
Sun ; a whitish person for giving pleasure like the Moon ; a white yellow- 
eyed man for day, and drive away an impure person who emits foul air 
from his body ; a bald prone to jest and joke ; a spotty man who is bent 
upon opposing the rulers ; a black man with yellow eyes who prefers 

22. O kings, just as a learned man comes in contact with the eight 
following variform men ; one tt>o tall, one too short, one too stout, one 
too thin, one too white, one too black, one too bald, one too hairy, so 
should ye do. 

19. Just as a mute remains silent to an unending discussion ungoverned by rules and 
regulations, so we should observe silence in a futile discussion* , 

21. Fire burns the bulky substances. 

22. People of low character should not be allowed to mix with others and spread the 
contagion of their vices. 

They should be kept in prison or far away from the town. 


Those connected with the kings, who are neither Shudras nor 
Brahmanas should also come in their contact. 

A murderer, a harlot and eunuch, neither of Shudra nor Brahmana 
caste should be made to dwell at a distance. Loyal subjects and devotees 
of God should dwell near. 


1. The Almighty God, hath the power of a thousand heads, 
thousand eyes } a thousand feet. 

Pervading the Earth on every side He transgresses the universe. 

2. God, the Lord of final emancipation is in truth the creator 
of all that hath been and what yet shall be ; and what grows on earth. 

3. The visible and invisible universe displays His grandeur. Yea, 
He is greater than this universe. 

All worlds are but a part of Him, the rest lies in His Immortal, 
Resplendent Nature. 

4. God, with three-fourths of His grandeur rises higher than all, 
separate from the world, enjoying liberation. With one fourth of His 
grandeur He creates and dissolves the universe again and again. Then 
pervading the animate and inanimate creation He resides therein. - 

5. God creates the universe, and lords over it. 

1. Mr. Griffith translates cl^II^JJrt^ (Dashangulam) as a space of ten fingers, which is 

Thousand means innumerable. Dash Angulam (TRII^Jc&tO the world which is made up 
of ten parts, i. e. t five gross and five subtle elements. Five gross elements are earth, water, 
air, fire and atmosphere. Five subtle elements are sight (^) smell (its), speech (3H5) 
taste (TO), touch (TO!). 

2. The word (W3) has been wrongly interpreted as food and nourishment. 
Colebrooke translates the line : 'He is that, which grows by nourishment.' God is not a 

material object which requires nourishment for growth. He is Everlasting and Immaterial. 

Muir renders it thus : *He is also the Lord of immortality since by food He expands:' 

Professors Ludwig and Wilson also give the same explanation. 

Sayana interprets it thus ; 'He is the Lord or Distributor of immortality because He 
becomes the visible world in order that living beings may obtain the fruits of their actions 
and gain moksha or final liberation from their bonds ! This interpretation is highly irrational 
and illogical. God being immaterial cannot assume a visible form. He is spoken of in the 
vedas as wi^ without a body. The interpretation of the wastern scholars is mostly based on 
that o! Sayana. 

Swami Da yananda interprets ?F3 as Earth, out of which grow all trees, vegetables, 
and corns. 

3. God is indivisible. He can't be spoken of as having parts. 

The words Pad a fourth and Tripad three-fourths are used figuratively to show His 
immensity and world's littleness. 

4. What eats is the animate, and what eats not is the inanimate creation* 

5. The creation of the Earth is mentioned for distinction, though Earth is ordinarily 
included in the creation of the universe, 


He. then pre-existent, remains aloof from the world, arid 
afterwards creates the Earth. 

6. From that great God, adorable by all, were created curd and 
clairfied butter. 

He creates the wild and tame animals swift like air. 

7. From that Adorable God unto Whom people make every kind 
of sacrifice, were created the Rig Veda. From Him was created the 
Atharva veda and also the Yajur veda. 

8. From God were born horses, and from Him were born all cattle 
with two rows of teeth. 

From Him were generated kine, from Him were goats and sheep 

9. O men know Him, the perfect God, existent before the creation 
of the world, and highly adorable, Him the learned, the yogis and the 
Rishis realise in the innermost recesses of their hearts, and worship as 
directed by the vedas preached by him. 

10. O learned people, ye realise the perfect God in diverse ways : 
and describe Him in manifold manners. In this creation of God, who is 
exalted like the mouth ? Who possesses the strength like arms ? Who 
does the work of thighs ? Who is low like the feet ? 

11. In God's creation, the Brahmana in body politic is like the head 
in the body, a Kshatriya is like arms, a Vaisha is like thighs, and a 
Shudra is considered as feet. 

6. Wild animals of the forest, like lion, and tame animals of the village like cow, which 
are quick in motion like the air have been created by God. The word 3TQoZJT^ has been 
translated by some as bird- of air, but Rishi Dayananda translates it as fast like air. 

3F*f fj ^QivKJ** 3T?lo 3-8-4-8. 

According to Shatpath Brahmana ^IQIVXAI^ may also mean food. 

9. Rishis : men who know the significance of vedic verses. 

11. Brahmana : one who knows God and the veda, and is their devotee. 

Kshatriya : He who is warlike in spirit, and defends the country like soldiers. 

Vaisha : the agriculturist and tradesman, the chief supporter of the society. 

Shudra : A labourer on whose toil and industry all prosperity ultimately depends. 

This verse contains reply to the questions raised in the previous verse. The four 
castes in the society have been compared to the four parts of the body. 

Commentators like Mahi Dkar and Ubbat translate this verse to mean that a Brahmana 
is born out of God's mouth, a Kshatriya out of His arms, a vaislu out of His thighs, and a 
Shudra out of His feet, This interpretation is wrong as God has got no body. 


12. The Moon was engendered from His strength of knowledge 5 
the sun was born from His power of refulgence, the air and ten vital 
breaths were born from His power of space, fire was born from His power 
of destruction. 

13. Mid-air was produced from His central power of space 5 from 
His excellent head-like strength was fashioned the sky. Earth came into 
being from His primordial power ; and the quarters from His power of 
space. Similarly were other regions treated. 

14. When the learned perform, meditating upon the Adorable 
God, the sacrifice of mental worship, then morning is its butter, mid-day 
its fuel, and mid-night its oblation. 

15. The mental sacrifice, performing which, the learned concentrate 
upon the knowable God in their hearts, has seven coverings and twenty 
one kinds of kindling fuel. 

16. The learned worship God through mental contemplation. Their 
holy ordinances for the worship of God are immemorial. Such noble 
souls in particular enjoy the happiness of final beatitude, in which dwell 
the ancient yogis and learnd devotees. 

17. God creates in the beginning with His urge this world nourished 
by waters, earth and sun. Fixing its form, He assigns in the beginning 
the wisdom and duties of mankind, 

18. I know this Mighty, Perfect God. who is Refulgent like the Sun 
and free from ignorance. 

12. Ten vital breaths : Pranair in the heart, Apan in the anus, Saman in the navel, 
Udan in the throat, Vyan in the whole body, and Nag, Kurma, Krikal, Dev Dutt, Dhananjaya. 

14, Sacrifice ' Yajna. 
Its ; of the Yajna. 

In the absence of outward provisions a mental sacrifice is to be performed. Then 
morning, mid-day and mid-night should be imagined to serve the purpose of butter, fuel and 
oblation of the yajna. 

15, Seven coverings are the seven metres Chhandas in which the vedic verses encom- 
pass the yajna. 

Twenty one kinds of fuel .-Matter, Mahat, Tatva (Intellect), Ahankar (Egotism), five 
subtle elements (^WR ), five gross elements (^55^cT) five organs of cognition, (fftfeTO) satva, 
Rajas, Tamsa, three qualites. These twenty one materials serve as fuel to the contemplative 
yajoa, the learned perform. Griffith says 'This pantheistic hymn, which is generally called 
the Purushasukta, is of comparatively recent origia Nothing can be farther from truth than 
this statement. The hymn is the part and parcel of the yajur veda, and is hence as old and 
immemorial as the Veda itself. 

16, Holy ordinances : The teachings of the Vedas. 

18. Knowledge of God alone is the sure path for salvation. 


He Only who knows Him feels not the pangs of death. For salva- 
tion there is no other path save this. 

19. God, the protector of men, pervades the soul in the womb and 
the hearts of all. Being unborn, He manifests himself in various ways. 

Yogis alone realise His true nature. In Him stand all existing worlds. 

20. The sun gives light and heat to the useful objects like the 
Earth; stands first and foremost in the centre for the good of all heavenly 
bodies, is born ere the Earth etc. and being the creation of Gracious God 
gives us food. 

21. The learned persons in the beginning, making thee a lovable 
devotee of God, preach the eternity of God, Soul and Matter. The 
Brahmana who thus knows the nature of God, shall have learned persons in 
his control. 

22. Grandeur and Fortune are Thy two wives :, Thy sides are Day 
and Night. Constellations are Thy form : the Aswins are Thy open 
Mouth. Imploring grant salvation unto me, grant me all sorts of knowledge 
and pleasures. 

21 Thee ' A devotee of God. 

22. Thy : God's Aswins . The Sun and Moon. 

Just as wives serve and protect their husbands, so God protects all through His 
grandeur and might. 

Day and Night are two phases of the Sun. When it rises and shines it is day, when it 
sets it is night. So when God shines in our heart, it is day through His lustre and knowledge. It 
is night when darknes? (ignorance) prevails in the soul, and we forget God. All luminous 
objects exhibit the beauty and glory of God, In this Purushiukta the metamorphosic nature of 
God is spoken of figuratively. 


1. God is Agni being Self-refulgent; He is Aditya as He engulfs 
all at the time of dissolution of the universe ; He is Vayu as He is All- 
powerful; He is Chandrama as He is full of pleasure and is the giver of 
pleasure; He is Shukra as He is pure and quick in action; He is Brahma as 
He is great; He is Apa being All-pervading j He is Prajapati as He is the 
guardian of His creatures. 

2. All divisions of time sprang from the Resplendent, Perfect 
God. No one hath comprehended Him from above, across; or in the 

3. There is no image of Him whose glory verily is great. He 
sustains within Himself all luminous objects like the Sun etc. May 
He not harm me, this is my prayer. As He is unborn, He deserves our 

4. O learned persons, this very God pervadeth all regions. He 
was present in the minds of all in the last cycle of creation; He is 
present now, and will be present in future cycles. He exists, controlling 
everything, with His power of facing all directions. 

5. Before Whom, naught whatever sprang to being; Who with 
His presence aids all creatures. God, the guardian of His subjects, 
rejoicing in His offspring, maintains the three great Lustres. He is 

6. May we realise with love and devotion, God, the Embodiment of 
happiness; who has made the heavens strong, and the beautiful Earth firm, 

2. God is indivisible, hath no physical organs, and is ubiquitous 

3. This verse condemns idol-worship, and incarnation. 

See Yajur Veda Chapter 25, 'verses 10, 13, 12, 102, and 8-36, 37. 

4. uWl^H : He without pos< easing the physical organs, does their work. 

5. Three great Lustres : Lightning, Sun and Moon. 

Shodashi : Possessing sixteen powers ; as enumerated in the Prashna Upanishad, 
question sixth. 

They are : 1. Vital breath, Pran. 2. Faith, Shraddha. 3. Space, 

Akash. 4. Air 5. Fire 6- Water 7. Earth 8. Sense- 

organ, Indriya. 9. Mind 10. Grain (corn) 11. Semen, Virya. 12, 

Austerity, Tapsa. 13. Vedic hymns 14. Moral duty 15. Worlds 

16. Name, 

This universe possessing these 16 powers and attributes is created by God and resides 
in Him who is the master of this universe with sixteenfold attributes and powers. 


is full of pleasure, and being free from all miseries is all Bliss and is the 
Maker of all worlds in the space. 

7. Whom, the Sun and Earth, the supporters of all, moving in their 
orbits, worthy of praise for their virtues, affording shelter to humanity, do 
acknowledge; in Whom the Sun shines in fullj Who shines after manifest- 
ing great waters and vast space; Whom the teacher and preacher visualise 
through intellect; may we through concentration realise Him, who is full oi 
lustre and happiness. 

8. The sage beholdeth the eternal conscious God hidden in the 
inmost recesses of the heart ; in Whom this world hath found a solitary 
abode. In Him is this universe dissolved and then created. He is ubiqui- 
tous, and pervades souls and matter like warp and woof. 

9. May the learned person, who knows the vedas, soon expatiate 
upon the Eternal and Conscious God, the Imperishable abode of salvation, 
and hidden in intellect. There are three steps of eternal God, placed 
in comprehension. He who knows them becomes the watchman of God 
through theism. 

10. He is our Brother, our Father and Begetter. He knows all 
beings and all worlds. In Him, the third high stage, the learned obtain- 
ing the bliss of salvation, move at will. 

11. God manifests Himself pervading the five elements, the worlds 
and all the Quarters and Mid-quarters. 

The learned person having studied the four vedas created in the 
beginning, unites himself with God the Embodiment of Truth. 

12. God fully pervading the Heaven and Earth, the worlds, the 
Quarters, the eternal bliss ; controlling the lengthened thread of Matter, 
views it, masters it, was its master and will remain so. 

13. Having worshipped with truthful action and speech, God 
Wondrous, the lovely Friend of Soul, may I acquire wisdom which dis- 
criminates between truth and untruth. 

14. That wisdom which the sages and scholars long for ; with that 
wisdom, O God, with Thy truthful speech, make me wise today. 

9. Three steps : Creation, Sustenance and Dissolution of the universe, or present, past 
and future. 

The word soon enjoins upon all the knowers of the vedas to lose no time in preaching 
the vedic truths. 

10. The third high station : God is higher than matter and soul. Matter is the first, 
soul the second and God the third stage of man's evolution of knowledge. 

11. Five elements : Water, air, fire, earth, ether. 
14. Truthful speech : Knowledge of the vedas. 

Today : Ever (Tomorrow never comes). 


15. May the Supreme God grant me wisdom, in consonance with 
the performance of religious duty. May the Omniscient God and Pro- 
tector of man grant me wisdom. May the Omnipotent God grant me 
wisdom, May the Almighty Father grant me wisdom, May the Ruler of 
the universe grant me wisdom. 

16. O God, through Thy grace, leading a life of truth, may these 
Brahmans and Kshatriyas of my country enjoy the splendour and wealth of 
my government. Just as the learned persons bestow best splendour and 
wealth on me, so O seeker after truth may we try for that splendour and 
wealth for thee. 


1. In this God's creation, may the fires, ever active, protectors 
against foes, coupled with fragrant smoke, purifying, white, wealth- 
producing, ever stirring, recipients of prosperity, seated in woods, rays 
and water, and potent like winds preserve our houses. 

2. Various flames of fire, moving in nature, bannered with the 
smoke, fanned by the wind, rise, aloft to heaven. 

3. O learned person, honour our friends, revered persons, and 
scholars. Preach grand truth unto us, and manage thy domestic 

4. O learned person, just as a charioteer yokes fast horses highly 
praised by the experts, so shouldst thou arrange fast burning fires, and 
verily take thy seat as Hota instructed by the aged sages. 

5. Just as two women, with fair aim, unlike in semblance, feed 
themselves, and each in succession nourishes a child in embryo, and one 
bears a quiet, fascinating babe, and the other an active, fair, shining babe, 
so do dark and bright night and day exibt, and work for uplift of the 
world as a child. In one of them is born the peaceful Moon, pleasing to 
the mind ; and in the other is born the beautiful, purifying and lustrous 

6. The explorers, in this world, hold for the people, this fire, 
vastly expanded, comfort-giving, pariseworthy, investigable in all useful 

The learned, and the householders with their disciples and children, 
specially kindle in woods this fire, wondrous in its attributes, actions and 
nature, spreading to every place. 

7. The skilled mechanics should utilise fire in making automobiles 
travel for 3339 miles. Fire and water should be employed in making 

1. Fires : Electricity and the sacrificial fire. 

2. Bannered with the smoke : Smoke acts like the flag of fire. Just as a flag from a 
distance gives us the impression of any army, so smoke seen from a distance gives us the idea 
of fire. We should utilise these fires for worldly purposes. 

4. See 1337. 

6. Fire means electricity. 

7. Distance of 3339 miles means, the automobiles can be made to travel in a non-stop 
flight thousands of miles, far and wide. 

It is not clear why this number of 3339 has been selected to convey the idea of an 
aeroplane's flight. 


them cover the atmosphere. For this fire, the sacrificer should constantly 
be seated, to perform Havan. 

8. The learned manifest fire, the head of heaven, resident of Earth, 
the benefactor of humanity, properly employed in the Yajna, surpassing 
in the beauty, blazing with lustre, the guest of men, created by the mouth- 
like power of God for the sake of protection. 

9. Just as the brilliant, active sun slays the clouds, so should a wise 
man, aspiring after wealth, remove his vices, having recourse to various 

10. Just as the sun, with the aid of All-sustaining air, drinks the 
sweet essence of all medicinal herbs, so should a learned person enjoy the 
essence of the medicinal herbs of his friend. 

11. When, for rain, the pure light, coming out of the fire of a 
yajna full of ghee oblations, reaches the Sun ; he creates in the atmosphere 
and sends in the form of rain, water, invigorating, pure, youth-infusing, 
and drinkable. 

12. Show thyself strong for mighty bliss, O king most excellent be 
thy effulgent splendours. Strengthen through Brahmcharya the well- 
knit bond of wife and husband, and trample down the might of those who 
hate us. 

13. O learned teacher, as thou payest attention to the weighty words 
of ours, the Brahmcharis; so we, along with men resplendent like the 
sun, accept thee deserving of highest reverence. 

The best men, with strength and wealth, please thee, godly in nature 
powerful like the sun and bounteous like the air. 

14. O well read learned person, may the heroes amongst men, 
self-controllers, wealthy patrons, destroyers of the killers of kine, all these 
sages, be dear unto thee. 

15. O supreme ruler, hearer of the grievances of the subjects, 
listen to the important state business in the company of thy ministers, 
administrator and learned officials. In this spacious Assembly Hall 
seat thyself, the impartial friend of all, the Lord worthy of respect, 
along with officials who resort to their duty early in the morning. 

8. The head of heaven .- the sun full of fire. 

The guest of men : Respected by men like a guest. 
Fire should be used by the learned in propelling automobiles. 

Just as a powerful and oratorical speech from the mouth instructs men and protects them 
from dangers, so does electricity protect us. 
11. He . Sun. 


16. O head of the state thou art the wisest amongst all the honour- 
able learned persons, most adorable amongst all men, responsible for 
protection, gracious to all, highly renowned for thy knowledge and concen- 
tration of mind through the practice of yoga. 

17. May we the state officials, live free from sin, under the shelter 
of the highly brilliant head of the state, excellent, friendly and worthy of 

We crave today for bliss, and gracious favour of the learned, who 
live under the command of God, as given in the vedas. 

18. O highly learned parson, thy panegyrists wax like waters, 
attain to true knowledge like expanding rays. May the persons possess- 
ing knowledge vast like mind come near us, may thou possess the ^qualities 
of swiftness and force like air. 

Thou art worthy of reverence, as thou art highly kind to us through 
thy wisdom and deeds. 

19. Just as the cows and sun's rays protect the beautifying Heaven 
and Earth, so should the learned protect both the ears coupled with golden 
ornaments, and parts of altar in a yajna. 

20. May the sinless, affectionate, just, and glorious king, the urger 
of the laws of administration, improve our health. 

21. O happiness-giving people, elect him as your ruler, who is 
most mighty, lends lustre to heaven, and earth, is full of beauty and 
sustains you. 

22. O learned people ye all should use in your projects electricity, 
full of splendour, Self-effulgent, pervading all substances, ever active, 
present in all indestructible elements, well-established, bringer of rain, 
killer, and dignified in nature. 

23. Worship Him, Whose beautiful sacrifice, wealth, strength, 
and mighty glory are enjoyed by the Heaven and Earth; Who is the 

16. A person of these qualities should be elected as the head of the State. 

17. Today : Ever. 

19. Griffith writes, the meaning of Rapsuda is uncertain. Risbi Dayananda translates 
the word as givers of beauty. There is no uncertainty in its meaning $TOj f^T* 5^$ l( (Rishi 
Dayananda 's Commentary). Things which lend beauty. 

21. He alone is fit to be elected a king, who possesses the characteristics mentioned in 
the verse, For the translation of (5TSRFT2H I TO to:) See Chapter 7, verses 12, 16. 

23. Beautiful sacrifice : The great beautiful yajna in the shape of creation. 

Enjoyed by the Heaven and Earth : Enjoyed by sentient beings and birds, animals and 
reptiles Dot developed in knowledge living on the earth and in the atmosphere. 

312 YAjUR VfeDA 

creator of all beings, the Embodiment of great happiness, All-pervading 
and Supplier of food. 

24. They alone perform laudable deeds, whose friend is God, 
Brilliant, Omnipresent, Majestic, ever young, Exalted, and Supreme, 

25. O learned person, fit for great veneration, due to thy strength, 
come and delight thyself with diverse juices of medicinal herbs and food. 

26. He alone is fit to be elected the head of the State, who 
possesses power, knows how to arrange his army in different military arrays, 
is majestic like the sun; challenges for battle his impious foes, chastises the 
wily and deceitful persons, kills the dacoits hidden in forests, and makes 
apparent the words of preachers who diffuse happiness. 

27. O King, the protector of the virtuous, highly venerable, why 
dost thou go alone ? What is thy purpose in doing so ? Lord of 
fascinating horses, we are thy well-wishers, consult us in thy true behavi- 
our and tell us in blissful words, the reason of thy prefering solitude. 

28. O King, advance those persons who wish to utilise according 
to their desire, the Earth, which bears at one time many kinds of cereals, 
is the mother of many sons, the sustainer of numberless human beings, 
great, and lofty; who wish to kill the wicked, the voluptuous, and harmful 
persons in the front, and thus extol thy administration. 

29. O king, I acknowledge this mighty wisdom of thine. My in- 
tellect manifests thee in praise. The learned on great festive occasions 
and child-birth bring joy unto thee, the master of intense endurance and 
the conqueror of foes with thy strength. 

30. The king, who shining like the wind-urged sun, grants full 
prolonged life to the sacrifice's lord, in person guards and nourishes the 
subjects, and variously sheds his lustre, should drink the glorious sweet 
juice of medicinal herbs. 

31. O men know ye the illumined sun present in all created objects, 
whose rays shine wondrously fgr making the world visible. 

27. A king should do nothing without consulting his ministers. He is a constitutional 
head. The responsibility of running the state does not devolve upon him alone. It is joint 
with his advisers and counsellors. See 7-40, 8-2, 3; for translation of the words from JTtf to 

29. I : Purohit, priest. 
31. See 7-41. 

The verse may also mean, just as the rays of the sun exhibit Him, so do the learned 
display through their knowledge the grandeur of God, knower of all created objects. 


32. O pure king, with that same eye wherewith thou lookest as a 
guardian, look thou upon us, so that we may follow in thy wake. 

33. Ye two divine performers of harmless sacrifice, come hither 
upon a plane with sun-bright exterior, and clearly accomplish your 
journey, battle, and yajna with agreeable provisions. 

34. O young preachers, having acquired knowledge through 
celibacy, just as a learned person, the leader of all, endowed with noble 
qualities, brilliant like the sun, highly lauded for his speeches on knowable 
conduct, visits all our sons and cattle } so should ye approach and gladden 
us, and purify our intellect. 

35. O slayer of foes like sun, the slayer of clouds, father of supre- 
macy in knowledge, giver of food, noble man, all things are in thy power 
today, when wilt thou harness them. 

36. O king lustrous like the sun, that dispels darkness, is visible 
to all, produces light and illumines the whole universe, thou illuminest 
thy state with justice and humility, and art hence worthy of veneration. 

37. O men, understand the divinity and greatness of God, the soul 
of the animate and inanimate creation ; Who dissolves in Himself the 
quarters in the atmosphere, and this vast created universe, and spreads 
for all darkness like night ; Who again creates the universe with His 
invisible, divine might. 

38. God, away from darkness, creates that form of Apan and Udan, 
whereby the man beholds and perceives. 

Immeasurable are His Immaculate Nature and power, different from 
soul, and different from Matter, full of ignorance and darkness, wherein 
reside the quarters. 

39. Verily, O God, Thou art great, truly, Indestructible, Omniscient 
God, thou art great. 

As Thou art great indeed Thy greatness is admired. Yea, verily 
Thou , God, art great. 

40. Yea, God, Thou art great in fame. Thou, evermore, O God, 
art great. Thou by Thy greatness art the friend of the learned from the 

33. Sec 7- 12, 16, 42. 

35. Slayer of foes : King. 

37. This verse describes the process of the creation and dissolution of the universe by 
God. Griffith remarks, the stanza is difficult and no thoroughly satisfactory explanation of 
it has yet been offered, The verse is clear and full of state as inttrprtted by Maaarshi 

314 VAJtJR VfcDA 

beginning, the Well-wisher of vital breaths, Unconquerable, Ubiquitous, 
and Refulgent. 

41. O people, just as we, manifest all substances depending upon 
God, Who shines in this world and the world to be, created through His 
might ; and enjoy the portion allotted to us, so should ye enjoy your share 
of prosperity. 

42. O learned persons, save us today from sin and blamable afflic- 
tion, when the sun hath ascended. May friends, noble persons, atmos- 
phere, sea, Earth and light all honour our determination. 

43. The lustrous Sun, with its effulgent and moving nature, 
revolving repeatedly, bound with the solar system through gravitation, 
exhibiting all regions, fixing the immortal and mortal in their respective 
stations, comes and goes at the time of rising and setting. 

44. The air and Sun, extolled by forefathers, moving nicely, 
endowed with swiftness, move with intensity for the welfare of human 

Like the kings in the midst of their subjects, they come and go, and 
get water at night and morning. 

45. Electricity, air, Sun, breath, fire, invigorating wealth twelve 
months, and the host of wind should be properly utilised. 

46. O learned teacher and preacher, just as a well-read person, 
like Udan and a friend dear like Pran guard us with all aids, so should ye 
both make us exceedingly rich. 

47. O highly learned person, O Omnipresent God, noblemen, O 
teacher and preacher, may ye lord over us and our associates. 

48. O learned persons, the expositors of knowledge, the embodi- 
ments of supremacy, the masters of excellence, friendly, sociable and 
penetrating, grant us physical and spiritual strength. 

41. The verse is considered by Griffith to be difficult ard obscure. I don't under- 
stand why he holds this view. Its sense is clear and explicit. 

42. When the sun hath ascended may also mean, when the light of knowledge and 
wisdom hath dawned upon us. Mitra and Varuna have been translated by some commentators 
as day and night whereas Rishi Dayananda translates them as friends and noble persons. 

Today means ever. 

43. Immortal : Matter, 

Mortal : Men who are prone to death. 

44. Water :-Dew. 

45. Aditya : The word may also maan beam? of tb Sun, 
47. See 7-12, 16, 19, 33-34. 10, 7-33. 


May both the truthful teacher and preacher, the chastisers of the 
ignoble, well disciplined speech, and our protector, a wealthy person, and 
a highly educated wife serve us. 

49. May I eagerly praise for help and happiness, conjoint electri- 
city and fire, intermingled Pran and Udan, the sky, the Earth, the Sun, 
the thoughtful persons, the clouds, the waters, the All-pervading God, the 
invigorating cereals, God, the guardian of the world and the vedas, 
prosperity, and laudable king. 

50. May those learned persons, who in our midst are bounteous,' 
chastisers of the ignoble, performers of festivals, accordant in call to 
battle for slaying the foe, acknowledging their ruler as their head, 
protect us and him who preaches virtue, praises God, and preserves the 
accumulated wealth. 

51. Ye sociable, holy persons, turn yourselves hitherward this day, 
that fearing I may know your internal intentions. Protect us from the 
violent thief and dacoit. Save us ye admires of the learned, from the pit in 
which we are liable to fall. 

52. May this day all mortals, all officials, all enkindled fires, be 
our protectors with their act of protection. May all godly persons come 
hither with their protection. May we possess all riches and provisions. 

53. All learned persons, may ye know all venerable objects that 
reside in heaven, and air's mid region, and are full of fire like the tongue. 
May ye listen to this mode of my studies, and seated in the Assembly be 

54. O God, as Thou bestowest on the learned performers of sacri- 
fice, the noblest and highest bliss of immortality, and preachest for the 
good of humanity, the light of knowledge that conduces to happiness, and 
actions worth knowing, Thou art hence worthy of worship. 

55. O learned performer of sacrifice, approaching men of iron 
determination, with thy intense wisdom, thou promptly honourest the 
sage, and wishest to utilise the air, all-bounteous, encompasser of all 
substances, pervader of all aeroplanes, and fanner of fire. 

56. O masters of the sciences of electricity and air, for ye are all 
these substances prepared. The juices of medicinal herbs are yearning 
for ye both. Hence come with your excellent qualities, deeds and nature 
and enjoy them. 

56. See 7-8, 


57. I acknowledge a friend of holy strength and a foe-destroying 
virtuous man, who possess wisdom and peaceful silence of the night. 

58. O lovers of truth, kingly extirpators of the impious, come, and 
enjoy the substances prepared for your meals; eagerly waiting for ye both. 

59. A wife, obedient to her husband, renowned, light-footed, 
eloquent in speech, sympathetic to the patients, attains to happiness 
when she lives peacefully with her husband, and nicely cooks the food 
highly efficacious, and grown through rain, conducive to our physical 
growth, brought daily in use, and relished by our ancestors. 

60. The divine immortal souls recognise none as their protector, 
but this loving and foremost God. For sovereignty of this land, they 
glorify with their praise, the Eternal God, the Friend of all. 

61. We invoke the head of the State and the commander-in-chief, 
strong, and dispellers of foes. May they be kind to us in the battle-field. 

62. O teacher instruct in religious lore this student, anxious for 
maintaining good character, and willing to honour the learned. 

63. O venerable wealthy commander of the army, just as in the con- 
flict between sun and cloud, rays make the sun victorious, so learned 
persons encourage thee. O heroic person possessing horses shining like 
the praiseworthy rays, the learned advance thee like lightning in the fight 
between the sun and the cloud. Verily do these persons rejoice following 
in thy wake and affording thee protection. O valorous person, just as the 
sun with its host of winds imbibes water, so do thou drink with thy man 
the juice of medicinal herbs. 

64. O King, thy most wealthy mother has been nourishing thee a 
hero; just as air strengthens the Sun, so learned persons strengthen thee. 
Create pleasure, being mighty for victorious valour, exulting, strongest, 
full of pride and courage. 

65. O King, the slayer of foes, work hard for our advancement. 
Mighty one, protect us with thy mighty aids. 

66. Thou in thy battles, King, art subduer of all hostile bands. 
Thou art the destroyer of the depraved, genitor of happinees, slayer of 
foes, conqueror, vanquish the foes who wish to kill us. 

67. O King, just as sire and mother walk after the child, so do thy 
enemies and their territories fall into thy hands. When thou killest 
thy unjust foe, all his forces are weakened before thy indignation. 

58. Ye both :-The king and Purohit (priest), 
See 7-12, 16. 


68. Struggle is a source of happiness for the learned. O well-read 
scholars remain firm in happiness, Let your favour be directed towards 
us; which may bring us riches even from the sinful foe. 

69. O King with non-violent, propitious aids, protect this day, on 
all sides, our progeny, riches and home. Master of speech conducive to 

the welfare of all, keep us for newest bliss; let not the evil-wisher lord 
over us. 

70. O officials and people, your noble persons full of praiseworthy 
knowledge, education and nice instructions, with the help of the non-- 
violent and just, rend asunder the foes with an army of brave soldiers. 

O King, strong like the wind, possess the qualities of joining and 
separating like the air, invade courageously thy enemies, and drink for thy 
rapture the sap of well-prepared food. 

71. O men, just as both immense Sun and Earth, full of brilliance, 
the fulfillers of all transactions, the bestowers of beauty, guard this 
organised world like a well, and rays also guard it, so should ye guard 

72. O teacher and preacher, the dispellers of the sins of nescience, 
come ye with force of intellect to the study circles where are studied 
the works of poets on worldly and spiritual topics, to the meeting place 
and the dwelling of a scholarly person. 

73. Ye two learned persons, believers in non-violence, come 
hither in a sun-bright plane, and explain fully to us the conduct 
of life. 

74. The transverse and extended light of the sun and lightning is 
found above and below. It is struggling from hither and thither. With 
its knowledge men should gain strength, and become venerable and 
philanthropic with their wealth. 

75. Electricity hath filled the Heaven and Earth and the great 
apparent realm of light. This fire is utilised through application; being 

68. See 8-4 

71. This verse is the same as 33-19, but with a quite different significance. 

Like a well : Just as peasants guard their fields and garden with water from a well, so 
do the Sun and Earth guard this world. Them : The Sun and Earth. 

72. Mr. Griffith says "The verse is difficult and obscure." 
To me these remarks seem to be unreasonable 

73. lift may mean a plane, a motor car or a motor-boat as it is used in air, on land or 

Two : The teacher and preacher. 
For two pratikas see 7 12, 16. 


the cause of sound, it is used for non-violent industrial concerns. For 
fastness in battle it is used as a horse that covers distances quickly. It is 
helpful for the growth of food grains from the Earth. 

76. The teacher and preacher are deserving of praise, who like the 
King and Commander of the army, the bestowers of happiness and 
chastisers of the irreligious sinners, spread technical knowledge through 
vedic verses, speech and proclamations. 

77. May our sons listen about the Immortal God, to the eternal 
preachings of the vedas from their teachers, and bring us joy. 

78. Endowed with knowledge and good education, the prosperous, 
wise persons, expect riches, and desire for vedic instructions from me. 
Just as the strong cloud well fed through Homa, brings me joy, so should 
the teacher and the taught teach us different sorts of vedic knowledge. 

79. O Mighty God, Thy nature is matchless. Among the learned 
sages not one is found Thy equal, 

Thou wast never born, nor is born. None can comprehend what 
Thou hast done or shalt do. 

80. In all the worlds God is the Best and Highest whence sprang 
the valiant, wealthy hero. Quickly when born he overcomes his foemen. 
All benefactors of humanity who follow God derive joy. 

81. May these my songs of praise verily exalt Thee, God, Who is 

Men, radiant like fire, pure, full of knowledge, sing Thy praises 
admiring material objects. 

82. O King, this man of high character is obedient to thee. The 
miser who hides his treasure is thy enemy. The hidden wealth of a 
wealthy trader, protected against arms and violence, is meant for thee, 

83. The King is endowed with innumerble branches of knowledge 
through sages, the knowers of the vedas, possesses vast strength, and is 

78. The teacher, Acharya. The verse means, there should be mutual exchange of 
knowledge. The pupils should learn from the teachers, from those who are more learned than 

80. When born : It does not refer to physical [birth. It refers to intellectual and 
spiritual birth, after he has received military training from his teacher, and bocome twice 

81. Material objects, created by God, sing His glory. The learned seeing the wonder- 
ful, beautiful world created by God, sing the praise of God expressing their admiration for all 
material objects. 

83. I : A member of the subjects. 



famous for his noble actions, His greatness is spread vast like the ocean. 
I praise firmness in the administration of the wise and well-organised 
government functions, 

84. O supreme King, protect this day our dependants from all 
sides with different kinds of harmless, lucky aids. Endowed with speech 
contributing to the welfare of all, protect us for newest prosperity, where- 
by no evil-minded thief may have his sway over us. 

85. O king, quick like air, just as I, internally pure, believing in 
progress, active and valorous, with nice store of knowledge, attend thy 
literary conclaves, so shouldst thou ours. 

86. We accept as our masters in this world, the Commander-in- 
chief, fair to see and fit to be invoked, so that in the Assembly and battle, 
all our men be happy and free from disease. 

87. The prosperous person, who for the acquisition of noble traits, 
the acquirement of desired happiness, obtaining things worthy of possess- 
ion, verily serves the king and public leaders, becomes thereby peaceful in 
mind and free from trouble. 

88. O king and public leaders, valiant, conquerors of riches, immer- 
sed in knowledge, attain to happiness, adorn the subjects, drink the 
medically prepared juice, arrange for the supply of water, injure us not, 
and gain victory through righteousness. 

89. May the master of wealth and vedic lore come nigh unto us, 
may we cultivate truthful speech. May the learned associate with an 
exalted and brave person, the lover of humanity and follower of the path 
of rectitude. 

90. The moon with beautiful gaits, like a loud-neighing horse, 
runs in the atmosphere, receiving light from the sun. Object of many 
a man's desire, abundantly golden-hued, she acquires beauty, lustre and 

91. Singing their praises with godlike wisdom, let us invoke each 
learned person for your protection ; each scholar for the acquisition of 
desired happiness, and each sage for enjoying progress, 

92. O learned persons, just as the Sun, set in heaven, the bene- 
factor of humanity, increasing in his power on Earth, ripens medicines 

84. This verse is the same as 33 -69. The meanings of both are different. Hence 
there is no repetition. In the verse 69 W^ means, riches and house, whereas here it means, 
the dependants, which altogether changes the significance. 

91- Their : the Vishvedevas , the learned sages and saints. 

Your : the common people, the subjects, 


and grows food, removes darkness of the night with his lustre, and shines 
forth, so should ye dispel ignorance and gain glory. 

93. O teacher and preacher) this footless Dawn, first comes to those 
with feet. Being headless, speaking loudly with the tongue of birds, she 
goes down for twenty four hours. 

94. May all learned persons, equally charitably disposed, and 
equally full of righteous indignation, in unison, be the bringers of riches, 
today and hereafter, for a thoughtful person, for us and our progeny. 

95. O King refulgent with fame, lord of the hosts of men, the 
learned strive to win thy love. O supreme King, suppressor of violence 
from all sides, chastiser of the ignoble, be thou the master of richer. 

96. O men, the Commander of the army with manifold acts, afford- 
ing protection to the millions, with warlike weapons, like sun the slayer 
of clouds, slays the foes for mighty prestige, and secures wealth and food 
for ye, so should ye show him respect. 

97. O men, the mighty king, always enhances his power and valour, 
and arranges for the supply of water, for the happiness of the world created 
by God. Human beings anxious for the fruit of their actions sing the 
glory of God like their forefathers. Praise ye also Him. 

93. This verse is applicable to Dawn and Tongue. Rishi Dayananda, Sayana, and 
Mahidhar have interpreted it differently. I have given the interpretation of Mabtrshi 
Dayananda. Dawn, without foot moving in the sky, appears when men with feet are sleeping. 
Birds like cock announce with their tongue its arrival. It leaves its head, the tun. It 
reappears after passing through thirty divisions of day and night, i.e., 24 hours. 

97. For four Pratikaa (limbs) SM 3381, 82, 83 and 

CHAPTER xxxiv 

1. That which, divine, mounts far when man is waking, that which 
returns to him when he is sleeping. 

The lights' one light that goeth to a distance, may that, my mind, 
be moved by auspicious resolve. 

2. Whereby the virtuous, thoughtful and wise persons, in religious 
performances, learned assemblies and battles, perform their duties. The 
peerless spirit stored in living creatures, may that, my mind be moved by 
auspicious resolve. 

3. That which is wisdom, intellect, and firmness, immortal light 
which creatures have within them. That without which men can do no 
single action, may that, my mind, hanker after God and be moved by 
noble resolve. 

4. Whereby, coupled with immortal God, the past, present and 
future all are comprehended, whereby spreads sacrifice by Seven Hotas, 
may that, my mind, aim at salvation. 

5. Wherein the Richas, Samans, Yajur-verses and the Atharva 
veda, like spokes within a cart's nave, are included, and all the knowledge 
of human beings is inwoven, may that, my mind, be actuated with the 
noble resolve of propagating the Vedas. 

6. As a skilful charioteer drives with reins the fleet-foot horses, so 
does the mind control men. It dwells within the heart, is free from old 
age, drives men into sensuality, and is most rapid. May that, my mind, 
be moved by right intention. 

7. I glorify eagerly the king who possesses food, justice and a strong 
army. He conquers the foes, just as the sun rends limb by limb the cloud 
filled with water. 

8. O learned king of favourable disposition, grant us happiness, 
which thou dost consider conducive. Urge us to wisdom, and strength; and 
prolong the days of our life. 

1, The lights' one light : The sole illuminator of all perceptive senses, 
4. Seven Hotas .-The seven organs in the head, two eyes, two ears, two nostrils and 
mouth. They play an important part in performing the functions of this bodily sacrifice, 
Seven Hotas may also mean* five breaths, Soul and primary Matter. 

322 YAJUR VfiDA 

9. May the man of favourable knowledge approve friendly this 
day our sacrifce among the learned. May he and master of the science of 
oblation-bearing fire, bring bliss to the charitably disposed person. 

10. O lovely, strong, broad-tressed, famous, beautiful, educated 
virgin, sister of the learned, accept the desired husband, and grant us 

11. Five organs of cognition, emanating from their common source, 
the mind, like five rivers speed onward to speech. The flowing speech, 
in its dwelling place, the mouth, becomes fivefold. 

12. O God, may Thou the Most-renowned, the Assuager of souls, 
the Master of knowledge, the Scholar of scholars, be our Well-wisher 
and Friend. 

After Thy holy Law, sages and ordinary mortals, wise and prudent 
in actions with their splendid weapons, are born. 

13. OGod, noble in qualities, actions and nature, preserve our 
wealthy patrons and our bodies with Thy succours. O Venerable God, 
Guard art thou of our sons, grandsons and cows, incessantly protecting in 
Thy holy law. 

14. O learned person, just as a well-versed aspiring scholar per- 
forms sacrifice fyajna) for the sake of rain in this vast Earth and atmos- 
phere, and the son of a praiseworthy woman, acting as the promoter of 
non-violent persons, becomes famous for his knowledge and establishes 
his beautiful strength, so shouldst thou nourish thyself. 

15. O sagacious king, we establish thee on the Earth in its centre 
in the post of a ruler, for granting us valuable substances. 

16. O men, just as we, with sinless acts, for the sake of knowledge, 
the reciters in well-trained utterances of vedic verses, replete with ins- 
tructions, expatiate on religious lore, and long for the hero, the force of 
knowledge, and scriptures, dear like vital breath, and honour this vener- 
able person, so should ye. 

17. O men, just as the knowers of the true nature of soul, showing 
respect unto us, knowing all the branches of the science of creation, and 
learned ancestors, for the great man imbued with physical and spiritual 
force, and for you, grant us disciplined speech and the knowledge of the 

9. Sacrifice : Yajna, 

11. Saraswati : The speech. 

Fivefold : Speech describes the five organs of cognition, the Gyan-Indriyas. 

15. We : Preacher and teacher. 


Sama Veda, highly useful for the attainment of strength, unto them should 
ye show respect and offer food. 

18 O king, honour those, who are affluent, friendly, gleaners of 
might, masters of knowledge, silent endurers of the abuses of the people. 
None is wiser than thee, hence all long for thee. 

19. O king, just as in the kindled fire these morning yajnas are 
performed, whereby the clouds come together, so come thou hither in 
conveyances moved by water and fire for acquiring permanent happiness. 
In this way even the distant places are not far for thee. 

20. Invincible in fight, saviour of armies, giver of happiness, giver 
of life, protector of might, winner of battles, sovereign lord of the Earth, 
exceeding famous, victor, in thee may we rejoice, O King. 

21. To him who reveres the king, teacher or preacher, he gives 
speech full of learning, wealth conducive to truthful conduct, a fleet steed, 
a brave son, active in duties, well-mannered, skilled in the performance of 
sacrifice (yajna), recipient of knowledge from his father, and competent in 

22. These herbs, these milch-kine, and these running waters, all 
these, O Soma, Thou hast generated. The spacious firmament hast Thou 
expanded, and with light hast Thou dispelled darkness, 

23. O King, possessing a strong army, might, and fine attributes, 
with thy godly spirit, win for us a share of riches. 

Thou art the lord of valour, let none subdue thee. With a desire 
for extreme happiness, in this world and the next, remove our impedi 
ments just as a disease is removed. 

24. The radiant, urging sun, comes giving choice treasures to the 
charitably disposed person. His brightness illumines the earth's eight 
directions, the three regions, and the seven rivers upto twelve miles. 

25. The sun, the recipient of water with his hands, the radiant 
rays, the exhibitor of all substances, the creator of all edibles, rises and 

18. la this verse are mentioned the attributes of an (Apta) an ideal sage. 

19. The word $ffa has been translated by Swami Dayananda as king, the possessor 
of horses. 

21. The word Soma may mean God as well. He means a learned person. 

22. Soma means God. 

24. Eight directions :~Four main directions : North, East, South, West, and the four 
minor directions. 

Three regions : Heaven, firmament and earth. 

Seven rivers : Seven oceans or strata of vapour extending high up from the earth 
for twelve miles, upto the upper portion of the clouds. 


moves between the Heaven and Earth, and removes the disease of 

At the time of setting it fills the atmosphere on all sides with dark 

26. The Sun. with its hands of gleaming rays, kind benefactor, the 
bringer of rain, the giver of happiness, self refulgent, driving off demons 
and thieves, rises, removing human physical weaknesses. May he bring us 
happiness, illuminating all substances. 

27. O highly learned fellow, brilliant like the Sun, thy dustless path- 
ways, followed by the ancient scholars, are well established in the air's 
mid region, like those of the Sun. Come by those paths so fair to travel : 
make us ever tread upon them, preserve us and instruct us. 

28. O teacher and preacher, lustrous like the Sun and Moon, 
grant us well protected, faultless, comfortable houses where ye may drink 
nice juices. 

29. O learned teacher and preacher, the dispellers of afflictions, 
and givers of joys, make ye our speech and wisdom effectual. Protect 
us against gambling, strive for your prosperity in battle. I praise ye both; 
work for my advancement, 

30. O King and Commander of the army, just as the Earth, Ocean, 
atmosphere and heaven portect us, so ye both, friendly and chastisers of 
the wicked, through day and night, protect us on every side, with harm- 
less riches. 

31. O learned persons, with full observation, use full well the 
lustrous electricity, which resides in the solar system, standing through 
attraction, fixes in its respective sphere the immortal cause and the 
mortal effect, and with its blazing, beautiful nature, grants prosperity, and 
pervades material objects. 

32. O men, use properly^ the great Night, which covers the places 
of light, which hath filled the planet Earth and Sun's mid regions, whose 
terrific darkness comes and goes. 

33. O Dawn enriched with ample wealth, bestow on us that wond- 
rous light wherewith we may support the babies and young sons, as does 
an accomplished wife. 

34. We invoke God at dawn, we pray for progress at dawn, we 

31. This verse is the same as 33-43 with a different significance. In 33-43 there is a 
mention of sun. but here electricity is the subject matter. There is no fault of repetition. 


practice breath control at dawn, we respect father and mother* at dawn. 
At dawn we invoke God, the Lord of the vedas, the Sustainer of all, and 
Adorable by all. We use medicinal herbs in the morning, and at dawn we 
try to realise the true nature of soul. 

35. God is the Master of infinite power, the Sustainer of manifold 
worlds, the Conqueror of all, the Object of adoration by all, the awe- 
inspiring Chastises of the wicked, may we worship Him in morning. 
Thinking of Whom the indigent, impatient, mighty person, even the King 
says, 'let me share His bounty.' 

36. O Glorious God, Goader of men to action, Giver of wealth, 
Master of riches, fit for adoration, grant us wisdom and afford us 

O God, the Giver of knowledge, increase our store of kine and 
horses. O God, may we be rich in men and heroes. 

37. O noble, pure God, may prosperity be ours at present, in future, 
and during the day-time. 

May we, O Bounteous Lord, at the rising of the Sun, be happy, 
in the wake of the excellent wisdom of the learned. 

38. O learned persons, God verily is Supreme. May we become 
supreme through Him. O God, all invoke Thee. O Supreme God, be 
Thou our leader in this world. 

39. O men, Dawns like a disciplined horse, incline us to acquire a 
pure, desirable, non-violent conduct. 

As strong steeds draw a chariot, may they remind us of the pre- 
sence of the Mighty God, the Lord of riches. 

40. O learned ladies, just as Dawns, full of nice cold water, and 
manifold beams, awakeners of heroic persons; auspicious, bestowers of 
pure water, advancing magnificently from all sides, dawn on our assembly, 
so should ye adorn our assembly and preserve us evermore with your 
health giving joys, 

41. O nourhishing God, may we following Thy Law, never suffer 
pain. We, in this world, are singers of Thy praise. 

42. O men, Mighty God, with His vedic speech, noble intention, 

39. They: Dawns, 

At dawn man's mind is reflective, inclined to the worship of God, and contemplation of 
noble righteous deeds. 

42. The word Pasha means God as well as an Apta person. The verse is applicable to 
an Apta person also. 


saintly Nature, gives us from time immemorial sources of happiness 
which keep afflictions away. He excellently establishes our wisdom 
and actions. He ever possesses good qualities, acts and nature. May we 
praise the Adorable God, who guards all pathways, 

43. The Merciful, Protecting, All-Pervading God, establishing 
His sacred laws, is thenceforth the creator of the three steps of the causal, 
subtle and gross forms. 

44. The ever vigilant, the singers of the praise of God, and the 
learned yogis, realise His most sublime Nature. 

45. By God's decree, the Sun and the Earth, full of light and water, 
ornamentors of the world created, vast, full of diverse objects, filled 
with sweet water, beautiful in their form, imperishable, rich in seed, 
stand apart firmly established. 

46. Let those who are our foemen stand apart from us. With airy 
and fiery weapons we will drive them off. The Vasus, Rudras, and 
Adityas have exalted me, made me pre-eminent, mighty, thinker, and 
sovereign lord. 

47. O devotees of truth, ye learned persons amongst the officials 
and the subjects, knowing the thirty three gods, come for enjoying 
medicinal juices. Wipe out sins, ward off enemies, perform noble deeds 
with zeal and energy; and prolong the days of life. 

48. O mortals, may this praise and speech of the magnanimous, 
laudable and energetic artisan be conducive to your benefit. Protect well 
with food the body of the aged. For long life may we acquire strength, 
knowledge and food. 

49. Those who study together the religious lore, who read together 
the vedas and enjoy happiness, who return home from the Gurukula 

43. Three steps may also mean Earth, atmosphere and Sun, or the three conditions of 
the soul, waking (Jagrit), sleeping (Swapna), profound sleeping (Sushupti). These words may 
also mean, creation, sustenance and dissolution of the universe. 

46. Thinker :-Distinguisher between truth and untruth. 

Vasus, Rudras, Adityas : Those who observe celibacy for 24, 36 and 48 years; or 
eight vasus ; eleven Rudras, ten pranas and soul, twelve Adityas, the months of the year. 

47. Thirtythree gods .Eight Vasus, Eleven Rudras, Twelve Adityas, Lightning and 
Yajna. The verse indicates how philanthropists and benefactors of humanity should lead 
their life, 

49. Seven divine forces : Five senses of cognition, Gyan-Indriyas, the mind, and soul. 

Griffith mentions these forces according to Ludwig, as seven godlike Rishis, i.e., 
Bhardwaja, Kashyapa, Gotama, Atri, Vasishtha, Vishwamitra, and Jamadagni, This interpreta- 
tion is incprrect, as there is no historical reference in the vedas. 


after observing Brahmcharya and completing their studies, who are to- 
gether advanced in knowledge, who are masters of seven divine forces, are 
veritable Rishis, the knowers of the vedas. Such calm, wise persons view- 
ing the path of ancient sages take up the reins of noble deeds like a 

50. Bestowing length of life, splendour, increase of wealth, and con- 
quering power, may this brightly shining gold and food be attached to me 
for victory. 

51. The strength acquired by the learned in the Brahmcharya 
Ashrama, can be destroyed neither by demons nor by fiends. Whoever 
possesses the strength of celibacy, lives a long life among the sages, and 
also lives a long life among thoughtful persons. 

52. Noble persons with benevolent thoughts, full of sagacity and 
learning, lords of hundreds of soldiers, bind me in knowledge which dis- 
tinguishes between truth and untruth. I possess that in me for life 
through hundred autumns, that I may live till ripe old age overtakes me. 

53. May the unborn God, the Support of all like the atmosphere, 
Indestructible, the Expander of the world, the Creator of all regions, 
the Master of permanent knowledge, hear our words. May all the learn- 
ed persons, the protagonists of truth, vying with each other for advance- 
ment, and texts recited by the sages protect us. 

54. I listen with rapt attention to these eternal true sayings of the 
vedas preached by majestic kings. 

May associates, intelligentsia, distributors, and noble persons hear 
our words purifying the conduct like water. 

55. Seven Rishis are established in the body ; these seven guard 
it with unceasing care. 

These seven enter the soul in the body of him who lies asleep. At 
that time two sleepless gods, the protectors of soul, keep waking. 

52. Dakshayana 5T8Wn .According to Macdonnel Daks ha is in the veda a creative 
Power associated with Aditi (Infinity or Eternity), the mother of the Adityas. In past Vedic 
literature he is generally regarded as the son of Brahma, and placed at the head of Prajapatis 
or Lords of Created Beings. 

Rishi Dayananda translates the word as men possessing sagacity and learning. Failure 
on the part of Western scholars to understand the yaugic, derivative meaning of words leads 
them to concoct imaginaryjtheories which have no hearin ,n the context and simply confuse 
the meaning. 

53. Seven Rishis : Touch, Sight, Hearing, Tate, Smell, Mind and Intellect. 
Two sleepless gods : Inbreath and out breath, Pran and Apan. 


56. Arise, O learned person, the guardian of vedic wealth, we 
longing for learned teachers pray to thee. May those persons who give 
good gifts, approach thee, and enjoy thou in a righteous manner the 
gifts offered. 

57. God, in Whom the Sun, Moon, breaths, air and all good attri- 
butes, seek their dwelling-place, is verily the Guardian of the vedic lore. 
He preaches the solemn hymn of praise. 

58. O God, Protector of the universe, the learned sing Thy praise 
in the yajna, and we brave people accept Thee as Mighty, be Thou the 
regulator of this our hymn, instruct the lover of knowledge, and satisfy all 
virtuous souls. 

56. Pray to thee : Request tbee to impart knowledge to us. 

57. Dwelling-place : God is the shelter of all material objects in their nascent and 
gross condition. All material substances reside in His protection and care. 

58. The four Pratikas that follow are taken respectively, from 17-17,1720, 17-27, 
1183; for certain Karma Kandas, 


1. Businessmen who torment others, and are inimical to the learned, 
should get away from here. May the Beautiful God, grant this soul, the 
singer of vedic hymns, full opportunity for work with the lustre of 
knowledge during all the days and nights of life. 

2. O soul, God grants for thy bodies in different births, according 
to thy deeds a happy or unhappy place on this earth. May radiant beams 
prove helpful to thee. 

3. O soul, let air purify thee, let God purify thee with lightning's 
glitter and sun's lustre. Let beams release thee. 

4. O souls, God has placed ye in this ephemeral world, and made 
your mansion in this life, ever changing like a leaf. Worship the 
Perfect God alone. Through His grace, establish yourself laboriously in 
religion, and acquire worldly possessions, vedic lore and control over 

5. O girl, forbearing like the earth, the father establishes thy 
asylum on the Earth, kind like a mother, Be pleasant unto him. 

6. O soul, May God soon drive away our sin. I establish thee in 
Him, the protector of men and worthy of worship, near a beautiful place 
full of water. 

7. Go hence, O Death, pursue thy special pathway apart from 
that which the virtuous are won't to tread. To thee that sees and hears, 
I say, 'Kill not our offspring, injure not our heroes. 1 

2. After death the subtle soul is carried to different worlds through beams, before it is 
reborn. On this earth, soul derives happiness or suffering according to his good and bad deeds 
through the dispensation of God. 

3. When souls go out after death leaving the bodies, and attain to lightning, sun's lustre 
and air, and re-enter the womb, at that time the sun's beams, with whose aid the souls roam 
in the solar system, leave them. 

4. Ashwatha : The unstable world, which may or may not exist tomorrow, there is 
no certainty of life. Hence man should worship God, and alienating himself from the unsteady 
world yoke himself with God for acquiring real happiness. 

The word WWt has been translated by Griffith as Pig Tree, which is meaningless. 
See 1279. 

5. A daughter should be devoted to her parents even after marriage and sever not her 
connection with them, 

Asylum {Relation, shelter, resort, 


8. Pleasant to thce be wind and Sun, and pleasant be the bricks 
to thee. Pleasant to thee be the terrestrial fires : let not these things 
put thee to grief. 

9. O soul, let the regions, the waters, and the seas be most propi- 
tious for thee. Auspicious unto thee be the atmosphere. Prosper all 
sub-quarters well for thee. 

10. On flows this stormy, sensual river-like world, work cautiously, 
my friends, arise and overcome all obstacles. 

Let us abandon what is profitless in this world, and enjoy excellent 

11. O God, the remover of sins, drive away from us sin, the 
impurity of soul, evil deeds, the offence committed by our unsteady 
external organs, and evil thoughts. 

12. To us let waters, and the medicinal plants be friendly, to him 
who hates us, whom we hate, unfriendly. 

13. Electricity carries us the learned to distant places. Just as an 
ox carries the cart, so we use this electricity for prosperity in preparing 
planes and seating people therein. May that serve as lightning for you. 

14. May we always keeping in view, eagerly know and realize 
God, free from the darkness of ignorance. Self-Effulgent, Releaser from 
afflictions, the most Learned of the learned, the Light that is most 

15. So that none may confiscate speedily the wealth amassed 
through exertion by these souls, I establish a law of morality, following 
which you can live for a hundred lengthened autumns, and keep death 
away through celibacy and knowledge. 

8. Bricks .--house or altar made of bricks. The word Ishtika may also mean day and 
night, vide Shatapath Brahmana. 

3lKWlf! 3 ?WT: 3RT 91 218. - 

11. Just as the medicine Apamarga cures our physical ills, so does God purify our soul 
and frees it from all shortcomings. 

12. Hate the sin and not the sinner. We should work for the amelioration and 
betterment of even the sinner. We should hate the sin of others, who in turn should bate our 
sin and not us. 

13. That : Electricity. 

As lightning : Just as lightning is highly fast in motion, so is electricity. 

14. See 20 21. 

15. I ! God. 

God has laid down for men the rule of conduct that they should follow religion and shut 
ir religiousness, and not snatch the wealth of others. 


16. God, Thou purifiest our lives. Grant us vigorous strength 
and knowledge. Punish adequately the violent far or near. 

17. O King brilliant like fire, just as fire fanned by butter, with 
source of lustre, waxes with oblations, so shouldstthou live long. 

When thou hast assimilated the cow's fair savoury ghee, guard nicely, 
as a father guards his son, thy subjects. 

18. If all study the vedas, enter domestic life after due ceremony, 
listen to the spiritual teachings of the learned , who will then attack 
them with success ? 

19. I, the knower, drive away the eater of raw meat, ^and the 
tormentor of men like fire, and cast aside the sinners. 

Let all criminals be brought before the Court of Justice. Let a 
noble soul, in this world, drive useful knowledge from the learned. 

20. O intelligent person, thou knowest thy parents established far 
away, for them cultivate the land. Let rivulets full of water flow to 
meet them, and let their truthful wishes be accomplished in a decent 

21. O wife calm like the Earth, give us far reaching pleasure, as 
does the Earth, free from thorn, our resting-place. Just as a just 
ruler drives away our sin, so shouldst thou eradicate our evil. 

22. O learned person, thou art foremost amongst men. May this 
son born anew from thee, be fair to look at, and enjoy fair reputation and 

16. See 19 38. 

19. I: The King. 

20. TOt has been translated by Griffith as fat, and land by Maharshi Dayananda, which 
yields corn, fruits and vegetables. We should serve and revere our parents and carry out 
their wishes, 


1. May inbreath and outbreath be strengthened in my soul. May 
my speech acquire mental strength, whereby I may gain physical strength. 

May my speech be commendable like the Rig Veda, my mind 
reflective like the Yajur veda. May I master the Sama Veda, the 
expositor of the science of yoga. May I possess good eyes and ears. 

2. Whatever defect I have of eye or heart, or perplexity of mind, 
that may God amend. Gracious to us be He, Protector of the world. 

3. Oh men, just as we having studied the science of moral duty, the 
science of contemplation, and the science of sacred knowledge, meditate 
upon God, the Reliever of afflictions, inaccessible through physical organs, 
the Giver of affluence, the Object of desire, the Impeller of our intellects, 
so should ye do. 

4. With what help does the ever-prospering, wonderful God become 
our Friend ? With what constant, most mighty wisdom does He impel us 
in noble attributes, actions and natures ? 

5. O man, God, the most advanced in happiness, the Embodiment 
of joy, grants thee happiness through food; and gives thy soul, the eradi- 
cator of misery, durable wealth. 

6. O God, Thou granting us manifold glories, and protecting us from 
all sides, dost fairly guard us, thy friends, who praise Thee. 

7. O God, the Showerer of joys from all sides, with what aid dost 
Thou delight us, in what way dost Thou bestow happiness on thy 

8. O God, like lightning Thou shinest in the universe, may weal 
attend our bipeds and our quadtupeds. 

.These words have been interpreted by Pt. Jai Dev, Vidya Alankar, as 
studying the Atharva Veda with attention as one listens with one's ears. This interpretation is 
plausible as it refers to the four instead of the three vedas. 

3. See 3-35, 22-9, 30-2. 

This is Gayatri Mantra. This Mantra occurs four times in the Yajur Veda. Swami 
Dayananda has interpreted it differently each time. In all the vedas this vtrse occurs six 

4. See 27-39- 

5. See 27-40. 


9. May God, friendly like breath, be gracious unto us; may God, 
tranquiliser like water be kind to us; may God the Just be benevolent to us; 
may God the Mighty, and Guardian of the vedic speech be comfort-giving 
to us, may the All-pervading God, the vigilant creator of the universe be 
pleasant to us. 

10. May the wind blow pleasantly for us. May the Sun warm us 
pleasantly. May lightning roar for us. May cloud send the rain on us 

11. May days pass pleasantly for us. May nights draw near delight- 
fully. May lightning and fire, with their aids, bring us happiness May 
the Sun and rain givers of joy, comfort us. 

12. May beautiful waters be pleasant to us to drink and acquire 
happiness, and flow with health and strength to us. 

13. O wife calm like the Earth, just as the Earth free from thorns 
and pits, the resting place for all durable substances, is comfortable for us, 
so shouldst thou be. Just as wide Earth gives us place for dwelling, so 
shouldst thou delight-affording, give us domestic happiness. 

14. O peaceful, learned, noble wives, just as beneficent waters 
sustain us for a big famous fight and energy, so should ye endear yourselves 
to us. 

15. O noble wives, give us your most propitious affection in this 
world, like mothers longing for progeny. 

16. O wives, just as ye make us calm like water, so should we make 
ye peaceful. As each of ye satisfies her husband for decent living for him, 
so may we acquire power and wealth for him. 

17. May sky be peaceful. 

May atmosphere be peaceful. 
May Earth be peaceful. 
May waters be peaceful. 
May medicinal herbs be peaceful. 
May plants be peaceful. 

12. The verse may also mean, as interpreted by Maharshi Dayananda in Panch Maha 
Yajna Vidhi, May God, the Illuminator of all, Pleasure-giver to all, and All-pervading, for 
desired happiness and the acquisition of complete joy, be blissful to us. May He shower felicity 
on us from all sides. This is the first mantra of Sandhya (vedic prayer). 

13. See 35-21. 

14. See 11-50. 

15. See 11-51. 

16. See 11-52, 


May all the learned persons be peaceful. May God and the vedas 
be peaceful. May all the objects be peaceful; May peace itself be peace- 
ful. May that peace come unto me. 

18. O God, the Dispeller of ignorance and darkness, strengthen, 
me, May all beings regard me with the eye of a friend. May I regard all 
beings with the eye of a friend. With the eye of a friend do we regard 
one another. 

19. Do O God, the Preventer of mental delusion, strengthen me. 
Long may I live to look on Thee. Long may I live to look on Thee. 

20. Obeisance to God, the Queller of sins, the Source of light. 
Obeisance to God worthy of adoration. May thy punishments torment 
others. Be thou Purifier, and propitious unto us. 

21. Homage to Thee God pervading like lightning, Homage to Thee 
God, the Inspirer of awa for the sinners. Homage, O Bounteous Lord to 
thee, as Thou desirest to give us happiness. 

22. O God, from whatsoever place, Thou desirest, give us freedom 
from fear thence. Give to our people and our beasts happiness and 

23. O God, let waters and plants be friendly to us; unfriendly to him 
who hates us, and whom we hate. 

24. O God, Thou art the well-wisher of the learned. Immaculate, 
the Exhibitor of every thing like the eye, the Eternal knower of every 
thing. Through Thy kindness may we see for a hundred years; may we 
live for a hundred years; may we listen for a hundred years to vedic lore; 
may we preach the vedas for a hundred years; may we live content inde- 
pendently for a hundred years; yea, even beyond a hundred years, see, live, 
hear, preach and be not dependent. 

19* 'Long may I live to work OB thee' : Thtse words have been used twice for th sake 
of emphasis. 

20. See 6-22. 


1. O learned person, as thou art a leader, so in this world created 
by God, the Giver of all happiness, with the strength and valour of the 
teacher and preacher, and with the assistance of a nourisher, I accept 

2. The Unequalled God, the Embodiment of knowledge creates all 
beings. This is the great praise of Him, Who is Ubiquitous, and the 
Creator of the Universe. The noble and wise yogis concentrate their 
mind on and dedicate their action to, the Omnipresent God,, the 
Highest knower. All should worship Him. 

3. O mistress and preachress, highly qualified like the Sun and 
Earth, may I nicely accomplish, this day, on the Earth, in the sacrificial 
abode of the excellent final stage of the sacrifice (yajna) conducted by ye 
both. O priest I accept thee for the yajna and the successful termination 
of the yajna. 

4. O early born, young, brilliant, learned women, I accept ye, this 
day in a place where the learned assemble, as head of the contemplated 
sacrifice, connected with the Earth. O lady, the performer of the yajna, 
I acknowledge thee as head of the yajna. 

5. O learned person, at first I accept thee for due reverence, for 
the excellence of association. Thy sacrifice is well-merited. This day, on 
the Earth, I make thee duly prosper by honouring so many scholars. 

6. O men, just as I acquire the vitality of a glorious person, so may 
I, this day, on that part of the earth where the learned art worshipped, 
like head, the chief organ, make ye prosperous. 

May I perfect thee in the use of intellectual words of honour for 
the sages, and usage of loving conduct. May I perfect thee, the preacher 
of good qualities, in the art of artizanship, and usage of loving conduct, 
May I perfect thee in the dissemination of excellent science, and acquisi- 
tion of knowledge. So should ye become valorous. 

4, Yajna is connected with the Earth, as it is performed on it aid for its betterment. 
Early born t Born before the birth of their sons. 

6. Thee .-The yajman, the performer of sacrifice* 
I : The priest 
;-Men f 


7. May the learned bring us in contact with a person, the dispeller 
of miseries, the leader of men, the controller of vast numbers in war, and 
the bestower of happiness. May we associate with a lord of wealth. 
May we acquire a truthful, good mannered, and well-read wife. 

We seek thy shelter for the advancement of knowledge, and as an 
excellent means of happiness. We seek thy shelter for performing 
religious duties, and as a nice instrument for ptotecting religion. We 
seek thy shelter as a harbinger of happiness, as an advancer and giver of 

8. O learned person, as thou art the ornament of Brahmcharya 
Ashram, so we serve thee for acquiring knowledge, and for its right use. 
As thou art the master of deep thinking, so we serve thee for knowing the 
duties of domestic life, and nice execution of sacrifice. As thou art the 
grace of domestic life, so we serve thee for directing the domestic people 
in their actions, and excellent execution of sacrifice. We serve thee for 
success in noble enterprises, and leading righteous dealings. 

We serve thee for learning yoga, and mastering all the intricacies 
of the science of yoga. We serve thee as giver of glory, and for perform- 
ing all deeds of supremacy. 

9. O sacrifices on this Earth in a place where the learned perform 
yajna, with the powerful fire's strength of warding off bad smell, I fumi- 
gate thee for purifying the air, and for alleviating the brain disease of a 
purifier. On the Earth, in a place where the learned perform the yajna, 
with the strength of a powerful man, I fumigate thee for acquiring know- 
ledge of the Earth, and knowing the principal part of the essential nature 
of learning. On this earth, in a place where the learned are worshipped, 
with the lustre of powerful, fast fire I urge thee for its application, and 
for doing noble deeds. I prepare thee for the completion of the yajna, 
for the completion of the best part of the yajna. I goad thee for fame, 
and the most important part of the yajna, I stimulate thee for performing 
the yajna, and the most important part of the yajna. 

10. O learned person we establish thee for sincerity, for honouring 
the learned, and for performing the yajna. We establish thee for philan- 

7. Thy . A learned person. 

9. Sacrificer : One who performs the yajna, yajman, 

I : The priest. : 

Repetition in this verse is meant for the sake of omphatif . 

Fumigate : Sitting in the yajnasbala, the sacrifictr is tncittd by th priest for various 
noble deede, 


thropy, for performing the yajna, and for finishing it to the end. We 
establish thee for land, for the yajna, and the best part of the yajna, 

11. O learned person, a glorious, charitable man, receives thee for 
the administration of justice, for the observance of religious obligations, 
and for the performance of religious practices as ordained by God. May 
he unite thee with the sweetness of worldly objects, but protect thyself 
from their evil attachment. 

As thou art noble, pure like the flame of fire, and embedded in 
religious austerity, hence we pay thee homage. 

12. O woman, unconquerable in the East, in Agni's overlordship, 
give me life. Rich in sons, in the South, in Sun's overlordship give me 

Fair-seated, in the West, in God Creator's overlordship, give me 
spiritual sight. Excellent in hearing, in the North, in air's overlordship, 
Give me increase of wealth. 

Strong in convictions in the upper direction, in the overlordship of 
a learned master of the vedas, give me energy. 

Being filled with a reflective mind, protect me from women given to 

13. O learned person, in the company of other men, act thou nobly, 
protect us from the lightning-fall. 

Practice action, contemplation and knowledge. 

14. God pervades all the objects of Nature. He is Father of the 
wise, and Guardian of all living creatures. 

He is Self Effulgent, and being Creator, shines like the shining man 
of knowledge. Let all attain to Him. 

15. Fire duly receives light from the Self-Effulgent God, and from 
the impelling sun created by God. 

Know Him truly through righteous conduct. 

Through religious practices, attain to God, the Self-Illuminator, the 
Stimulator, and the Glorifier of all material objects. 

16. God is the Sustainer of the Sun, who imparts heat to all objects 
in the atmosphere. He is Immortal and realisable through austerity. 
Effulgent God is the Sustainer of all the forces of Nature. He shines 
lustrously. May He grant us Vedic speech, full of excellent teachings 
and companion of the learned. 

17. May I see God, the "Protector, the Immovable, knowable 
through paths of virtue, here and hereafter. He encompassing the 
Quarters and sub-quarters, permeates all the worlds, 


18. Lord of all earths, Lord of all minds, Lord of all vedic speech, 
thou Lord of speech entire ; Brilliant, happiness bestowing God, Listener 
to the supplications of the learned, Guardian, protect in this world the 
righteous learned persons. Give us the pleasant knowledge of useful 
instructions and excellent teachings. Protect favourably the learned for 
acquiring divine virtues, with the help of the teacher and preacher who 
know the science of honey, antidote to poison. 

19. O God, we meditate on thee, for the purity of heart, for the 
steadfastness of mind, for the manifestation of knowledge, and for learning 
the science of heavens. Foremost Thou. Preach Thou the sacrifice free 
from violence, in noble dealings and amongst learned persons. 

20. O God Thou art our Father, King-like instruct us fatherly. 
Obeisance be to thee. Do not Thou harm me. 

May we, the masters of material objects win Thee. Vouchsafe me 
sons and cattle. Grant us offspring. Safe may I remain together with 
my husband. 

21. O learned person or woman, enjoy nicely day and knowledge, 
in a wide awake manner, in the light of the Sun and Dharraa, 

May night full of brightness, with her lustre, intelligence and action 
serve us excellently. 

19. Sacrifice : Yajoa, 


1. O learned woman, thou art charitable in thy definite behaviour. 
In this world created by the Agreeable God, with arms powerful like 
the sun and moon and with hands strong, protective and retentive like 
the air, I take thee. 

2. O woman, well-instructed like speech, come unto me. Thou 
comest unto me, I go unto thee. O giver of entire happiness, may thou 
get full happiness. May thy husband give thee happiness ; so acquire 

O highly learned woman, select a learned husband. Go to him who 
is advanced in knowledge. 

3. O woman, thou art constant bestower of knowledge, a turban 
for supreme state politics, a protector like the Earth, dedicate thyself to 
pleasant domestic life. 

4. O learned woman, acquire excellence, satisfy well thy parents. 
Possessing body endowed with consciousness, please thy teachers with 
truthful speech. 

Knowing the science of electricity rightly acquire supremacy. 

5. O highly learned woman, thy breast milks the child and makes 
it sleep. Thy husband is bringer of happiness, possessor of noble qualities, 
master of riches, and charitable in nature. With his aid thou acquirest 
all desirable objects. Establish him in this house for acceptance. May . 
I, through him rise to the vast summit of prosperity. 

6. O strong man, like the twentyfour syllables of the Gayatri 
metre, observe thou celibacy for twentyfour years ; like fortyfour syllables 
of Trishtup metre, observe thou celibacy for fortyfour years. 

2. This verse relates to marriage. Husband and wife are free in the choice of their 
life companion. 

This verse may also mean O Rigvedamay we master thee, O Sama veda may we master 
thee, O Yajur veda may we master thee. 

May we master thee, master thee, master thee. 

OT[ fro i (TOO iii 

3 Just as the turban protects the head, so does a learned woman protect her country 
with her political sagacity. 

5* I : Preceptor, priest or teachress. 

6. Who takes vow ;- At the time of marriage, with water in hand, husband and wif 
take some vows. 


I grasp thee dear wife beautified by the Sun and Earth, and accept 
thee who takes vow with water in hand. O husband and wife behave 
mutually like Pran and Apan to accomplish your tasks. 

O Vasus, protect nicely the sacrifice and the sweet honey prepared 
by the bees. Work together well and nobly to make sun's beams bring 

7. O husband or wife, turly do I accept thee for purifying the air 
that moves in the atmosphere. Nicely do I accept thee for purifying the 
air in the water and the house. I enjoin upon thee to be fearless and 
unconquerable, and to know the air in medicinal herbs. Verily do I ask 
thee to be irresistible, and know the velocity of air. Nobly do I accept 
thee as protection-seeker, for knowing specially the force of breath. In 
a noble way do I accept thee for the juice in which eatable food creates 
viscosity, and for Udan breath. 

8. O husband or wife, in true words, do I accept thee for the 
wealthy and powerful offspring. Truly do I accept thee for the erudite, 
self-controlled, misery-killing offspring. In truthful words, do I accept 
thee for the foe-killing, and affluent offspring. Truly do I accept thee 
for the offspring knowing the science of Sun, and befriending the wise, 
understanding the mighty atmosphere, and possessing stores of provisions. 
In true words do I accept thee for the offspring, the guardian of the 
vedas, and the embodiment of noble virtues. 

9. O husband or wife, I, resplendent like sacrifice, in true words 
do accept thee for the offspring, knowing the science of electricity, lover 

of justice, and friend of the learned. Verily do I accept thee for sacrifice. 
Truly do I accept thee as a protector. 

10. O teacher and preacher, in this world, taste ye the remnants of 
this pleasant well-arranged sacrifice. Let the priest seated in the south 
of the altar, accompany and worship the learned in all quarters. 

Pran and Apan : Ju,t as in-going and out-going breaths arc inseparable from each other, 
so should the husband and wife work mutually to accomplish their domestic tasks. 

Vasus ; -Those who have observed celibacy for 24 yean, at the time they taste Madhu- 

Sun's beams : They should perform Agnihotra daily, which brings timely rain, 

7. In this verse I refer to the husband or wife. The various duties of a married 
couple are enumerated in the verse. 

Udan : One of the five vital airs or life wind, which rises up the throat and enters into 
the head, the other four being Pran, Apan, Saman and Vyan. 

Udan breath serves as an aid to digestion. 


11. O husband or wife, with the verses of the Yajur veda, in a nice 
way, in the light of the Sun, in the fire fit for yajna, perform with 
pleasure, the duty of domestic life. In the light of knowledge, perform 
with pleasure in the company of the learned, the Sanyas yajna; the giver 
of true spiritual knowledge. 

12. O well educated husband and wife, protect daily the yajna, 
which broadens our mental vision, gives us scientific and technical know- 
ledge, and is worth preservation day and night, in various ways. Give 
food and show respect to the technician who brings the Sun and atmoi 
phere in service 

13. O husband and wife, protect together the domestic life like air 
and lightning. Like the Sun and Earth judge together the responsibilities 
of the married life, whereby in this domestic life let your boons of know- 
ledge and pleasure be bestowed on all. 

14. O husband or wife, the recipient of truth, religious minded, 
thou art free from violence, hence establish wealth for us, learn the veda, 
acquire sovereignty, and preserve the subjects. Hence enjoy overflow for 
food, enjoy overflow for vedic knowledge and God, enjoy overflow for 
energy, enjoy overflow for vedic knowledge and God, enjoy overflow for 
political power, enjoy overflow for Heaven and Earth. 

15. Husband and wife should try to save powerful, violent persons 
from irreligious acts. They should respect the pupils who repeat the 
utterances of their preceptor. They should receive gladly the thundering 
clouds. They should respect the highly cultured people, who purify the 
world with sacrifice, and like seasons protect us. They should use res- 
pectful words for ladies and gentlemen dignified like the Sun and Earth. 
They should always speak the truth to all the learned people. 

16. O husband or wife, for the soul that wisely extols the life 
breaths, let light combine with light in a righteous manner. Spend the 
day rightly combining the light of knowledge with the light of noble 

Wisely spend the night, rightly combining the light of contem- 
plation with the light of noble religious qualities. May we enjoy through 
smell the sweet butter oblations put in the highly blazing fire. O Supreme 
God, I bow unto Thee. Let not Thou injure me. 

11. Husband and wife are allowed to become a Sanyasi (recluse) if developed spirit- 

13% Just as air and lightning, the Sun and Earth work together for the good of others, so 
should married couple live together peacefully realizing their responsibilities. 

342 VAJUR VfiDA 

17. O learned person, famous, chastiser of the wicked, majestic, 
possessing far-spread glory, and wise, thou condemnest the spread of 
ignorance. Seat thee well on earth with plenty to eat. Thou art mighty. 
Be happy, thou best entertainer of the learned. Loosen through Homa 
the smoke ruddy and beautiful to see. 

18. O learned husband or wife, may thy meditation and divine 
contemplation for preserving the knowledge of the pupils, and the 
provisions of the yajna increase and be ever accomplished. True speech 
for that act and thee. 

O husband or wife bright like the day, that flight of thine in the 
air, with the help of electricity as expounded in Trishtup, may increase 
and be accomplished. True speech for that act and thee. 

O husband or wife, lustrous like Electricity, that shining perfor- 
mance of thine on the Earth, in the Assembly, or amongst the people, 
may increase and be accomplished. True speech for that performance and 

19. O king, guard the body of the Kshatriya and Brahroana for 
affording protection to others. Just as we follow thee for acquiring 
new supremacy, so let thy subjects follow thee in a spirit of devotion. 

20. A godly person, like the four-cornered navel, serves in abun- 
dance, God, the Protector of the world and True in nature. May he, full of 
age and engagements teach us. May he, advanced in age and happiness in- 
struct us in the knowledge of God, so that we may shun the hateful enemies, 
and cast aside the crooked persons. 

21. O most Adorable God, this is Thy nourishing power. Be 
great thereby and make others also great. Be strong, make others strong. 

Through your compassion, just as we advance, let us make others 
advance. Just as we grow great, let us make others great. 

22. All should understand lightning-fire, the cause for rain, fast 
in motion, mighty, roaring, like friend fair to see, shining with the Sun in 
the atsmosphere, the ocean of water. 

23. To us let waters and plants be friendly; to him who hates us, 
whom we hate, unfriendly. 

24. May we, looking mentally upon God, free from darkness, 
highest of all, noblest amongst the noble, the light that is most excellent, 
nicely attain to happiness on all sides. 

23. See 6-22. 

24. Sec 2Ck21, 27-10. 35-14, 

CHAPTER xxxvm 345 

25. O God, Thou shinest in our souls, Thou art brilliant like the 
burning fuel, Thou art the illuminator of knowledge like electricity, give 
me light. May we progress in full, having acquired Thee. 

26. O God, far as the Heaven and Earth are spread in compass, far 
as the seven oceans are extended, so vast do! take with strength Thy 
indestructible power of perseverance. I imbibe in me Thy imperishable 

27. With lustrous fulgency, with readily serviceable riches, the 
yajna shines with triple light. In my soul be that great mental force, in my 
soul be strength, wisdom and action. 

28. O virtuous happy person, the strength through milk thou hast 
gained, may we through each succeeding year enjoy the bliss of drinking 
it. May we thereby for wisdom'attain to thy wisdom and manifest strength. 
May I, the remover of the defects of milk brought near, invited, the per- 
former of Ho ma, enjoy a share of the invigorating and savoury milk, drunk 
and tasted by the soul. 

25. See 20-23. 

27. Triple light : the light of fire, lightning and Sun, or soft, medium Rod excessive 


1. Swaha to the vital breathings with their controlling lord, the 

To earth Swaha ! To Agni Swaha ! 

To Firmament Swaha ! 

To Vayu Swaba ! To Sky Swaha ! To Surya Swaha ! 

2. To the Quarters Swaha ! To the Moon Swaha ! To the Stars 
Swaha ! To the Waters Swaha ! To the Ocean Swaha ! To the Navel 
Swaha ! To the Purifying light Swaha ! 

3. To Speech Swaha ! To Breath Swaha ! To Dhananjaya Vayu 
Swaha ! To the right eye Swaha ! To the left eye Swaha ! To the right 
ear Swaha I To the left ear Swaha ! 

4. The wish and purpose of the mind and truth of speech may I 
obtain. Bestowed on me be cattle's beauty, sweet taste of food, fame and 
grace, through truthful speech and virtuous conduct. 

5. Worship Him alone Who retains the soul called Prajapati, (the 
nourisher of men); the well protected soul called Samrat, (filled with 
lustre); the well received soul called Vaishvadeva (Connected with all 
meterial objects); the soul separated from the body, called Dharma, (full of 
brilliance); the soul progressing called Teja (light); she soul well received 
in water called Ashwin (connected with Pran and Apan); timely received 
soul called Paushan (the light connected with the Earth); the violent soul 
called Maruta (the light connected with man's body); the soul reared in 

1. Swaha : The sacrificial exclamation on making an offering. 

It means, uttered in truthful speech. It denotes righteous action. 

All the thirteen verse^ in this chapter relate to cremation. They are recited at the 
time of cremating the dead body. The dead body should never be entered in the ground, thrown 
in the jungle, or a river. Cremation is the only remedy against its pollution and spread of 
diseases from its offensive odour. Swami Dayananda has condemned in strong words the 
disposal of the corpse in ways other than cremation. 

2. People should send in all directions, by burning the body, its parts through fire. 

3. All parts of the body should be thoroughly burnt. Those who burn the dead body 
with odorous butter and sweet-scented provisions do a virtuous act. 

Dhananjaya A kind of vital air nourishing the body. 

The different organs of the body are named to be burnt completely. 

4. Those who cremate the dead bodies properly attain to grace, fame, etc. 

5. Soul enters the body through water or semen, Twelve names for the soul have been 
enumerated in the verse, depicting its twelve qualities. 


water called Maitra (connected with friendly Pran)> the attacking soul 
called vayavya (full of velocity Uke air); the soul invoked called Agneya 
(burning lustrous like fire), the soul recognised as bead calkd vak (one 
that commands and gives orders). 

. After death, the soul goes to the Sun on the first day ; to Agni 
on the second ; to Vayu on the third; to Aditya on the fourth; to 
Chandrama (the moon) on the fifth ; to Ritu on the sixth ; to Maruts 
on the seventh ; to Brihaspati on the eighth ; to Mitra on the ninth ; to 
Varuna on the tenth ; to Indra on the eleventh ; to all divine, noble traits 
on the twelfth. ; 

7. The soul after death, according to its actions becomes fierce and 
calm ; terrible and fearless ; ignorant and enlightened ; trembling and 
steadfast ; forbearing and unforbeating ; passionate and ascetic ; and a 
prey to bewilderment. 

8. The souls after death attain to fire with the heart ; to -lightning 
with the upper part of the heart ; to Pashupati with the whole heart ; to 

Bhava with the liver. 

To Sharva with the two cardinal bones ; to Ishana with righteous 
indignation; to Mahadeva with the intercostal flesh ; to the Fierce God 
with the rectum ; to handsome chinned person, to knowable and procu- 
rable powers with two lumps of flesh near the heart. 

9. Souls inside or outside the womb become virile through pure 
blood ; lovely through virtuous deeds ; chastisable through ignoble deeds ; 
supreme through pastime ; noble through spiritual force ; achievers of 
aims through enjoyment. Suitable place for fire is between the ribs ; 
for bile the liver ; for waters the rectum ; for soul the protector of bodily 
organs the pericardium. 

6. Aditya: rays of the sun. 
Ritu .Season, personified. 
Maruts : Human beings. 
Brinaspati : The Sutra Atma Vayu. 
Mitra : Pran. 
Varuna : Udan. 
Indra : Lightning. 

The soul roams after death, through different regions, for twelve days, before it takes 
its birth, being washed of its impurities. 

8. Pashupati : God the protector of the cattle, the sustainer of the universe. 
Bhava : The Omnipresent God. 
Sbarva : The Omniscient God. 
Ishana : God the Lofd of the universe. 
Mahadeva : -Great God. 


10. To the hair Swaha ! To the nails Swaha ! Swaha for burn- 
ing the external skin ! Swaha for burning the internal skin ! Swaha for 
burning the blood ! Swaha for burning the heart's blood ! Swaha for 
burning the fats ! Swaha for burning ail the wet parts of the body I 
Swaha for burning the external fleshy parts ! Swaha for burning the in- 
ternal fleshy parts ! Swaha for burning the gross sinews ! Swaha for 
burning the subtle sinews ! Swaha for burning the tough bones ! Swaha 
for burning the soft bones ! Swaha for burning the marrows ! Swaha 
for burning the internal part of the marrows ! Swaha for burning the 
semen ! Swaha for burning the anus ! 

11. Take nourishing diet for physical exertion, for lofty adventure, 
for concerted effort, for endeavour by different organs, for enterprise, for 
physical and mental purity, for contemplative soul, for expounding nice 
ideas, and for spiritual power. 

12. Exert for the performance of religious duty, the advancement 
of the man of penance, the Brahmchari devoted to study, the recluse, the 
people lustrous like the Sun. Try hard to avoid sins, expiate for them, 
and ward off physical ailments through medicine. 

13. Honour the just ruler. Keep away Death the great Finisher. 
Worship God the destroyer of the wicked. Contemplate on God the 
Great. Try for the preservation of vedic knowledge. Revere all learned 
persons > utilise all the forces of nature. Acquire the knowledge of 
Heaven and Earth. 

10. All parts of the body should completely be burnt to ashes. 

Swaha .I put into the fire an oblation of butter and sacrificial provisions* 


1. O man, all moving beings in the universe are enveloped by the 
Omnipotent God. Enjoy what God hath granted thee. Covet not the 
wealth of any man. 

2. Man, only doing unselfish, religious deeds in this world, should 
wish to live for a hundred years. So Karma cleaveth not to man. No 
way is there for thee but this for emancipation. 

3. Verily, the men engulfed in the darkness of ignorance, and 
those who disobey the dictates of conscience, are sinners given to carnal 
pleasures. They, in this life, qnd after death, attain to those sexual enjoy- 
ments enwrapt in affliction and ignorance. 

4. God is permanent, One, swifter than mind, beyond the reach 
of physical organs, speeding on before them. He through His Omnipre- 
sence, outstrips the physical organs running after passions. 

Residing in Him doth soul perform action. 

5. God moves in the eyes of fools. He is motionless. He is far 
distant from the irreligious and ignorant, and near the yogis. He is 
within this entire universe, and surrounds it externally. 

6. The man, who sees all animate and inanimate creation in God, 
and God pervading all material objects, falls not a prey to doubt. 

7. A man contemplating upDn God, feels in Him all beings like 
unto himself. Such a yogi looking upon God as an unequalled One, be- 
comes free from delusion and grief. 

1. It may also mean enjoy the universe in a spirit of renunciation. One should shun 
worldly enjoyments to enjoy real spiritual happiness* 

fa ?OT^ may also mean given to thee by God. Content thyself with what God has 
given thee. 

Don't be greedy. To whom do the riches belong ? To none, then why run after money. 

2. So; Doing noble, religious deeds. 

No way : For salvation there is no other way, but the performance of good deeds* 

3. The word Loka has been translated by some commentators as worlds, regions. Swami 
Dayananda translates it as men who see. There are no regions where pain and ignorance 

6. The man he who has renounced the world and wishes for final emancipation. The 
reading of the Kanva recension is 'na vijugupsate' does not shrink away from them as alien 
and infer/or to his ownself. 


8. God is All pervading, Lustrous, Bodiless, Flawless, Sinewless, 
Pure, Unpierced by evil. He is Omniscient, Knower of the hearts of all, 
Censurer of the sinful, and Self-existent. He truly reveals through the 
vedas all things for His subjects from His immemorial attributes, free 
from birth and death. 

9. Abandoning God, deep into the shade of blinding gloom fall the 
worshippers of eternal, unborn Matter. They sink to darkness deeper 
yet who are engaged in the material pleasures of the world. 

10. One fruit, they say, results from the knowledge of this created 
world, the Effect, another from the knowledge of eternal Matter, the 
Cause. That from the sages have we heard who have declared this 
lore to us. 

11. Tlie man who knows simultaneously the effect and the cause, 
overcoming death through the knowledge of the cause, attains to salvation 
through the knowledge of the effect, the created world. 

12. To blinding darkness go the men who worship Nescience. 
Those proud of little knowledge enter darkness that is darker still. 

13. Different is the fruit, they say, of knowledge and Nescience. 
Thus from the sages have we heard who have declared this lore to us. 

14. He who simultaneously knoweth well these two, knowledge 
and Action, overcoming death by Action, by knowledge gaineth salvation. 

15. O active soul, at the time of death, remember Om, remember 
God for thy vitality and thy eternity, remember thy deeds. Know that 

9. They who worship the eternal uncreated matter are spiritually degraded, and are 
put to suffering. Those who worship and enjoy the material objects of the world are 
more degraded. God alone is worthy of worship. Asambhuti is undeveloped Prakriti, Nature 
in its causal or germinal state when it has not been evolved as the universe which is the 
effect. It is also called tamas, darkness or chaos. This worship is mere blindness, and 

10. Each fruit from the worship of Cause and Effect fail* to achieve the desired object, 
regarding the integration of soul with the Supreme Self. 

11. One should know simultaneously the eternal Matter, the cause 91TO of the utti verse, 
and the effect, TO?, the created world. 

Sambbuti : The world in which all substances are created. 

Vinasha :-The eternal matter in which all substances are resolved at the -time of 

Knowledge of Matter 'frees one from the fear of death and the knowledge and practice of 
noble virtuous 'and religious 'deeds leads one to final beatitude. Ubbat translates Sambhuti 
as God the Great. 

12. Nescience :-Worsnip of Matter, not God. Those who with a ' Smattering of 
knowledge style themselves as highly learned fall iat6 greater darkasss. 


soul is immaterial and immortal but the body is finally reduced to ashes. 

16. O Divine, Lustrous, Benevolent God, most ample, respectful 
adoration do we bring Thee. Thou art All-Knowing. Remove from us 
the sin that leads us astray. Lead us through virtuous path to riches, 
happiness and all sorts of wisdom. 

17. Omen, by me the Resplendant Protector is covered the face 
of Eternal Cause, the Matter. The Spirit yonder in the Sun, that spirit 
dwelling there am I. I am vast like the atmosphere, Greatest of all in 
merit, action, and nature am I. Om is My name. 

17, Om is the best name of God. Om comes from the root in (to protect). Gcd is On 
ai He protects the universe and us all. 


Page and Line 

As originally printed 


2, last line 






12, last line but one 



J-Mf ) f> 




(18-8, 12) 

to be omitted 






the science 









to be omitted 


mid region 

mid region, 

26, foot-note 1 





and thus 

27, foot-note 2 








the sustainer 

30, foot-note 15 



32, foot-note 7 


to be omitted 

32, foot-note 8 



33, foot-note 7 



33, last line 



34, foot-note 14 



35, foot-note 1 









41, foot-note 5 



48, foot-note 8 



48, foot-note 14 













a born 














Page and Line 
72, foot-note 1 

97, foot-note 3 

98, foot-note 4 






104, foot-note 2 

104, foot-note 2 


105. 22 

107. 17 
110, 10 

112, 2, 3 


113, 14 
114, 14 

115. 18 

126, foot-note 5 


Ai originally printed 



describes the 









successful : 










has controlled 

hast controlled 



















and and 







princes, and 

be prosperous 










words from 'like' to 

to be omitted 

'body 1 




up water 



















Page and Line 

128. 17 

128, foot-note 3 

131. 18 

137, foot-note 4 

137, foot-note 6 









176, foot-note 3. 

178, foot-note 3, 





182. 31 


188, foot-note 1 

1%, 13 





193, 16 





205, foot-note 3, 


225, foot-not 3, 


As originally printed 









destination, so I 















the auspiciousness. 

thy auspiciousness, 

acts is, 

acts, is 





instruments, who 

instruments, let not the 

treasure of arrows and 

weapons of this comman- 

der who 



























m impulses 

my impulses 

the gain 

my gain 

















Page and Line 

As originally printed 










subjects ; 

234, last line 

us t 









240, foot-note, last line 

243, 11 





Ushni, Kakup 



250, foot-note 13, 

needle just 













255, foot-note 6 




260, foot-note 8, 

Iguana means lizard 

260, foot-note 10, 

A black bird. 





269. foot-note 1 

for learned 

271. 16 


274, 20 

with the knowledge 





277, foot-note 1 

place wrship 

277, foot-note 2 

Vedic nsthan 








the the 


juice of 

to be omitted 

Ushnik, and Kakup 
To be omitted, 
needle. Just 


to be omitted 

A black bird. 

Iguana means lizard, 

filled with 


for the learned 


with knowledge 



place of worship 

Vedic Sansthan 


contributes to 





Page and Lin 

As originally printed 









296, Footnote 9 







in the 





319, 11 


319, at the end 









330, Footnote 5 








334, 11 


334, 12 


335, 12 

abode of 






enjoin upon 

344, Footnote 4 



follow thou 
like a 



world, the King and 
add us the learned 


abode of the learned,